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List of American supercentenarians

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American supercentenarians are citizens or residents of the United States who have attained or surpassed 110 years of age. As of January 2015, the Gerontology Research Group (GRG) had validated the longevity claims of 782 American supercentenarians.[1][needs update] As of July 21, 2024, it lists the oldest living American-born person as Spanish emigrant Maria Branyas (born in San Francisco, California, on March 4, 1907), aged 117 years, 139 days. The oldest American resident is listed as Elizabeth Francis (born in Houston, Texas, on July 25, 1909), aged 114 years, 362 days.[2] The longest-lived person ever from the United States is Sarah Knauss, of Hollywood, Luzerne County, Pennsylvania, who died on December 30, 1999, aged 119 years and 97 days.[3][4]

100 oldest known Americans

[edit]

Below is a list of the 100 longest lived American supercentenarians according to the GRG and reliable sourcing.[1][5]

  Deceased   Living

Rank Name Sex Birth date Death date Age Birthplace Place of death
or residence
01 Sarah Knauss[1]
F
September 24, 1880 December 30, 1999 119 years, 97 days Pennsylvania Pennsylvania
02 Maria Branyas[2]
F
March 4, 1907 Living 117 years, 139 days California Spain
03 Delphia Welford[6]
F
September 9, 1875 November 14, 1992 117 years, 66 days Mississippi Tennessee
04 Susannah Mushatt Jones[5]
F
July 6, 1899 May 12, 2016 116 years, 311 days Alabama New York
05 Gertrude Weaver[5]
F
July 4, 1898 April 6, 2015 116 years, 276 days Arkansas Arkansas
06 Elizabeth Bolden[1]
F
August 15, 1890 December 11, 2006 116 years, 118 days Tennessee Tennessee
07 Besse Cooper[5]
F
August 26, 1896 December 4, 2012 116 years, 100 days Tennessee Georgia
08 Easter Wiggins[7]
F
June 1, 1874 July 7, 1990 116 years, 36 days Mississippi Mississippi
09 Jeralean Talley[5]
F
May 23, 1899 June 17, 2015 116 years, 25 days Georgia Michigan
10 Edith Ceccarelli[8]
F
February 5, 1908 February 22, 2024[9] 116 years, 17 days California California
11 Ella Miller[10]
F
December 6, 1884 November 21, 2000 115 years, 351 days Tennessee Virginia
12 Maggie Barnes[1][a]
F
March 6, 1882 January 19, 1998 115 years, 319 days North Carolina North Carolina
13 Dina Manfredini[5]
F
April 4, 1897 December 17, 2012 115 years, 257 days Italy Iowa
14 Christian Mortensen[1]
M
August 16, 1882 April 25, 1998 115 years, 252 days Denmark California
15 Hester Ford[5]
F
August 15, 1905 April 17, 2021[11] 115 years, 245 days South Carolina North Carolina
16 Edna Parker[5]
F
April 20, 1893 November 26, 2008 115 years, 220 days Indiana Indiana
17 Margaret Skeete[1]
F
October 27, 1878 May 7, 1994 115 years, 192 days Texas Virginia
18 Bernice Madigan[5]
F
July 24, 1899 January 3, 2015 115 years, 163 days Massachusetts Massachusetts
19 Gertrude Baines[5]
F
April 6, 1894 September 11, 2009 115 years, 158 days Georgia California
20 Bettie Wilson[1]
F
September 13, 1890 February 13, 2006 115 years, 153 days Mississippi Mississippi
21 Iris Westman[5]
F
August 28, 1905 January 3, 2021[12] 115 years, 128 days North Dakota North Dakota
22 Marie-Josephine Gaudette[5]
F
March 25, 1902 July 13, 2017 115 years, 110 days New Hampshire Italy
23 Susie Gibson[1]
F
October 31, 1890 February 16, 2006 115 years, 108 days Mississippi Alabama
Thelma Sutcliffe[5]
F
October 1, 1906 January 17, 2022[13] Nebraska Nebraska
25 Edna Kern[6]
F
October 14, 1900 January 20, 2016 115 years, 98 days California Nevada
26 Augusta Holtz[1]
F
August 3, 1871 October 21, 1986 115 years, 79 days Prussia[b] Missouri
27 Bessie Hendricks[14]
F
November 7, 1907 January 3, 2023[15] 115 years, 57 days Iowa Iowa
28 Maud Farris-Luse[16]
F
February 21, 1887 March 18, 2002 115 years, 25 days Michigan Michigan
29 Antonia Gerena Rivera[5]
F
May 19, 1900 June 2, 2015 115 years, 14 days Puerto Rico[c] Florida
30 Elizabeth Francis[2]
F
July 25, 1909 Living 114 years, 362 days Louisiana Texas
31 Mary Bidwell[18]
F
May 9, 1881 April 25, 1996 114 years, 352 days Connecticut Connecticut
32 Hazel Plummer[14]
F
June 19, 1908 May 25, 2023[19] 114 years, 340 days Massachusetts Massachusetts
33 Ophelia Burks[7]
F
October 25, 1903 September 27, 2018 114 years, 337 days Louisiana Louisiana
34 Mary Josephine Ray[5]
F
May 17, 1895 March 7, 2010 114 years, 294 days Canada New Hampshire
35 Goldie Steinberg[5]
F
October 30, 1900 August 16, 2015 114 years, 290 days Moldova[d] New York
36 Delphine Gibson[5]
F
August 17, 1903 May 9, 2018 114 years, 265 days South Carolina Pennsylvania
37 Mary Royster[20]
F
April 15, 1875 December 28, 1989 114 years, 257 days Virginia North Carolina
38 Neva Morris[5]
F
August 3, 1895 April 6, 2010 114 years, 246 days Iowa Iowa
39 Blanche Cobb[5]
F
September 8, 1900 May 1, 2015 114 years, 235 days Georgia Florida
40 Mila Mangold[5]
F
November 14, 1907 July 2, 2022[21] 114 years, 230 days Nebraska California
41 Myrtle Dorsey[22]
F
November 20, 1885 June 25, 2000 114 years, 218 days Ohio Ohio
42 Carrie Lazenby[23]
F
February 9, 1882 September 4, 1996 114 years, 208 days Georgia Illinois
43 Walter Breuning[5]
M
September 21, 1896 April 14, 2011 114 years, 205 days Minnesota Montana
44 Eunice Sanborn[5]
F
July 20, 1896 January 31, 2011 114 years, 195 days Louisiana Texas
45 Grace Clawson[1]
F
November 15, 1887 May 28, 2002 114 years, 194 days United Kingdom New York
46 Wilhelmina Kott[1]
F
March 7, 1880 September 6, 1994 114 years, 183 days Illinois Illinois
Adelina Domingues[1]
F
February 19, 1888 August 21, 2002 Cape Verde[e] California
48 Lucy Mirigian[5]
F
August 15, 1906 February 12, 2021 114 years, 181 days Armenia[f] California
49 Charlotte Benkner[1]
F
November 16, 1889 May 14, 2004 114 years, 180 days Germany Ohio
50 Ettie Mae Greene[24]
F
September 19, 1877 February 26, 1992 114 years, 160 days West Virginia West Virginia
51 Dominga Velasco[5]
F
May 12, 1901 October 11, 2015 114 years, 152 days Mexico California
52 Irene Frank[1]
F
October 1, 1881 February 28, 1996 114 years, 150 days Texas Missouri
53 Georgia Ella Jordan[25]
F
September 18, 1880 February 9, 1995 114 years, 144 days Georgia Virginia
54 Olivia Patricia Thomas[5]
F
June 29, 1895 November 16, 2009 114 years, 140 days Iowa New York
Alelia Murphy[5]
F
July 6, 1905 November 23, 2019 North Carolina New York
56 Irene Dunham[5]
F
December 16, 1907 May 1, 2022[26] 114 years, 136 days Michigan Michigan
57 Nina Willis[14]
F
January 14, 1909 May 17, 2023[27] 114 years, 123 days Georgia Georgia
Pearl Berg[8]
F
October 1, 1909 February 1, 2024[28] Indiana California
59 Anna Henderson[5]
F
March 5, 1900 July 1, 2014 114 years, 118 days Georgia Pennsylvania
60 Emma Verona Johnston[1]
F
August 6, 1890 December 1, 2004 114 years, 117 days Iowa Ohio
Mamie Rearden[1]
F
September 7, 1898 January 2, 2013 South Carolina Georgia
Erna Zahn[5]
F
April 14, 1908 August 9, 2022[29] Wisconsin Minnesota
63 Bettie Chatmon[1]
F
April 30, 1884 August 16, 1998 114 years, 108 days Louisiana Texas
Lessie Brown[5]
F
September 22, 1904 January 8, 2019 Georgia Ohio
65 Odie Matthews[1]
F
December 28, 1878 April 14, 1993 114 years, 107 days Texas Arizona
66 Florence Knapp[1]
F
October 10, 1873 January 11, 1988 114 years, 93 days Pennsylvania Pennsylvania
Elena Slough[1]
F
July 4, 1889 October 5, 2003 Pennsylvania New Jersey
68 Mary Anna Boone[1]
F
February 10, 1887 May 13, 2001 114 years, 92 days Kentucky Kentucky
69 Minnie Whicker[5]
F
July 24, 1906 October 22, 2020 114 years, 90 days Arkansas California
70 Delma Kollar[5]
F
October 31, 1897 January 24, 2012 114 years, 85 days Kansas Oregon
71 Ila Jones[5]
F
August 21, 1903 November 10, 2017 114 years, 81 days Georgia Georgia
72 Maggie Renfro[5]
F
November 14, 1895 January 22, 2010 114 years, 69 days Louisiana Louisiana
73 Emma Tillman[1]
F
November 22, 1892 January 28, 2007 114 years, 67 days North Carolina Connecticut
Anna Stoehr[5]
F
October 15, 1900 December 21, 2014 Iowa Minnesota
75 Leila Denmark[5]
F
February 1, 1898 April 1, 2012 114 years, 60 days Georgia Georgia
76 Adele Dunlap[1]
F
December 12, 1902 February 5, 2017[30] 114 years, 55 days New Jersey New Jersey
77 Naomi Conner[1]
F
August 30, 1899 October 18, 2013 114 years, 49 days Texas Texas
Ora Holland[5]
F
December 24, 1900 February 11, 2015 Missouri Oklahoma
79 Katie Hatton[31]
F
December 18, 1877 January 24, 1992 114 years, 37 days Texas Texas
80 Ellen Goodwill[5]
F
February 2, 1907 March 2, 2021[32] 114 years, 28 days Kentucky Michigan
81 Grace Thaxton[1]
F
June 18, 1891 July 6, 2005 114 years, 18 days New York Kentucky
82 Soledad Mexia[1]
F
August 13, 1899 August 30, 2013 114 years, 17 days Mexico California
83 Minnie Ward[1]
F
November 19, 1885 December 2, 1999 114 years, 13 days Tennessee Massachusetts
84 Arbella Ewing[5]
F
March 13, 1894 March 22, 2008 114 years, 9 days Texas Texas
85 Catherine Hagel[5]
F
November 28, 1894 December 6, 2008 114 years, 8 days Minnesota Minnesota
86 Emma Otis[5]
F
October 22, 1901 October 25, 2015 114 years, 3 days Washington Washington
87 Ellen Jurick[33]
F
July 15, 1895 July 13, 2009 113 years, 363 days Pennsylvania Michigan
88 Fred Harold Hale Sr.[1]
M
December 1, 1890 November 19, 2004 113 years, 354 days Maine New York
89 Miriam Carpelan[1]
F
July 8, 1882 June 22, 1996 113 years, 350 days United Kingdom California
Elsie Thompson[1]
F
April 5, 1899 March 21, 2013 Pennsylvania Florida
91 Bertha Fry[1]
F
December 1, 1893 November 14, 2007 113 years, 348 days Indiana Indiana
92 Mae Harrington[1]
F
January 20, 1889 December 29, 2002 113 years, 343 days New York New York
93 Ellen Thomas[34]
F
December 25, 1877 December 2, 1991 113 years, 342 days Tennessee Michigan
Daisey Bailey[5]
F
March 30, 1896 March 7, 2010 Tennessee Michigan
95 Agatha Mitchell[1]
F
March 26, 1887 February 25, 2001 113 years, 336 days Virginia Virginia
96 Goldie Michelson[5]
F
August 8, 1902 July 8, 2016 113 years, 335 days Ukraine[g] Massachusetts
97 Merle Barwis[5]
F
December 23, 1900 November 22, 2014 113 years, 334 days Iowa Canada
98 Louvenia Posey[35]
F
April 6, 1900 March 1, 2014 113 years, 329 days Texas Texas
99 Clara Huhn[1]
F
January 28, 1887 December 20, 2000 113 years, 327 days Nebraska California
Beulah Meloche[5]
F
December 5, 1906 October 27, 2020 New York New York

Biographies

[edit]

Mary Bidwell

[edit]

Mary Electa Bidwell (May 9, 1881 – April 25, 1996)[18] was an American supercentenarian. She died aged 114 years and 352 days and is the oldest person on record ever to die in Connecticut.[36][37][38]

Her parents were Charles Woodruff Bidwell and Alice Beach Nobel.[37] She was a descendant of John Bidwell, one of the founders of Hartford, Connecticut. Bidwell worked as a teacher in a one-room schoolhouse for six years. She married Charles Hubbell Bidwell, a distant cousin, in 1906.[36] Bidwell lived on her own in North Haven, Connecticut, until she was 110. Bidwell died at the Arden House, a nursing home in Hamden, Connecticut.[38]

Maggie Barnes

[edit]

Maggie Pauline Barnes (née Hinnant; March 6, 1882 – January 19, 1998)[39] was an American supercentenarian. She was born to a former slave and married a tenant farmer. Barnes died on January 19, 1998, in Johnston County, North Carolina, of gangrene.[40]

Her exact year of birth has been disputed. Though the year 1882 is written in her family bible, the 1900 US Census records her birth year as 1881 and her marriage license claims that she was born in 1880.[40] Authenticating to what was put on the family Bible, Barnes lived for 115 years and 319 days.

Adelina Domingues

[edit]

Adelina Domingues (February 19, 1888 – August 21, 2002) was a Cape Verdean American supercentenarian who was the world's oldest person from the death of 114-year-old British-American woman Grace Clawson on May 28, 2002, to her own death less than three months later.[41] Domingues was born in Cape Verde. Domingues's Italian father was a harbor pilot by profession, and her mother was Portuguese by ethnicity.[42] She married a ship captain in 1907, and moved to the United States that year.[42] Her husband died from cancer in 1950.[42] Domingues was a missionary from the Church of the Nazarene in Cape Verde and other parts of Africa, and also a religious preacher when she lived in Massachusetts, as well as an expert seamstress.[42]

Domingues was a firm believer in the American Dream, was deeply religious, had conservative political views and was a pen pal of former President of the United States Ronald Reagan.[42] She had four children, but only one of them (a son, Frank) reached adulthood.[42] Frank died in 1998 at the age of 71, with Adelina outliving him by four years.[42] Domingues died at a nursing home in the San Diego, California, area on August 21, 2002, at age 114 years and 183 days.[42] She had claimed she was actually one year older, or 115 years old, but her family and Cape Verdean diplomats did some research and discovered her baptismal information, from which they concluded that Domingues was 114 years old when she died.[43]

Charlotte Benkner

[edit]

Charlotte Benkner (née Enterlein; November 16, 1889 – May 14, 2004)[44][45][46][47] was an American supercentenarian and considered the world's oldest person from 2003 to 2004.[48][44][45] Subsequent recognition of other supercentenarians ranked Benkner as the third oldest at the time of her death.[46]

Benkner was born in Leipzig, Germany, and emigrated to the U.S. in 1896. She grew up in Peekskill, New York, where her family ran the Albert Hotel, and as a young woman once met then U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt.[47][49] After her 1908 marriage to Karl Benkner, she moved west, living in Pennsylvania and Ohio, before retiring to Arizona. Already a supercentenarian and the oldest person in Arizona, Benkner returned to Ohio to live in North Lima with her sister Tillie O'Hare, her youngest sibling.[47] Tillie died in January 2004, just three weeks shy of becoming a centenarian.[49] Benkner survived her sister by only four months, and died at age 114 years and 180 days, after a brief hospital stay in Youngstown, Ohio.

Emma Verona Johnston

[edit]

Emma Verona Johnston (née Calhoun; August 6, 1890 – December 1, 2004) was an American supercentenarian who was born in Indianola, Iowa, to a large family.[50] She graduated from Drake University in the Class of 1912 and went on to work as a Latin teacher before she married ophthalmologist Harry Johnston;[51][52][53] at the time of her death, she was the university's oldest living graduate.[51]

At age 98, Johnston moved from Iowa to Ohio in order to live with her daughter and son-in-law. Even after turning 110, she continued to be in good health, alert and engaging in conversations, and was still able to walk up steps.[51] She became the oldest known living American in May 2004.[50] Three months later, on the occasion of her 114th birthday, she was presented with a proclamation signed by then Drake University President David Maxwell.[54] The university's Vice President for Institutional Advancement, John Willey, nominated her for an honorary degree.[53] Johnston died in Worthington, Ohio, on December 1, 2004,[50] at age 114 years and 117 days.

Bettie Wilson

[edit]

Bettie Antry Wilson (née Rutherford; September 13, 1890 – February 13, 2006)[55] was thought to be the oldest living person in the United States from December 2004 until the subsequent verification of Elizabeth Bolden. Both were born in the rural South, where they lived less than 100 miles apart. Wilson was the daughter of freed slaves, Solomon and Delia Rutherford.[56]

In April 2005, Wilson moved into a new home funded by donations, in New Albany. She celebrated her 115th birthday in September 2005, and died on February 13, 2006, aged 115 years, 153 days.[55]

George Francis

[edit]

George Rene Francis (June 6, 1896 – December 27, 2008)[57][58][59] was an American supercentenarian and the joint second-oldest living man in the world, together with Englishman Henry Allingham, also born on June 6, 1896, until Francis's death aged 112 years and 204 days. He was also the oldest living man in the United States, following the death of then 111-year-old Antonio Pierro on February 8, 2007. Francis was from New Orleans, Louisiana, but after 1949 lived in Sacramento, California, where a local newspaper published a poem that Francis enjoyed reciting to friends and the public throughout his life.[60] He credited his longevity to nature, and enjoyed a rich diet of pork, eggs, milk and lard. He gave up smoking cigars at the age of 75.[61]

Francis attempted to join the army in World War I, but was rejected for service in 1918 as being too short and small (he weighed only about 100 pounds [45 kg]). Despite this, he later was a boxer before becoming a barber and then a chauffeur.[57]

Bernice Madigan

[edit]

Bernice Madigan (née Emerson; July 24, 1899 – January 3, 2015) was born in West Springfield, Massachusetts,[5][62][63] and moved to Cheshire when she was six.[64] In 1918, after graduating from Adams High School,[64][65] she responded to government drives to recruit women into employment during WWI, and moved to Washington, D.C.[62] After the war, she worked as a secretary for the Department of the Treasury and the Veterans Administration.[66] She married Paul Madigan (d. 1976) in 1925;[66] they lived in the Washington, D.C., area and then in Silver Spring, Maryland.[64] She retired in 1942, after which she volunteered with the church and at nursing homes, playing piano for residents.[64] She returned to live with family in Massachusetts in 2007.[66] She participated in Boston University School of Medicine's New England Centenarian Study,[67] and was interviewed and filmed by the Center for Aging at the University of Chicago and the ABC World News.[67] She is one of 100 centenarians in The Archon Genomics XPRIZE.[68][69] She joined social media, with profiles on Facebook and Twitter.[66][70][71] Madigan died in her sleep at the age of 115 years and 163 days at 2 a.m. on January 3, 2015.[63][71] At the time of her death, she was the oldest living resident of Massachusetts,[72] the fourth-oldest living person in the United States[73] and the world's fifth-oldest living person.[73][74]

Evelyn Kozak

[edit]

Eva Chavka Rivka "Evelyn" Kozak (née Jacobson) (August 14, 1899 – June 11, 2013)[75][76] was an American Jewish supercentenarian,[77][78][79][80] born in New York City to Isaac and Kate Jacobson, who fled from the Russian Empire, and the oldest verified Jewish person in history from November 6, 2012, 12 weeks after turning 113, when she broke fellow German-born American Adelheid Kirschbaum's record of 113 years and 83 days though until August 27, 2014, when fellow Russian-born American Goldie Steinberg (born October 30, 1900), who was the oldest living Jewish person after her death, broke her record.

Kozak died of a heart attack at a hospital in Brooklyn, New York City, early in the morning of Tuesday June 11, 2013[when?] - barely around a quarter of a day before the oldest living person, 116-year-old Japaneseman Jiroemon Kimura (who died 2:08 a.m. the night of June 12 = 1:08 p.m. the afternoon of June 11 EDT).

Delphia Welford

[edit]

Delphia S. Welford (September 9, 1875 – November 14, 1992) was an American supercentenarian claimed to have been born on September 9, 1881; however, research conducted by the Gerontology Research Group between 2016 and 2023 determined that she was actually born in 1875, and that she was born in Okolona, Mississippi.

Welford's parents were Richard and Heddie Welford. The family moved to Humboldt, Tennessee, when she was still a child. She had one son, Leo Mathis, in the late 1890s. Welford never married and spent the rest of her life in Humboldt. She was a homemaker and a member of the Lane Chapel C.M.E Church.

Welford died at Parkview Manor Health Care Center in Humboldt, on November 14, 1992, at the age of 117 years, 66 days. She had been the oldest person ever from the United States after surpassing the age of Easter Wiggins on October 16, 1991. Welford would continue to hold this distinction until November 30, 1997, when Sarah Knauss lived past her final age. She is the oldest person to never have been the world’s oldest living person, as Jeanne Calment was still alive when she died.

Notes

[edit]
  1. ^ May have been older (116 or even 117); possibly born in 1881 or even 1880
  2. ^ Holtz was born in the Province of Posen, which was a part of the German Empire at the time of her birth. Today, this area is a part of Poland.
  3. ^ Residents of Puerto Rico born on or after April 25, 1898, are United States citizens.[17]
  4. ^ Steinberg was born in Kishinev, which had then been a part of the Russian Empire. It is now the capital of Moldova.
  5. ^ Domingues was born in Cape Verde, which was at that time a Portuguese colony. Now it is an independent country.
  6. ^ Mirigian was born in Armenia, then part of the Ottoman Empire.
  7. ^ Michelson was born in Elizabethgrad, which was then a part of the Russian Empire. It is now part of Ukraine.

References

[edit]
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai Wikkerink, Marco; Kroczek, Waclaw Jan (January 1, 2015). "GRG Database by Nation". Gerontology Research Group. Retrieved June 2, 2019.
  2. ^ a b c "World Supercentenarian Rankings List". Gerontology Research Group. April 24, 2024. Retrieved May 12, 2024.
  3. ^ "World's oldest person misses millennium". BBC News. December 31, 1999. Retrieved November 8, 2018.
  4. ^ Frassinelli, Mike (September 25, 1999). "Mrs. Sarah Knauss, the World's Oldest Person, Turns 119". The Morning Call. Archived from the original on December 27, 2007.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at Epstein, Louis; Young, Robert; Adams, Johnny; Muir, Mark (December 11, 2023). "GRG World Supercentenarian Rankings List – Validated Deceased Supercentenarians". Gerontology Research Group. Retrieved January 13, 2024.
  6. ^ a b "2023 validations". Gerontology Research Group. Retrieved May 12, 2024.
  7. ^ a b "2020 validations". Gerontology Research Group. Retrieved June 20, 2024.
  8. ^ a b "Supercentenarian deaths in 2024". Gerontology Research Group. Retrieved May 12, 2024.
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  23. ^ "Carrie Lazenby". LongeviQuest. September 22, 2023. Retrieved December 18, 2023.
  24. ^ "Ettie Mae Greene". LongeviQuest. August 29, 2023. Retrieved August 29, 2023.
  25. ^ "2024 validations". Gerontology Research Group. Retrieved June 21, 2024.
  26. ^ Greco, Rachel (May 2, 2022). "Irene Dunham, the last surviving student of Bath School bombing, Michigan's oldest resident, has died". Lansing State Journal. Retrieved May 2, 2022.
  27. ^ "Obituary for Nina Frazier Willis". Donald Trimble Mortuary. Retrieved May 21, 2023.
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  31. ^ "Katie Hatton". LongeviQuest. November 10, 2023. Retrieved November 10, 2023.
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  34. ^ "Ellen Thomas". LongeviQuest. May 1, 2024. Retrieved May 3, 2024.
  35. ^ "2021 validations". Gerontology Research Group. Retrieved June 21, 2024.
  36. ^ a b Collins, Gail (December 29, 1996). "Life is Long". The New York Times. Retrieved December 9, 2007.
  37. ^ a b "Mary Electa Bidwell. Oldest person in the USA". Bidwell House Museum. 1996. Archived from the original on July 24, 2011. Retrieved December 9, 2007.
  38. ^ a b "Oldest person in the U.S. still teaching life lessons". CNN. 1996. Archived from the original on March 12, 2002. Retrieved December 9, 2007.
  39. ^ Jeune, Bernard; et al. (May 2010). "Jeanne Calment and her Successors.". In Maier, Heiner (ed.). Supercentenarians (Demographic Research Monographs). Springer. pp. 298–299. ISBN 978-3-642-11519-6.
  40. ^ a b Musante, Glenna B. (January 22, 1998) "Johnston woman, one of world's oldest, dies at 117" The Raleigh News & Observer. Section: News; B1.
  41. ^ Young, Robert D. (September 17, 2012). "GRG Table C (2012) World's Oldest Person Titleholders (since 1955)". Gerontology Research Group. Retrieved January 1, 2013.
  42. ^ a b c d e f g h Adelina Domingues, 114; Oldest Person in the U.S. Los Angeles Times, August 24, 2002.
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