Bernard W. Rogers
|Bernard W. Rogers|
Official portrait of Rogers by Robert Clark Templeton
July 16, 1921|
Fairview, Kansas, U.S.
|Died||October 27, 2008
Falls Church, Virginia, U.S.
|Allegiance||United States of America|
|Service/branch||United States Army|
|Years of service||1943–1987|
|Commands held||Chief of Staff, U.S. Army
Supreme Allied Commander Europe
|Battles/wars||World War II
|Awards||Distinguished Service Cross
Defense Distinguished Service Medal
Legion of Merit (4)
Distinguished Flying Cross (3)
Bronze Star (2)
Army Commendation Medal (2)
National Order of Vietnam
Vietnam Gallantry Cross
Bernard William Rogers (July 16, 1921 – October 27, 2008) was a United States Army general who served as the Chief of Staff of the U.S. Army, and later as NATO's Supreme Allied Commander, Europe and Commander in Chief, United States European Command.
Besides the Distinguished Service Cross, his decorations included the Defense Distinguished Service Medal, the Silver Star, four awards of the Legion of Merit and three awards of the Distinguished Flying Cross.
- 1 Early life and education
- 2 Career
- 3 Assessment
- 4 Later life and death
- 5 Personal life
- 6 Awards
- 7 See also
- 8 References
Early life and education
Rogers was born in Fairview, Kansas on July 16, 1921. He spent a year at Kansas State University, where he was a member of Phi Delta Theta fraternity, before receiving an appointment to the United States Military Academy in 1940, where he was First Captain of the Corps of Cadets. He graduated in June 1943 as Cadet First Captain (first in his class), and was commissioned a second lieutenant of Infantry. He was assigned to the 275th Infantry Regiment, 70th Infantry Division, and attended the officer basic course at the U.S. Army Infantry School at Fort Benning in preparation for a World War II combat assignment.
Rogers was promoted to temporary first lieutenant in December 1943. Rather than the combat assignment he expected, Rogers' contribution to the war effort was his return to West Point to teach. He provided instruction in economics, government, and history from 1944 to 1945, and received promotion to temporary captain in February 1945. From 1945 to 1947 he served as aide to the High Commissioner to Austria, General Mark Clark, and the commander of the Sixth Army.
In 1947 he attended Oxford University as a Rhodes Scholar, graduating with a Bachelor of Arts in Philosophy, Politics and Economics in 1950 (he was later awarded an MA in the same subject). During his time at Oxford he was promoted to permanent captain.
Following graduation from Oxford, Rogers was aide to the chief of Army Field Forces from 1950 from 1951, being promoted to temporary major in July 1951. He graduated from the Infantry School advanced course in 1952.
Post Korean War
Rogers' next assignment was as aide to the commander in chief and staff intelligence officer of the United Nations and Far East Commands from 1953 to 1954. Rogers returned stateside and graduated from the Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth in 1955.
He next commanded the 1st Battalion, 23d Infantry from 1955 to 1956, the served in the Coordination Division, Office of the Chief of Staff from 1956 to 1958. This was followed by duty as executive and senior aide to the chief of staff from 1958 to 1959 and promotion to permanent major January 1959 and temporary colonel in September 1959.
He was selected to attend the Army War College and graduated in 1960, going on to command the 1st Battle Group, 19th Infantry, 24th Infantry Division in Europe from 1960 to 1961. His next assignment in the division was as chief of staff and he also served as chief of the Troop Operation Branch, Operations Division, United States Army, Europe from 1961 to 1962. Rogers next duty was as military assistant and executive officer to the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, General Maxwell Taylor, from 1962 to 1966.
Rogers was promoted to permanent lieutenant colonel in January 1964 and temporary brigadier general in October 1966, moving on to become the assistant division commander of the 1st Infantry Division in Vietnam from 1966 to 1967. He served under Gen. Bill DePuy and Gen. John Jay Hay, Jr., and took part in two major offensive operations, Cedar Falls and Junction City, writing later an account of them at Gen. Westmoreland request As assistant commander of the First Infantry Division in Vietnam in 1966 and 1967, General Rogers was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross—the Army's highest award for valor after the Medal of Honor—for leading a successful counterattack against a Vietcong raid on a South Vietnamese special forces camp. He rallied troops on the ground and personally scouted enemy positions from a low-flying helicopter under heavy fire. General Rogers was one a only a few individuals to receive the DSC for actions taken while serving as a general.
After returning from Vietnam, Rogers served two years as Commandant of the Corps of Cadets at West Point from 1967 to 1969, being promoted to permanent colonel in June 1968.
Rogers became one of a select few senior officers chosen for division command, and was assigned commanding officer of the 5th Infantry Division (Mechanized), and Fort Carson, Colorado, from 1969 to 1970. At that time, the 5th "was considered to be one of the most disorganized and unprepared units in the Army. Racial conflict and drug abuse were serious problems. The division also experienced a high turnover rate as soldiers rotating back from their tours of duty in Vietnam served out the remainder of their enlistments.":99
At a time of falling morale, he made sweeping changes in the daily routine of soldiers by abolishing kitchen duty (KP), reveille, roll call and Friday night "GI parties", in which soldiers scrubbed the barracks for Saturday inspections. On February 17, 1970, Rogers issued Fort Carson Regulation NO. 600-16, "Enlisted Men's Council," which established a two-way channel of communication for enlisted men to relay their grievances and suggestions for improvements. The twenty-member Fort Carson Enlisted Men's Council elected as its chair 20-year old combat veteran SP4 Scott M. Gray; at its first meeting the council pointed out eighteen issues and suggested ways of solving them. Gen. Rogers concurred with the council and ordered to implement all recommended improvement initiatives. After four months, 192 issues were discussed by the council; 107 improvements were recommended; 69 were implemented by Gen. Rogers.:102 Later, councils for junior officers and racial minorities to express their concerns were introduced, and a Greenwich Village-style free speech coffeehouse, complete with folk singers, was set up. Old-line officers were aghast, and two decorated brigade commanders were relieved by Rogers from their duties but his new strategy worked out as morale improved, racial tensions de-escalated and re-enlistments soared. SP5 William J. Rosendahl told The New York Times reporter that he, "had just about given up any hope of working for change within the system when Bobby [Senator Robert F. Kennedy] was shot. Now General Rogers has given me a new faith in that at least some people in the power structure are willing to listen." Rogers became known as one of the brightest thinkers in the Army after he shared his innovative ways of dealing with disciplinary, racial, drugs and other problems at the annual Army Commanders Conference on November 30, 1970.
Rogers was promoted to temporary major general in February 1970 and permanent brigadier general in August 1971.
Rogers was promoted to temporary lieutenant general in November 1972, and permanent major general in June 1973 while serving as deputy chief of staff for personnel of the Army, from 1972 to 1974. He was promoted to temporary four-star General in November 1974, and was chosen to command the United States Army Forces Command at Fort McPherson from 1974 to 1976.
Army Chief of Staff
Following this assignment he was selected to be Chief of Staff of the United States Army, a post he held from October 1, 1976, until June 21, 1979. Some highlights of his tenure include supervising the Army's move to a 24-division, all-component force; establishing priorities for near-term readiness, midterm modernization, and long-term sustainability; establishing a program to enhance the quality of life of Army personnel; and suggesting a limited draft to fill the Individual Ready Reserve.
He continued the reforms he began as a division commander as Army chief of staff from 1976 to 1979, improving training programs and developing plans for a modern "quick-strike" force. He also took steps to make the Army more friendly toward women and minorities, calling on commanders to "eliminate any discriminatory handling of soldiers."
He also authorized the formation of Delta Force, the first U.S. military counter-terrorist unit.
Rogers was responsible for starting the Army's renaissance after falling into a state of low morale and readiness following the Vietnam War. His innovations and reforms were continued under his successor, General Edward C. Meyer.
Supreme Allied Commander
Rogers was appointed by President Jimmy Carter as Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR), North Atlantic Treaty Organization in June 1979 and, concomitantly, as Commander in Chief of United States European Command. He assumed his duties as SACEUR on July 1, 1979.
In his role as SACEUR, Rogers would have been in command of all NATO forces in the event of an attack by the Soviet led Warsaw Pact on Western Europe. His emphasis on combat readiness led some soldiers to comment that there were two armies - one in Europe ready for war and one in the United States that was not.
Despite his charmed career, Rogers was eager to leave the bureaucratic labyrinth of the Pentagon behind when he assumed his NATO post in Belgium.
|“||You've heard that phrase from a country song that goes: 'Happiness is Lubbock, Texas, in the rearview mirror'? ... Well, for me, happiness is the Pentagon in the rearview mirror.||”|
|— Bernard W. Rogers|
When the Reagan administration signed a treaty with the Soviet Union requiring each side to withdraw intermediate-range missiles from Europe, General Rogers called the agreement "foolish." He said the Warsaw Pact's superiority in foot soldiers and conventional weapons left NATO forces at risk of being quickly overrun.
His stance drew a pointed rebuke in 1987 from Secretary of State George P. Shultz, who called the general's comments "way out of line." General Rogers soon retired.
He served as SACEUR for eight years - longer than any other NATO Supreme Allied Commander. He retired from the Army after 47 years of service in June 1987. Very few individuals have had a longer career in the United States Armed Forces.[according to whom?]
General Rogers, who spent 47 years in uniform, had an unusual combination of talents as a combat commander, intellectual and statesman.[according to whom?] While addressing a NATO conference in 1979 the former Rhodes scholar said, "One cannot help but to be impressed – perhaps depressed is the better word – by the folly, futility and waste of war as a means of resolving man's problems."
Rogers could be "suave and poised and intimidating", Major General Dewitt C. Smith once said, but he was also known to break into song on occasion, with Frank Sinatra's "My Way" a particular favorite.
Later life and death
After his retirement in 1987, Rogers was a director of the Council on Foreign Relations and the Atlantic Council of the United States. He served on the boards of the USO and the Association of the United States Army and was a consultant and director to several companies, including Coca-Cola and General Dynamics.
Rogers died in 2008 at Inova Fairfax Hospital, Virginia, after suffering a heart attack. Survivors included his wife of 63 years, Ann E. Rogers of McLean; three children, retired U.S. Army Colonel Michael W. Rogers of Manassas, Virginia, Diane Opperman of Arlington and Susan Kroetch of Alexandria; a sister; a brother; six grandchildren; and three great-grandchildren. He is buried at West Point.
Rogers married Ann Ellen Jones in 1944. He was an Honorary Director of The Atlantic Council of the United States, and sat on the Association of the United States Army's Council of Trustees. He was also a supporter of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. He was an Honorary Fellow of University College, Oxford University, a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, of Phi Delta Theta Fraternity, and a Patron Councilor of the Atlantic Council of the U.S.
Other honors and awards he has received include:
- Distinguished Service Citation, Honorary Alumni Citees, University of Kansas Alumni Association, 1984
- H.H. Arnold Award, Air Force Association, 1985
- Distinguished Graduate Award, USMA Association of Graduates, 1995
- George C. Marshall Medal, United States Army Association, 1999
|1st Row||Distinguished Service Cross|
|2nd Row||Defense Distinguished Service Medal
with oak leaf cluster
|Army Distinguished Service Medal||Navy Distinguished Service Medal|
|3rd Row||Air Force Distinguished Service Medal||Silver Star||Legion of Merit
with three oak leaf clusters
|4th Row||Distinguished Flying Cross
with two oak leaf clusters
|Bronze Star Medal
with oak leaf cluster
|5th Row||Army Commendation Medal
with oak leaf cluster
|American Defense Service Medal||American Campaign Medal|
|6th Row||World War II Victory Medal||Army of Occupation Medal
with "Germany" clasp
|National Defense Service Medal
oak leaf cluster
|7th Row||Korean Service Medal
with two campaign stars
|Vietnam Service Medal
with two campaign stars
|National Order of Vietnam|
|8th Row||Vietnam Gallantry Cross
|United Nations Korea Medal||Republic of Vietnam Campaign Medal|
Korean Presidential Unit Citation, Vietnam Gallantry Cross Unit Citation, Vietnam Civil Actions Unit Citation
- Combat Infantryman Badge
- Office of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Identification Badge
- Army Staff Identification Badge
- 1st Infantry Division "Combat Patch"
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bernard W. Rogers.|
- "Bernard William Rogers". United States Army Center of Military History. Retrieved June 26, 2008.
- "Honorary Alumni Citees". KU Alumni Association. Archived from the original on July 21, 2011. Retrieved June 26, 2008.
- "Distinguished Graduate Award Recipients". USMA Association of Graduates. Archived from the original on July 19, 2008. Retrieved June 26, 2008.
- Bernard W. Rogers. Cedar Falls-Junction City: A Turning Point. Washington, DC: US Department of the Army, 1989.
- James Michael Young. To Transform a Culture: The Rise and Fall of the U.S. Army Organizational Effectiveness Program, 1970–1985. Ph.D. dissertation, Antioch University, 2014.
- Robert A. Wright. Innovations at Fort Carson Make Army Life More Bearable for Draftees, The New York Times, November 2, 1970.
- Former EUCOM Commander Dies European Command Public Affairs Press Release: November 1, 2008
- "Honorary Directors". The Atlantic Council of the United States. Archived from the original on June 27, 2006. Retrieved November 15, 2006.
- "Council of Trustees & Region Presidents". Association of the United States Army. July 1, 2006. Archived from the original on October 7, 2006. Retrieved November 15, 2006.
- "Partial List of Prominent Individuals and National Groups in Support of the CTBT". Friends Committee on National Legislation. October 9, 1999. Retrieved November 15, 2006.
- "General Bernard W. Rogers, USA". Supreme Headquarters Aliied Powers Europe. Retrieved June 26, 2008.
- "Previous Award Recipients". Air Force Association. Retrieved November 15, 2006.
- "MWR Annual Report 1999" (PDF). United States Army. 1999. p. 4. Retrieved November 15, 2006.
Frederick C. Weyand
|Chief of Staff of the United States Army
Edward C. Meyer
Gen. Alexander Haig
|Supreme Allied Commander Europe (NATO)
Gen. John Galvin