|Born||October 27, 1948|
Dundalk, Maryland, United States
|Died||March 18, 2017 (aged 68)|
Austin, Texas, United States
|Area(s)||Penciller, Artist, Inker|
|Bernie Wrightson's Frankenstein, House of Mystery, House of Secrets, Swamp Thing|
|Awards||Shazam Award 1972, 1973, 1974; Inkpot Award 1987; H.P. Lovecraft Award 2007; National Cartoonists Society Award 2012; Inkwell Awards Special Recognition Award 2015|
Inkwell Awards Joe Sinnott Hall of Fame 2020
|Spouse(s)||Michele (née Robinson)|
Bernard Albert Wrightson (October 27, 1948 – March 18, 2017), sometimes credited as Bernie Wrightson, was an American artist, known for co-creating the Swamp Thing, his adaptation of the novel Frankenstein illustration work, and for his other horror comics and illustrations, which feature his trademark intricate pen and brushwork.
Wrightson was born October 27, 1948, in Dundalk, Maryland. He received training in art from watching Jon Gnagy on television, reading comics, particularly those of EC, as well as through a correspondence course from the Famous Artists School. His artistic influences were Frank Frazetta, Al Williamson, Al Dorne, Graham Ingels, Jack Davis and Howard Pyle. He published a piece of fan art, containing a headstone bearing the inscription "Berni Wrightson, Dec. 15, 1965", on page 33 of Warren Publishing's Creepy #9 (cover-dated June 1966).
In 1966, Wrightson began working for The Baltimore Sun newspaper as an illustrator. The following year, after meeting artist Frank Frazetta at a comic-book convention in New York City, he was inspired to produce his own stories. In 1968, he showed copies of his sequential art to DC Comics editor Dick Giordano and was given a freelance assignment. Wrightson began spelling his name "Berni" in his professional work to distinguish himself from an Olympic diver named Bernie Wrightson, but later restored the final "e" to his name.
In 1968, he drew his first professional comic book story, "The Man Who Murdered Himself", which appeared in House of Mystery #179 (cover-dated March–April 1969). He continued to work on a variety of mystery and anthology titles for both DC and, a few years later, its principal rival, Marvel Comics. It was for Marvel's Chamber of Darkness and Tower of Shadows titles where he was first encouraged to slightly simplify his intricate pen-and-ink drawing, and where his lush brushwork, a hallmark of his comics inking in the 1970s, was first evidenced.
Like many artists in the 1970s and 1980s, Wrightson moved to New York in hopes of finding work with comics publishers such as DC Comics or Marvel Comics. At one point Wrightson lived in the same Queens apartment building as artists Allen Milgrom, Howard Chaykin and Walter Simonson. Simonson recalls, "We'd get together at 3 a.m. They'd come up and we'd have popcorn and sit around and talk about whatever a 26, 27 and 20-year-old guys talk about. Our art, TV, you name it. I pretty much knew at the time, 'These are the good ole days.'"
With writer Len Wein, Wrightson co-created the muck creature Swamp Thing in House of Secrets #92 (July 1971) in a standalone horror story set in the Victorian era. Wein later recounted how Wrightson became involved with the story: "Bernie Wrightson had just broken up with a girlfriend, and we were sitting in my car just talking about life – all the important things to do when you're 19 and 20 years old. [Laughs] And I said, 'You know, I just wrote a story that actually kind of feels like the way you feel now.' I told him about Swamp Thing, and he said, 'I gotta draw that.'"
In summer 1972 he published Badtime Stories, a horror/science fiction comics anthology featuring his own scripts and artwork (from the period 1970–1971), each story being drawn in a different medium (ink wash, tonal pencil drawings, duoshade paper, screen tones, e.g., along with traditional pen-and-ink and brushwork).
In the fall of 1972 the Swamp Thing returned in his own series, set in the contemporary world and in the general DC continuity. Wrightson drew the first ten issues of the series. Abigail Arcane, a major supporting character in the Swamp Thing mythos was introduced in issue #3 (Feb.-March 1973).
Wrightson had originally been asked by DC to handle the art for its revival of The Shadow, but he left the project early on when he realized he could not produce the necessary minimum number of pages on time, along with his work on Swamp Thing. Michael Kaluta illustrated the series, but Wrightson did contribute much to the third issue in both pencils and inks, as well as inking the splash page of issue #4.
Warren and The Studio
In January 1974, he left DC to work at Warren Publishing, for whose black-and-white horror-comics magazines he produced a series of original work as well as short story adaptations. As with BadTime Stories, Wrightson experimented with different media in these black-and-white tales: Edgar Allan Poe's "The Black Cat" featured intricate pen-and-ink work which stood in direct contrast with his brush-dominated Swamp Thing panels. "Jenifer", scripted by Bruce Jones, was atmospherically rendered with gray markers. "The Pepper Lake Monster" was a synthesis of brush and pen-and-ink, whereas H.P. Lovecraft's "Cool Air" was a foray into duotone paper. "Nightfall" was an exercise in ink wash. "Clarice" was also drawn in pen, brush, and ink, and with ink wash.
In 1975, Wrightson joined with fellow artists Jeffrey Catherine Jones, Michael Kaluta, and Barry Windsor-Smith to form The Studio, a shared loft in Manhattan where the group would pursue creative products outside the constraints of comic book commercialism. Though he continued to produce sequential art, Wrightson at this time began producing artwork for numerous posters, prints, calendars, and even a highly detailed coloring book. He also drew sporadic comics stories and single illustrations for National Lampoon magazine from 1973 to 1983.
The "Captain Sternn" segment of the animated film Heavy Metal is based on a character created by Wrightson (first appearing in the June 1980 issue of Heavy Metal magazine). The Freakshow graphic novel, written by Bruce Jones and illustrated (via pen, brush, and ink with watercolors) by Wrightson, was published in Spain in 1982 and serialized in Heavy Metal magazine in the early 1980s.
In 1983 Bernie Wrightson illustrated the comic book adaptation of the Stephen King-penned horror film Creepshow. This led to several other collaborations with King, including illustrations for the novella "Cycle of the Werewolf", the restored edition of King's apocalyptic horror epic, The Stand, and Wolves of the Calla, the fifth installment of King's Dark Tower series. He would later illustrate the cover for TV Guide magazine's April 26 – May 2, 1997 issue, illustrating the TV miniseries of King's The Shining.
During production on the 1984 film Ghostbusters, Wrightson was among the artists hired by associate producer Michael C. Gross to provide concept art envisioning the ghosts and other psychic phenomena encountered by that film's characters. The artwork he contributed included images of the "escapees" from the Ghostbusters' electrically-powered ghost storage facility, which run amok after the facility's electricity is turned off.
Jim Starlin and Wrightson produced Heroes for Hope, a 1985 one-shot designed to raise money for African famine relief and recovery. Published in the form of a "comic jam", the book featured an all-star lineup of comics creators as well as a few notable authors from outside the comic book industry, such as Stephen King, George R. R. Martin, Harlan Ellison, and Edward Bryant. In 1986, Wrightson and writer Susan K. Putney collaborated on the Spider-Man: Hooky graphic novel. That same year saw Wrightson and Starlin produce a second benefit comic, Heroes Against Hunger featuring Superman and Batman which was published by DC and like the earlier Marvel project featured many top comics creators. Starlin and Wrightson collaborated on two miniseries in 1988, The Weird and Batman: The Cult, as well as Marvel Graphic Novel #29 featuring the Hulk and the Thing for Marvel.
Wrightson's first wife Michele Wrightson was involved in underground comix, contributing stories to such publications as It Ain't Me, Babe, Wimmen's Comix, and Arcade. She died in 2015. Wrightson and Michelle had two sons together, John and Jeffrey.
Wrightson announced in January 2017 that he was retiring because of his battle with cancer. He died on March 18, 2017, at the age of 68. The next day, Liz Wrightson confirmed that his death followed a long battle with brain cancer. "The First Day of the Rest of Your Life", the April 2, 2017 season 7 finale of the TV series The Walking Dead, was dedicated to Wrightson's memory.
Wrightson's death met with a series of testimonials and tributes by colleagues and professional admirers that included Joss Whedon, Neil Gaiman, Guillermo del Toro, Walter Simonson and Mike Mignola. Whedon called Wrightson "a star by which other pencillers chart their course", while Gaiman stated that Wrightson was the first comics artist whose work I loved. Horror connoisseur del Toro took a 24-hour pledge of silence in honor of Wrightson, writing, "As it comes to all of us, the end came for the greatest that ever lived: Bernie Wrightson. My North dark star of youth. A master." Hellboy creator Mike Mignola said of Wrightson, "He was a genius, and not just a monster guy. Everything Bernie did had soul."
Wrightson's former neighbor Walter Simonson, who lived in the same building as Wrightson in the 1980s, recalled, "Even at an early age, we were all really in awe of his work, it was so good." Analyzing Wrightson's skill in depth, Simonson explained that in addition to his ability to draw anything, Wrightson was a master of value, able to effect a precise command over the depth and tones of the colors and shades of grey in his work, stating, "In drawing or in painting, one of the things that you control is the value, which is the light and dark. If you were to take your color TV set and somehow turn off the color and just have a black and white and gray picture, you're looking at the values of those color pictures. 'Frankenstein' is a complete masterpiece of value, using incredibly complex pictures, and yet you always see exactly what you are supposed to see. He drives the eye right where it needs." Regarding the famously reproduced two-page spread from that work depicting Frankenstein's laboratory, Simonson said of that image, "It's so complicated and yet he's able to show you what he wants you to see. In some ways [the lab scene is] the core of the story. It's where Frankenstein breaks the laws of God. I think people were just drawn to it cause it's so completely over the top and yet it's so completely controlled at the same time." Comics analyst and historian Scott McCloud called that image a "riot of detail", saying, "It might take a moment before you even notice the corpse laying at the bottom of the composition on the left. That makes it a bit more of a treasure map. Bit more of a 'Where Is Waldo?'"
During a 2016 tour of his extensive library of art and pop culture memorabilia, Del Toro named Wrightson's Frankenstein as the work whose original artwork was the hardest to find, saying, "They are very rare. The people that have them don't let them go. It's taken me years to get that. I have nine out of the 13 favorite plates of the Frankenstein book that Bernie Wrightson ever did. The other four: one of them, no one knows where it is, and the other three are, I would say, very hard to pry away from the people that have them."
Wrightson won the Shazam Award for Best Penciller (Dramatic Division) in 1972 and 1973 for Swamp Thing, the Shazam Award for Best Individual Story (Dramatic) in 1972 for Swamp Thing #1 (with Len Wein). He received additional nominations, including for the Shazam Award for Best Inker in 1973 for Swamp Thing, as well as that year's Shazam for Best Individual Story, for "A Clockwork Horror" in Swamp Thing #6 (with Len Wein).
Wrightson received the H.P. Lovecraft Award (also known as the "Howie") at the 2007 H.P. Lovecraft Film Festival in Portland, Oregon.
He was awarded the Inkwell Award Special Recognition Award in 2015 for his 45-plus years of work, including co-creating DC Comic's Swamp Thing and Frankenstein. In 2021, Wrightson was induced into the Inkwell Awards Joe Sinnott Hall of Fame.
Chanting Monks Studios
- Night Terrors #1 (2000)
- Nightmare Theater #1–4 (1997)
Cry for Dawn Productions
- So Dark the Rose #1 (1995)
Dark Horse Comics
- City of Others #1–4 (2007)
- Tarzan Le Monstre #11–12 (1998)
- Aquaman Annual #4 (cover) (1998)
- Batman #265, 400 (interiors); #241, 320, Annual #22 (covers) (1972–1998)
- Batman: Hidden Treasures #1 (2010)
- Batman: Nevermore (covers) #1–5 (2003)
- Batman: The Cult #1–4 (1988)
- Detective Comics #425 (cover) (1972)
- Flinch #14 (2000)
- Green Lantern Annual #7 (cover) (1998)
- Heroes Against Hunger (two pages only) (1986)
- House of Mystery #179–181, 183, 186, 188, 191, 195, 204; (covers): #193–194, 207, 209, 211, 213–214, 217, 221, 229, 231, 236, 255–256 (1969–1978)
- House of Mystery vol. 2 #9; (cover): #1 (2009)
- House of Secrets #92; (covers): #93–94, 96, 100, 103, 106–107, 135, 139 (1971–1976)
- JLA Annual #2 (cover) (1998)
- Jonah Hex #9 (cover) (1978)
- Kong the Untamed #1–2 (covers) (1975)
- Plop! #1, 5 (1973–1974)
- Secrets of Haunted House #5, 44 (covers) (1975–1982)
- The Shadow Vol. 2 #3, (1974)
- Showcase (Nightmaster) #83–84 (1969)
- Spectre #9 (1969)
- Spectre vol. 3 #58 (cover) (1997)
- Superman/Batman Annual #3 (cover) (2009)
- Swamp Thing #1–10 (1972–1974)
- Tales of the Unexpected #4 (cover) (2007)
- The Unexpected #116, 119, 128 (1970–1971)
- Toe Tags Featuring George Romero (cover) #1–6 (2004–2005)
- Welcome Back to the House of Mystery #1 (cover) (1998)
- The Weird #1–4 (1988)
- Weird Mystery Tales #1 (interiors); #21 (cover) (1972–1975)
- Wonder Woman Annual #7 (cover) (1998)
- Witching Hour #3, 5 (1969)
DC Comics and Dark Horse Comics
- Batman/Aliens miniseries #1–2 (1997)
- Berni Wrightson: Master of the Macabre #5 (1984)
Fantagraphics Books/Eros Comix
- Collected Purple Pictography #1 (1991)
- The Reaper of Love and Other Stories #1 (1988)
- Frankenstein Mobster #7 (2004)
- The Walking Dead
Kitchen Sink Press
- Captain Sternn: Running Out of Time #1–5 (1993)
- Web of Horror #1–3 (1969–1970)
- Astonishing Tales #31 (cover inks) (1975)
- Captain Marvel #41–42 (interiors); #43 (cover) (1975–1976)
- Chamber of Darkness #7 (interior); #8 (cover) (1970)
- Clive Barker's Hellraiser #1 (1989)
- Conan the Barbarian #12 (1971)
- Creatures on the Loose (King Kull) #10 (1971)
- Doctor Strange Special Edition #1 (cover) (1983)
- Dreadstar #6–7 (1983)
- Epic Illustrated #8, 10, 22, 25, 30, 34 (interiors); #30 (cover) (1981–1986)
- Gargoyle #1 (cover) (1985)
- Giant-Size Chillers #3 (cover) (1975)
- Heroes for Hope starring the X-Men #1 (three pages only) (1985)
- The Incredible Hulk #197 (cover) (1976)
- Marvel Graphic Novel #22 (Spider-Man: "Hooky"); #29 (The Hulk and the Thing: "The Big Change") (1986–1987)
- Punisher P.O.V. #1–4 (1991)
- Punisher: Purgatory #1–4 (1998–1999)
- Savage Tales (King Kull) #2 (1973)
- Shadows & Light #1 (1998)
- Sub-Mariner #36 (inker) (1971)
- The Tomb of Dracula #43 (cover) (1976)
- Tower of Shadows #8–9 (covers) (1971)
- Werewolf by Night #35 (cover) (1976)
New American Library
- Berni Wrightson: Master of the Macabre #1–4 (1983–1984)
- Twisted Tales #2 (1983)
As You Like It Publications
- Comic Book Profiles #2 (1998)
- Comic Book Marketplace #105 (2003)
Metal Mammoth, Inc.
- Heavy Metal Special Editions vol. 10, #1 (1996)
NL Communications, Inc.
National Lampoon's Very Large Book Of Comical Funnies (1975) National Lampoon various issues (1973-1980)
- Nightmare #9–10 (1972)
- The Art of Wrightson : A Pop-Up Portfolio, 1996, Sideshow, Incorporated, ISBN 1889164003
- Badtime Stories, 1972, Graphic Masters
- The Berni Wrightson Treasury, 1975, Omnibus Publishing
- Bernie Wrightson's Frankenstein, 1983, Dodd, Mead & Company, ISBN 0396082777
- Berni Wrightson: A Look Back, 1991, Underwood Books, ISBN 0887331300
- Berni Wrightson: Back for More, 1978, Archival Press, Inc., ISBN 091582230X
- The Conan Grimoire, by L. Sprague de Camp, 1972, Mirage Press
- The Conan Reader, by L. Sprague de Camp, 1968, Mirage Press
- Creepshow by Stephen King, 1982, NAL
- Cycle of the Werewolf, by Stephen King, 1985, NAL, ISBN 0451822196
- The Dark Tower V: Wolves of the Calla, by Stephen King, 2006, Pocket Books, ISBN 141651693X
- The House of Mystery by Jack Oleck, 1973, Warner Books
- The Lost Frankenstein Pages, 1993, Apple Pr Inc., ISBN 0927203081
- The Monsters Color the Creature Book, 1974, Phil Seuling
- The Mutants, 1980, Mother of Pearl, ISBN 093784800X
- The Reaper of Love and Other Stories, 1988, Fantagraphics Books, ISBN 093019361X
- The Stand-Complete and Uncut by Stephen King, 1990, Dbldy; BOMC edition
- The Studio (includes work by other artists), 1979, Dragons Dream, ISBN 9063325819
- Stuff Out'a My Head, by Joseph M. Monks, 2002, Chanting Monks Press, ISBN 0972660402
- Zombie Jam, by David J. Schow, 2005, Subterranean Press, ISBN 1931081778
- Ghostbusters: The Ultimate Visual History by Daniel Wallace, 2015, Insight Editions. San Rafael, California. pp. 21 and 86. ISBN 978-1608875108</ref>
- GamesRadar+ 2020 Inkwell Award Winners
- First Comics News: 2020 Inkwell Awards Voting Results
- Inkwell Awards Winners 2020
- "Bernie Wrightson, illustrator". The Baltimore Sun. n.d. Archived from the original on October 23, 2014.
- "A Message from Liz Wrightson". Bernie Wrightson official site. March 19, 2017. Archived from the original on March 21, 2017. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- "Connecticut Talent". Hartford, Connecticut: Connecticut Historical Society. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007.
- Bails, Jerry (n.d.). "Wrightson, Bernie". Who's Who of American Comic Books 1928-1999. Archived from the original on May 11, 2007.
- Cooke, Jon B. (Summer 1999). "Like a Bat Out of Hell Chatting with Bernie Wrightson, DC's Monster Maker". Comic Book Artist. Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing (5). Archived from the original on February 18, 2010.
- McAvennie, Michael; Dolan, Hannah, ed. (2010). "1960s". DC Comics Year By Year A Visual Chronicle. London, United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. p. 132. ISBN 978-0-7566-6742-9.
'The Man Who Murdered Himself' in House of Mystery was...the first DC story illustrated by Berni Wrightson (who left the "e" off his first name to distinguish himself from a famous diver.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Warner, Meredith (March 25, 2017). "How Bernie Wrightson uncovered the soul of the monster in his work". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on March 26, 2017.
- McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p. 146: "'Swamp Thing' was the name of Len Wein and Bernie Wrightson's turn-of-the-century tale, and its popularity with readers led a modernized version of the character into his own series a year later."
- Ho, Richard (November 2004). "Who's Your Daddy??". Wizard (140): 68–74.
- Berni Wrightson at the Grand Comics Database and Bernie Wrightson at the Grand Comics Database
- McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p.152 "The host that was first presented in a framing sequence by scribe Marv Wolfman and artist Bernie Wrightson received further, imaginative development in Neil Gaiman's The Sandman series decades later."
- McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p. 153: "Following his debut in House of Secrets #92 in 1971, the Swamp Thing grew into his own series, albeit with a reimagining of his origins by writer Len Wein and artist Bernie Wrightson."
- McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p. 154: "Scribe Len Wein and artist Bernie Wrightson left Swamp Thing some company...the woman who would become Swamp Thing's soul mate, Abigail Arcane."
- Niles, Steve (May 8, 2012). "Frankenstein Alive, Alive! A Conversation with Bernie Wrightson". SteveNiles.net. Archived from the original on October 14, 2017. Retrieved October 14, 2017.
- Carey, Edward (June 16, 2008). "Spotlight on Bernie Wrightson". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on October 14, 2017.
- Wallace, Daniel (October 27, 2015). Ghostbusters: The Ultimate Visual History, Insight Editions. San Rafael, California. pp. 21 and 86. ISBN 978-1608875108
- Heroes for Hope Starring the X-Men at the Grand Comics Database
- DeFalco, Tom; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2008). "1980s". Marvel Chronicle A Year by Year History. London, United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. p. 223. ISBN 978-0756641238.
Horrified by the plight of starving children in Africa, writer/artist Jim Starlin and illustrator Bernie Wrightson convinced Marvel to publish Heroes For Hope. It was a 'jam' book...and all of Marvel's profits were donated to famine relief in Africa.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1980s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. London, United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. p. 156. ISBN 978-0756692360.
Writer Susan K. Putney and artist Bernie Wrightson delivered a memorable graphic novel that removed Spider-Man from his usual urban setting and placed him in a fantasy world of magic and mysticism.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Heroes Against Hunger at the Grand Comics Database
- Manning, Matthew K. "1980s" in Dolan, p. 219: "Plotted by Jim Starlin, with dramatic designs by Bernie Wrightson...Heroes Against Hunger featured nearly every popular DC creator of the time."
- Manning "1980s" in Dolan, p. 234: "Writer Jim Starlin took the Dark Knight into the depths of Gotham for the four-issue prestige format Batman: The Cult...with horror artist Bernie Wrightson."
- "Heresy Cards by Artist". The Sendai Bubble. Archived from the original on December 10, 2003. Retrieved August 17, 2011.
- Epstein, Daniel Robert (September 30, 2005). "Joss Whedon". SuicideGirls.com. Archived from the original on January 22, 2016.
- "Bernie Wrightson – Horror Artist Bernie Wrightson's Official Website". Retrieved January 26, 2020.
- "Byrne, Wrightson Return To IDW With New Series". Comic Book Resources. March 5, 2012. Archived from the original on June 13, 2012. Retrieved March 5, 2012.
- MacDonald, Heidi (June 1, 2015). "RIP Michele Wrightson". ComicsBeat.com. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved January 30, 2017.
- "Biography". Bernie Wrightson official website. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved December 12, 2016.
- McMillan, Graeme (January 30, 2017). "'Swamp Thing' Co-Creator Announces Retirement Due to Poor Health". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on January 31, 2017. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
- Wrightson, Liz (January 30, 2017). "Dear Fans and Friends". Bernie Wrightson Facebook page. Archived from the original on January 31, 2017. Retrieved January 30, 2017.
- Stolworthy, Jacob (April 3, 2017). "The Walking Dead season 7 finale: Who is Bernie Wrightson, the person episode 16 was dedicated to?". The Independent. Archived from the original on May 21, 2017.
- "1972 Academy of Comic Book Arts Awards". Hahn Library Comic Book Awards Almanac. Archived from the original on December 12, 2013.
- "1973 Academy of Comic Book Arts Awards". Hahn Library Comic Book Awards Almanac. Archived from the original on December 12, 2013.
- "The Bob Clampett Humanitarian Award". San Diego Comic-Con International. 2013. Archived from the original on February 13, 2014. Retrieved June 23, 2013.
- "Inkpot Award Winners". Hahn Library Comic Book Awards Almanac. Archived from the original on July 9, 2012.
- "The H. P. Lovecraft Film Festival Awards". HPLFilmFestival.com. Archived from the original on October 6, 2013. Retrieved May 9, 2013.
- Parkin, JK (May 26, 2013). "National Cartoonist Society announces Reuben, divisional awards". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on December 21, 2013.
- Mahadeo, Kevin (August 12, 2010). "Marz Reveals Batman's "Hidden Treasures"". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on October 13, 2012.
Writer Ron Marz's Legend of the Dark Knight tale with artist Bernie Wrightson became a legend in its own right among the comic book professional community—a long-lost story the writer himself believed would never see print.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bernie Wrightson.|