Gian Lorenzo Bernini

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Gian Lorenzo Bernini
Gian Lorenzo Bernini, self-portrait, c1623.jpg
Self-portrait of Bernini, c. 1623
Born Gian Lorenzo Bernini
(1598-12-07)7 December 1598
Naples, Kingdom of Naples, in present-day Italy
Died 28 November 1680(1680-11-28) (aged 81)
Rome, Papal States, in present-day Italy
Nationality Italian
Known for Sculpture, painting, architecture
Notable work David, Apollo and Daphne, The Rape of Proserpina, Ecstasy of Saint Theresa
Movement Baroque style

Gian Lorenzo Bernini (Italian pronunciation: [ˈdʒan loˈrɛntso berˈniːni]; also Gianlorenzo or Giovanni Lorenzo; 7 December 1598 – 28 November 1680) was an Italian sculptor and architect.[1] A major figure in the world of architecture, he was the leading sculptor of his age, credited with creating the Baroque style of sculpture.[2] As one scholar has commented, 'What Shakespeare is to drama, Bernini may be to sculpture: the first pan-European sculptor whose name is instantaneously identifiable with a particular manner and vision, and whose influence was inordinately powerful...'[3] In addition, he was a painter (mostly small canvases in oil) and a man of the theater: he wrote, directed and acted in plays (mostly Carnival satires), also designing stage sets and theatrical machinery, as well as a wide variety of decorative art objects including lamps, tables, mirrors, and even coaches. As architect and city planner, he designed both secular buildings and churches and chapels, as well as massive works combining both architecture and sculpture, especially elaborate public fountains and funerary monuments and a whole series of temporary structures (in stucco and wood) for funerals and festivals.

Bernini possessed the ability to depict dramatic narratives with characters showing intense psychological states, but also to organize large-scale sculptural works which convey a magnificent grandeur.[4] His skill in manipulating marble ensured that he would be considered a worthy successor of Michelangelo, far outshining other sculptors of his generation, including his rival, Alessandro Algardi. His talent extended beyond the confines of sculpture to a consideration of the setting in which it would be situated; his ability to synthesize sculpture, painting, and architecture into a coherent conceptual and visual whole has been termed by the art historian Irving Lavin the "unity of the visual arts".[5] A deeply religious man,[6] working in Counter Reformation Rome, Bernini used light as an important metaphorical device in his religious settings, often using hidden light sources that could intensify the focus of religious worship[7] or enhance the dramatic moment of a sculptural narrative.

Bernini was also a leading figure in the emergence of Roman Baroque architecture along with his contemporaries, the architect Francesco Borromini and the painter and architect Pietro da Cortona. Early in their careers they had all worked at the same time at the Palazzo Barberini, initially under Carlo Maderno and, following his death, under Bernini. Later on, however, they were in competition for commissions, and fierce rivalries developed, particularly between Bernini and Borromini.[8][9] Despite the arguably greater architectural inventiveness of Borromini and Cortona, Bernini's artistic pre-eminence, particularly during the reigns of popes Urban VIII (1623–44) and Alexander VII (1655–65), meant he was able to secure the most important commissions in the Rome of his day, the various massive embellishment projects of the newly finished St. Peter's Basilica, completed under Pope Paul V with the addition of Maderno's nave and facade and finally re-consecrated by Pope Urban VIII on November 18, 1626, after 150 years of planning and building. Bernini's design of the Piazza San Pietro in front of the Basilica is one of his most innovative and successful architectural designs. Within the basilica he is also responsible for the Baldacchino, the decoration of the four piers under the cupola, the Cathedra Petri (Throne of St. Peter) in the apse, the chapel of the Blessed Sacrament in the right nave, and the decoration (floor, walls and arches) of the new nave.

During his long career, Bernini received numerous important commissions, many of which were associated with the papacy. At an early age, he came to the attention of the papal nephew, Cardinal Scipione Borghese, and in 1621, at the age of only twenty-three, he was knighted by Pope Gregory XV. Following his accession to the papacy, Urban VIII is reported to have said, "It is a great fortune for you, O Cavaliere, to see Cardinal Maffeo Barberini made pope, but our fortune is even greater to have Cavalier Bernini alive in our pontificate."[10] Although he did not fare so well during the reign of Innocent X, under Alexander VII, he once again regained pre-eminent artistic domination and continued to be held in high regard by Clement IX.

Bernini and other artists fell from favor in later neoclassical criticism of the Baroque. It is only from the late nineteenth century that art historical scholarship, in seeking an understanding of artistic output in the cultural context in which it was produced, has come to recognise Bernini's achievements and restore his artistic reputation. The art historian Howard Hibbard concludes that, during the seventeenth century, "there were no sculptors or architects comparable to Bernini".[11]

Personal life[edit]

Bernini was born in Naples in 1598 to an Angelica Galante, a Neapolitan, and Mannerist sculptor, Pietro Bernini, originally from Florence. He was the sixth of their thirteen children.[12][13] Bernini would not marry until May 1639, at age forty-one, when he wed a twenty-two-year-old Roman woman, Caterina Tezio, in an arranged marriage. She bore him eleven children including youngest son Domenico Bernini, who became his first biographer.[14] In 1606, at the age of eight, he accompanied his father to Rome, where Pietro was involved in several high profile projects.[15] There, as a boy, Gian Lorenzo's skill was soon noticed by the painter Annibale Carracci and by Pope Paul V, and he soon gained the important patronage of Cardinal Scipione Borghese, the papal nephew. His first works were inspired by antique classical sculpture.

In the late 1630s he engaged in an affair with a married woman named Costanza (wife of his workshop assistant, Matteo Bonucelli, also called Bonarelli) and sculpted a bust of her (now in the Bargello, Florence) during the height of their romance. She later had an affair with his younger brother, who was Bernini's right-hand man in his studio. When Gian Lorenzo found out about Costanza and his brother, in a fit of mad fury, he chased his brother Luigi through the streets of Rome, intent on murdering him. To punish his unfaithful mistress, Bernini had a servant go to the house of Costanza to slash her face several times with a razor. The servant was later jailed, and Costanza was jailed for adultery.[16]

Bernini died in Rome in 1680, and was buried in the Bernini's family vault, along with his parents, in the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore.

Early works for Cardinal Borghese[edit]

Apollo and Daphne (1622–25)

Under the patronage of the extravagantly wealthy and most powerful Cardinal Scipione Borghese, the young Bernini rapidly rose to prominence as a sculptor. Among the early works for the cardinal were decorative pieces for the garden of the Villa Borghese such as The Goat Amalthea with the Infant Jupiter and a Faun, and several allegorical busts, including the Damned Soul and Blessed Soul. By the time he was twenty-two, he was considered talented enough to have been given a commission for a papal portrait, the Bust of Pope Paul V, now in the J. Paul Getty Museum.

Bernini's reputation, however, was definitively established by four masterpieces, executed between 1619 and 1625, all now displayed in the Galleria Borghese in Rome. To the art historian Rudolf Wittkower these four works—Aeneas, Anchises, and Ascanius (1619), The Rape of Proserpina (1621–22), Apollo and Daphne (1622–25), and David (1623–24)—"inaugurated a new era in the history of European sculpture".[17] It is a view repeated by other scholars.[18] Adapting the classical grandeur of Renaissance sculpture and the dynamic energy of the Mannerist period, Bernini forged a new,distinctly Baroque conception for religious and historical sculpture, powerfully imbued with dramatic realism, stirring emotion and dynamic, theatrical compositions. Bernini's early sculpture groups and portraits manifest "a command of the human form in motion and a technical sophistication rivalled only by the greatest sculptors of classical antiquity."[19]

Unlike those done by his predecessors, these sculptures focus on specific points of narrative tension in the stories they are trying to tell: Aeneas and his family fleeing the burning Troy; the instant that Pluto finally grasps the hunted Persephone; the precise moment that Apollo sees his beloved Daphne begin her transformation into a tree. They are transitory but dramatic powerful moments in each story. Bernini's David is another stirring example of this. Unlike Michelangelo's motionless, idealized David—which shows the subject holding a rock in one hand and a sling in the other, contemplating the battle, or similary immobile versions by other Renaissance artists, notably Donatello's—which show the subject in his triumph after the battle with Goliath, Bernini illustrates David during his active combat with the giant, as he twists his body to catapult toward Goliath. To emphasize these moments, and to ensure that they were appreciated by the viewer, Bernini designed the sculptures with a specific viewpoint in mind. Their original placements within the Villa Borghese were against walls, so that the viewers' first view was the dramatic moment of the narrative.[20][21]

The result of such an approach is to invest the sculptures with greater psychological energy. The viewer finds it easier to gauge the state of mind of the characters and therefore understands the larger story at work: Daphne's wide open mouth in fear and astonishment, David biting his lip in determined concentration, or Proserpina desperately struggling to free herself. In addition to portraying psychological realism, they show a greater concern for representing physical details. The tousled hair of Pluto, the pliant flesh of Proserpina, or the forest of leaves beginning to envelop Daphne all demonstrate Bernini's exactitude and delight for representing complex real world textures in marble form.[22][23]

The Papal Artist: Bernini in the age of Urban VIII[edit]

Baldacchino in St. Peter's Basilica

In 1623, upon the ascent of Cardinal Maffeo Barberini to the papal throne as Pope Urban VIII, and Bernini's subsequent near monopolistic patronage from the Barberini pope and family, the artist's horizons rapidly and widely broadened. He was not just producing sculpture for private residences, but playing the most significant artistic (and engineering) role on the city stage, as sculptor, architect, and urban planner.[24] His official appointments also testify to this – "curator of the papal art collection, director of the papal foundry at Castel Sant'Angelo, commissioner of the fountains of Piazza Navona".[25] Such positions gave Bernini the opportunity to demonstrate his versatile skills throughout the city. Perhaps most significantly and to great protest from older, most experienced architects, he was appointed Chief Architect of St Peter's in 1629, upon the death of Carlo Maderno. From then on, Bernini's work and artistic vision would be placed at the symbolic heart of Rome.

The St Peter's Baldacchino was the centerpiece of his ambitious plans for the embellishment of the recently completed but still rather unadorned St. Peter's. Designed as a massive spiraling gilded bronze canopy over the tomb of St Peter, Bernini's four-pillared creation reached nearly 30 m (98 ft) from the ground and cost around 200,000 Roman scudi (about $8m in currency of the early 21st century).[26] "Quite simply", writes one art historian, "nothing like has ever been seen before".[27] Soon after the St Peter's Baldacchino, Bernini undertook the whole-scale embellishment of the four massive piers at crossing of the basilica (i.e., the structures supporting the cupola) including, most notably, four colossal, theatrically dramatic statues, among them, most notably, the majestic St Longinus executed by Bernini himself (the other three are by other contemporary sculptors François Duquesnoy, Francesco Mochi, and Bernini's disciple, Andrea Bolgi). Bernini also began work on the tomb for Urban VIII, completed only after Urban's death in 1644, one in a long, distinguished series of tombs and funerary monuments for which Bernini is famous and a traditional genre upon which his influence left an enduring mark, often copied by subsequent artists.

Bust of Cardinal Armand de Richelieu (1640–41)

Despite this engagement with public architecture, Bernini was still able to produce artworks that showed the gradual refinement of his portrait technique. A number of Bernini's sculptures show the continual evolution of his ability to capture the utterly distinctive personal characteristics that he saw in his sitters. This included a number of busts of Urban VIII himself, the family bust of Francesco Barberini or most notably, the Two Busts of Scipione Borghese – the second of which had been rapidly created by Bernini once a flaw had been found in the marble of the first.[28] The transitory nature of the expression on Scipione's face is often noted by art historians, iconic of the Baroque concern for representing movement in static artworks. To Rudolf Wittkower the "beholder feels that in the twinkle of an eye not only might the expression and attitude change but also the folds of the casually arranged mantle".[28]

One noted portrait in marble is the lively, sensual one of Costanza Bonarelli (executed around 1637), unusual in its more personal, intimate nature (in fact, it would appear to be the first fully finished marble portrait of a non-aristocratic woman by a major artist in European history). As already mentioned, Bernini had an affair with Costanza, who was the wife of one of his assistants. When Bernini then suspected Costanza of involvement with his brother, he badly beat him and ordered a servant to slash her face with a razor. Pope Urban VIII intervened on his behalf, and he was simply fined.[29]

Beginning in the late 1630s, now known in Europe as one of the most accomplished portraitists in marble, Bernini also began to receive royal commissions from outside Rome, for subjects such as Cardinal Richelieu of France, Francesco I d'Este of Modena, Charles I of England and Henrietta Maria. The sculpture of Charles I was produced in Italy from a portrait made by Van Dyck, though Bernini preferred to produce portraits from life. The bust of Charles was lost in the Whitehall Palace fire of 1698 (though its design is known through contemporary copies and drawings) and that of Henrietta Maria was not undertaken due to the outbreak of the English Civil War.[30][31]

Bernini under Innocent X: The towers of St Peter's and temporary disgrace[edit]

Under Urban VIII, Bernini had been appointed chief architect for the basilica of St Peter's. Work by Bernini included the aforementioned Baldacchino and the St Longinus. In 1636, eager to finally finish the exterior of St. Peter's, Pope Urban ordered Bernini to design and build the two long-intended bell towers for its facade: the foundations of the two towers had already been designed and constructed (namely, the last bays at either extremity of the facade) by Carlo Maderno (architect of the nave and the facade) decades earlier. Once the first tower was finished in 1641, cracks began to appear in the facade but, curiously enough, work continued on the second tower and the first story was completed. Despite the presence of the cracks, work only stopped in July 1642 once the papal treasury had been exhausted by the disastrous War of Castro. With the death of Pope Urban and the ascent to power of Barberini-enemy in 1644, Pope Innocent X Pamphilj, Bernini's enemies (especially Borromini) raised a great alarm over the cracks, predicting a disaster for the whole basilica and placing the blame entirely on Bernini. The subsequent investigations in fact revealed the cause of the cracks as Maderno's defective foundations and not Bernini's elaborate design, an exoneration later confirmed by the meticulous investigation conducted in 1680 under Pope Innocent XI.[32]

Nonetheless, Bernini's opponents in Rome succeeded in seriously damaging the reputation of Urban's artist and in persuading the pope to order (in February 1646) the complete demolition of both towers, to Bernini's great humiliation and indeed financial detriment. After this, one of the rare failures of his career, Bernini retreated into himself: according to his son, Domenico. Bernini's subsequent unfinished statue of 1647, Truth Unveiled by Time, was intended to be his self-consoling commentary on this affair, expressing his faith that eventually Time would reveal the actual Truth behind the story and exonerate him fully, as indeed did occur.

Nevertheless, this affair did not mean that Bernini entirely lost patronage, not even of the pope. Innocent X maintained Bernini in all of the official roles given to him by Urban. Under Bernini's design and careful direction, work continued on decorating the massive new but entirely unadorned nave of St Peters, with the addition of an elaborate multi-colored marble flooring, marble facing on the walls and and pilasters, and scores of stuccoed statues and reliefs. It is not without reason that Pope Alexander VII once quipped, 'if one were to remove from Saint Peter's everything that had been made by the Cavalier Bernini, that temple would be stripped bare.' Indeed, given all of his many and various works within the basilica over several decades, it is to Bernini that is due the lion's share of responsibility for the final and enduring aesthetic appearance and emotional impact of St. Peter's.[33] He was also allowed to continue to work on Urban VIII's tomb, despite Innocent's antipathy for the Barberini.[34] A few months after completing Urban's tomb, Bernini won, under controversial circumstances, the Pamphilj commission for the prestigious Four Rivers Fountain on Piazza Navona, marking the end of his disgrace and the beginning a yet another glorious chapter in his life.

If there had been doubts over Bernini's position as Rome's preeminent artist, the success of the Four Rivers Fountain removed them. Bernini continued to receive commissions from Pope Innocent X and other senior members of Rome's clergy and aristocracy, as well as from exalted patrons outside of Rome, such as Francesco d'Este. In such an environment, Bernini's artistic style flourished. New types of funerary monument were designed, such as the seemingly floating medallion, hovering in the air as it were, for the deceased nun Maria Raggi, while chapels he designed, such as the Raimondi Chapel in the church of San Pietro in Montorio, illustrated how Bernini could use hidden lighting to help suggest divine intervention within the narratives he was depicting.

But even before the Navona fountain design, it was the commission for the Cornaro Chapel that had demonstrated Bernini's innovative skill. The chapel showcased his ability to integrate sculpture, architecture, fresco, stucco, and lighting into "a marvelous whole" (bel composto, to use early biographer Filippo Baldinucci's term to describe Bernini's approach to architecture) and thus create what scholar Irving Lavin has called the "unified work of art". The central focus of the Cornaro Chapel is the ecstasy of the Spanish nun and saint-mystic, Teresa of Avila.[35] Bernini presents the spectator with a theatrically vivid portrait, in gleaming white marble, of the swooning Teresa and the quietly smiling angel, who delicately grips the arrow piercing the saint's heart. On either side of the chapel the artist places (in what can only strike the viewer as theater boxes), portraits in relief of various members of the Cornaro family—the Venetian family memorialized in the chapel, including Cardinal Federico Cornaro who commissioned the chapel from Bernini— who are in animated conversation among themselves, presumably about the event taking place before them. The result is a complex but subtly orchestrated architectural environment providing the spiritual context (a heavenly setting with a hidden source of light) that suggests to viewers the ultimate nature of this miraculous event.[36]

It was an artistic tour de force that incorporates all of the multiple forms of visual art and technique that Bernini had at his disposal, including hidden lighting, thin gilded beams, recessive architectural space, secret lens, and over twenty diverse types of colored marble: these all combine to create the final artwork—"a perfected, highly dramatic and deeply satisfying seamless ensemble".[37]

Beautifying the city: Bernini and Alexander VII[edit]

Upon his accession to the Chair of St Peter, Pope Alexander VII Chigi (1655–67) began to implement his extremely ambitious (but in the end largely successful) plan to transform Rome into a magnificent world capital by means of systematic, bold (and costly) urban planning. In so doing, he brought to fruition the long, slow recreation of the urban glory of Rome—the "renovatio Romae"—that had begun in the fifteenth century under the Renaissance popes. Alexander immediately commissioned large-scale architectural changes in the city, for example, connecting new and existing buildings by opening up streets and piazzas. It is no coincidence that Bernini’s career showed a greater focus on designing buildings (and their immediate surroundings) during this pontificate, as there were far greater opportunities.

View of Rome from the Dome of St. Peter's Basilica, June 2007

Bernini’s most notable creation during this period was the piazza leading to St Peter's. Previously a broad, unstructured space, Bernini created two massive semi-circular colonnades, each row of which was formed of four white columns. This resulted in an oval shape that formed a spectacular, inclusive arena within which any gathering citizens, pilgrims and visitors could witness the appearance of the pope – either as he appeared on the loggia on the facade of St Peter's or on balconies on the neighbouring Vatican palaces. Often likened to two arms reaching out from the church to embrace the waiting crowd, Bernini's creation extended the symbolic greatness of the Vatican area, creating an "exhiliarating expanse" that was, architecturally, an "unequivocal success".[38][39] The long avenue to the river Tiber was a later addition, when Benito Mussolini ordered the clearing of housing that led up to Bernini's piazza.

Elsewhere within the Vatican area, Bernini made systematic rearrangements of space that exist to the present day. The Cathedra Petri, the symbolic throne of St Peter in the apse of the basilica, was rearranged as a monumental golden extravagance that matched the Baldacchino created earlier in the century. Bernini's restoration of the Scala Regia, the papal stairway between St Peters's and the Vatican Palace, was less ostentatious in appearance but still taxed Bernini's creative powers to create a seemingly uniform stairway to connect two irregular buildings.[40]

Not all works during this era were on such a large scale. Indeed, the commission Bernini received to build the church of Sant'Andrea al Quirinale for the Jesuits was relatively modest in size and payment for Bernini. But Sant'Andrea shared with the St Peter's piazza – unlike the complex geometries of his rival Francesco Borromini – a focus on basic geometric shapes, circles and ovals to create spiritually intense buildings.[41] Equally, Bernini moderated the presence of colour and decoration within these buildings, focussing visitors' attention on these simple forms that underpinned the building. Sculptural decoration was never eliminated, but its use was more minimal. The church of Santa Maria dell'Assunzione in the town of Arricia with its circular outline, rounded dome and three-arched portico is particularly noteworthy in this respect.[42]

Visit to France[edit]

Bernini self-portrait, c. 1665

At the end of April 1665, and still considered the most important artist in Rome, if indeed not in all of Europe, Bernini was forced by political pressure (from both the French court and Pope Alexander VII) to travel to Paris to work for King Louis XIV, who required an architect to complete work on the royal palace of the Louvre. Bernini would remain in Paris until mid-October. Louis XIV assigned a member of his court to serve as Bernini's translator, tourist guide, and overall companion, Paul Fréart de Chantelou, who kept a Journal of Bernini's visit that records much of Bernini's behaviour and utterances in Paris.[43]

The trip began well; Bernini's popularity was such that on his walks in Paris the streets were lined with admiring crowds. But things soon turned sour.[44] Bernini presented some designs for the east front (i.e., the all-important principal facade of the entire palace) of the Louvre, which were, after a short while, rejected. It is often stated in the scholarship on Bernini that his Louvre designs were turned down because Louis and his financial advisor Jean-Baptiste Colbert considered them too Italianate or too Baroque in style.[45] In fact, as Franco Mormando points out, "aesthetics are never mentioned in any of [the] . . . surviving memos" by Colbert or any of the artistic advisors at the French court. The explicit reasons for the rejections were utilitarian, namely, on the level of physical security and comfort (e.g., location of the latrines).[46]

Bust of Louis XIV, 1665

Other projects suffered a similar fate.[47] With the exception of Chantelou, Bernini failed to forge significant friendships at the French court. His frequent negative comments on various aspects of French culture, especially its art and architecture, did not go down well, particularly in juxtaposition to his praise for the art and architecture of Italy (especially Rome); he said that a painting by Guido Reni was worth more than all of Paris.[48] The sole work remaining from his time in Paris is the Bust of Louis XIV, known as one of the grandest portrait busts of the baroque age. Back in Rome, Bernini later created a monumental equestrian statue of Louis XIV; when it finally reached Paris (in 1685, five years after the artist's death), the French king found it extremely repugnant and wanted it destroyed; it was instead re-carved into a representation of the ancient Roman hero, Marcus Curtius.[49]


Bernini's architectural works include sacred and secular buildings and sometimes their urban settings and interiors.[50] He made adjustments to existing buildings and designed new constructions. Amongst his most well known works are the Piazza San Pietro (1656–67), the piazza and colonnades in front of St. Peter's Basilica and the interior decoration of the Basilica. Amongst his secular works are a number of Roman palaces: following the death of Carlo Maderno, he took over the supervision of the building works at the Palazzo Barberini from 1630 on which he worked with Borromini; the Palazzo Ludovisi (now Palazzo Montecitorio, started 1650); and the Palazzo Chigi (now Palazzo Chigi-Odescalchi, started 1664).

St. Peter's baldachin, 1624–33

His first architectural projects were the façade and refurbishment of the church of Santa Bibiana (1624–26) and the St. Peter's baldachin (1624–33), the bronze columned canopy over the high altar of St. Peter's Basilica. In 1629, and before St. Peter's Baldachin was complete, Urban VIII put him in charge of all the ongoing architectural works at St Peter's. However, Bernini fell out of favor during the papacy of Innocent X Pamphili: one reason was the pope's animosity towards the Barberini and hence towards their clients including Bernini. Another reason was the failure of the belltowers designed and built by Bernini for St. Peter's Basilica, commencing during the reign of Urban VIII. The completed north tower and the only partially completed south tower were ordered demolished by Innocent in 1646 because their excessive weight had caused cracks in the basilica's facade and threatened to do more calamitous damage. Professional opinion at the time was in fact divided over the true gravity of the situation (with Bernini's rival Borromini spreading an extreme, anti-Bernini catastrophic view of the problem) and over the question of responsibility for the damage: Who was to blame? Bernini? Pope Urban VIII who forced Bernini to design over-elaborate towers? Deceased Architect of St. Peter's, Carlo Maderno who built the weak foundations for the towers? Official papal investigations in 1680 in fact completely exonerated Bernini, while inculpating Maderno.[51] Never wholly without patronage during the Pamphilj years, after Innocent's death in 1655 Bernini regained a major role in the decoration of St. Peter's with the Pope Alexander VII Chigi, leading to his design of the piazza and colonnade in front of St. Peter's. Further significant works by Bernini at the Vatican include the Scala Regia (1663–66), the monumental grand stairway entrance to the Vatican Palace, and the Cathedra Petri, the Chair of Saint Peter, in the apse of St. Peter's, in addition to the Chapel of the Blessed Sacrament in the nave.

Colonnade of Piazza San Pietro

Bernini did not build many churches from scratch; rather, his efforts were concentrated on pre-existing structures, and in particular St. Peter's. He fulfilled three commissions for new churches; his stature allowed him the freedom to design the structure and decorate the interiors in a consistent manner. Best known is the small but richly ornamented oval church of Sant'Andrea al Quirinale, done (beginning in 1658) for the Jesuit novitiate, representing one of the rare works of his hand with which Bernini's son, Domenico, reports that his father was truly and very pleased.[52] Bernini also designed churches in Castelgandolfo (San Tommaso da Villanova, 1658–61) and Ariccia (Santa Maria Assunta, 1662–64).

When Bernini was invited to Paris in 1665 to prepare works for Louis XIV, he presented designs for the east facade of the Louvre Palace, but his projects were ultimately turned down in favour of the more stern and classic proposals of the French doctor and amateur architect Claude Perrault,[53] signalling the waning influence of Italian artistic hegemony in France. Bernini's projects were essentially rooted in the Italian Baroque urbanist tradition of relating public buildings to their settings, often leading to innovative architectural expression in urban spaces like piazze or squares. However, by this time, the French absolutist monarchy now preferred the classicising monumental severity of Perrault's facade, no doubt with the added political bonus that it had been designed by a Frenchman. The final version did, however, include Bernini's feature of a flat roof behind a Palladian balustrade.

In 1639, Bernini bought property on the corner of the via della Mercede and the via del Collegio di Propaganda Fide in Rome. He refurbished and expanded the existing palazzo on the site, at what are now Nos. 11 and 12 via della Mercede. (The building is sometimes referred to as "Palazzo Bernini," but that title more properly pertains to the Bernini family's latter and larger home on Via del Corso, to which they moved in the eighteenth century.) Bernini lived at No. 11, but this was extensively changed in the 19th century. It has been noted how very galling it must have been for Bernini to witness through the windows of his dwelling, the construction of the tower and dome of Sant'Andrea delle Fratte by his rival, Borromini, and also the demolition of the chapel that he, Bernini, had designed at the Collegio di Propaganda Fide to see it replaced by Borromini's chapel.[54]

Fountains in Rome[edit]

True to the decorative dynamism of Baroque, among Bernini's most gifted creations were his Roman fountains, which were both public works and papal monuments. His fountains include the Fountain of the Triton, or Fontana del Tritone, and the Barberini Fountain of the Bees, the Fontana delle Api.[55] The Fountain of the Four Rivers, or Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi, in the Piazza Navona is a masterpiece of spectacle and political allegory. An oft-repeated, but false, anecdote tells that one of the Bernini's river gods defers his gaze in disapproval of the facade of Sant'Agnese in Agone (designed by the talented, but less politically successful, rival Francesco Borromini), impossible because the fountain was built several years before the façade of the church was completed. Bernini was also the artist of the statue of the Moor in La Fontana del Moro in Piazza Navona (1653).

Other works[edit]

Gian Lorenzo Bernini in 1665, painted by Giovanni Battista Gaulli

Among Bernini's most popular works (but one not mentioned by either of his earliest biographers, Baldinucci or Domenico Bernini) is the Elephant and Obelisk located near the Pantheon, in the Piazza della Minerva, in front of the Dominican church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva. Pope Alexander VII decided that he wanted a small ancient Egyptian obelisk (that was discovered beneath the piazza) to be erected on the same site, and in 1665 he commissioned Bernini to create a sculpture to support the obelisk. The sculpture of an elephant bearing the obelisk on its back was executed by one of Bernini's students, Ercole Ferrata, upon a design by Bernini and finished in 1667. An inscription on the base relates the Egyptian goddess Isis and the Roman goddess Minerva to the Virgin Mary, who supposedly supplanted those pagan goddesses and to whom the church is dedicated.[56] A popular anecdote concerns the elephant's smile. To find out why it is smiling, legend has it, the viewer must head around to the rear end of the animal and to see that its muscles are tensed and its tail is shifted to the left as if it were defecating. The animal's rear is pointed directly at the office of Father Giuseppe Paglia, a Dominican friar who was one of the main antagonists of Bernini, as a final salute and last word.[57]

The grave of Bernini in the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore

Among his minor commissions, in 1677 Bernini worked along with Ercole Ferrata to create a fountain for the Lisbon palace of the Portuguese nobleman, the Count of Ericeira: copying his earlier fountains, Bernini supplied the design of the fountain sculpted by Ferrata, featuring Neptune with four tritons around a basin.The fountain has survived: since 1945 located outside the precincts of the gardens of the Palacio Nacional de Queluz, several miles outside of Lisbon.[58] For the same patron he also created a series of paintings with the battles of Louis XIV as subject. These works were lost as the palace, its great library and the rich art collection of the Counts of Ericeira, were destroyed along with most of central Lisbon as a result of the great earthquake of 1755.[59]

In the 1620s, encouraged by Pope Urban VIII who wanted him to fresco the Benediction Loggia of St. Peter's (never executed), Bernini began in earnest to develop and perfect his technique as a painter. He probably had learned the basics from his father who was a painter as well, in addition to some training in the studio of the Florentine painter, Cigoli. According to early biographers, Baldinucci and Domenico Bernini, Bernini completed at least 150 canvases, mostly in the decades of the 1620s and 30s, but currently there are no more than 35-40 surviving paintings that can be confidently attributed to his hand (they are mostly close-up faces—including several wonderfully wrought self-portraits—set against a blank background, employing a loose, painterly brushstroke (similar to that of his Spanish contemporary Velasquez) and a very limited palette of mostly somber colors with deep chiaroscuro. The only one that is securely dated is that of the Apostles Andrew and Thomas in London's National Gallery.[60] As for his drawings, about 300 still exist; but this is a miniscule percentage of the drawings he would have created in his lifetime; these include rapid sketches relating to major sculptural or architectural commissions, presentation drawings given as gifts to his patrons and aristocratic friends, and exquisite, fully finished portraits, such as those of Agostino Mascardi (Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris) and Scipione Borghese and Sisinio Poli (both in New York's Morgan Library).[61]

Among the many who worked under his supervision were Luigi Bernini, Stefano Speranza, Giuliano Finelli, Andrea Bolgi, Filippo Parodi, Giacomo Antonio Fancelli, Lazzaro Morelli, Francesco Baratta, Nicodemus Tessin, Jr., and Francois Duquesnoy. Among his rivals in architecture were Francesco Borromini and Pietro da Cortona; in sculpture, Alessandro Algardi.

First biographies of Bernini[edit]

The most important primary source for the life of Bernini is the biography written by his youngest son, Domenico, entitled Vita del Cavalier Gio. Lorenzo Bernino, published in 1713 though first compiled in the last years of his father's life (c. 1675–80).[62] Filippo Baldinucci's Life of Bernini, was published in 1682, and a meticulous private journal, the Diary of the Cavaliere Bernini's Visit to France, was kept by the Frenchman Paul Fréart de Chantelou during the artist's four-month stay from June through October 1665 at the court of King Louis XIV. Also, there is a short biographical narrative, The Vita Brevis of Gian Lorenzo Bernini, written by his eldest son, Monsignor Pietro Filippo Bernini, in the mid-1670s.[63]

Until the late 20th century, it was generally believed that two years after Bernini's death, Queen Christina of Sweden, then living in Rome, commissioned Filippo Baldinucci to write his biography, which was published in Florence in 1682.[64] However, recent research now strongly suggests that it was in fact Bernini's sons (and specifically the eldest son, Mons. Pietro Filippo) who commissioned the biography from Baldinucci sometime in the late 1670s, with the intent of publishing it while their father was still alive. This would mean that first, the commission did not at all originate in Queen Christina who would have merely lent her name as patron (in order to hide the fact that the biography was coming directly from the family) and secondly, that Baldinucci's narrative was largely derived from some pre-publication version of Domenico Bernini's much longer biography of his father, as evidenced by the extremely large amount of text repeated verbatim (there is no other explanation, otherwise, for the massive amount of verbatim repetition, and it is known that Baldinucci routinely copied verbatim material for his artists' biographies supplied by family and friends of his subjects).[65] As the most detailed account and the only one coming directly from a member of the artist's immediate family, Domenico's biography, though published later than Baldinucci's, therefore represents the earliest and more important full-length biographical source of Bernini's life, even though it idealizes its subject and whitewashes a number of less-than-flattering facts about his life and personality.

Bernini was commemorated on the front of the Banca d'Italia 50,000 lire banknote in the 1980s and 90s (before Italy switched to the Euro) with the back showing his equestrian statue of Louis XIV.

Selected works[edit]


Bust of Jesus Christ by Gianlorenzo Bernini

Architecture and fountains[edit]


Bernini's activity as a painter was a sideline which he did mainly in his youth. Despite this his work reveals a sure and brilliant hand, free from any trace of pedantry. He studied in Rome under his father, Pietro, and soon proved a precocious infant prodigy. His work was immediately sought after by major collectors.



  1. ^ "Gian Lorenzo Bernini". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2012-12-06. 
  2. ^ Boucher, Bruce (1998). Italian Baroque Sculpture. Thames & Hudson (World of Art). pp. 134–42. ISBN 0500203075. 
  3. ^ Katherine Eustace, Editorial, 'Sculpture Journal,' vol. 20, n. 2, 2011, p. 109.
  4. ^ Wittkower, p. 13
  5. ^ Levin, Irving (1980). Bernini and the Unity of the Visual Arts. New York: Oxford University Press. 
  6. ^ For a more nuanced, cautious discussion of the traditional hagiographic view of Bernini as "fervent Catholic" and of his art as simply a direct manifestation of his personal faith, see Mormando, "Bernini's Religion: Myth and Reality," pp. 60–66 of the Introduction to his critical, annotated edition, Domenico Bernini, The Life of Gian Lorenzo Bernini, University Park, Penn State U Press, 2011.See also the same author's article, 'Breaking Through the Bernini Myth' in the online journal, Berfrois, October 11, 2012: [1]
  7. ^ Hibbard, Howard (1965). Bernini. New York: Penguin. p. 136.  Hibbard's classic book on Bernini, though still a valuable resource, has never been updated since its original publication in 1965 and the author's premature death; a vast amount of new information about Bernini has surfaced since then. It also accepts too readily the whitewashed, hagiographic depictions of Bernini, his patrons, and of Baroque Rome as supplied by the first, official biographies by Baldinucci and Domenico Bernini.
  8. ^ Mileti, Nick J. (2005). Beyond Michelangelo: The deadly rivalry between Bernini and Borromini. Philadelphia: Xlibris Corporation. 
  9. ^ Morrissey, Jake (2005). Genius in the Design: Bernini, Borromini and the rivalry that transformed Rome. New York: Harper Perennial.  The rivalry between Borromini and Bernini, though very much real, tends to be over-dramatized in popular works like that of Morrissey and in self-published non-scholarly works like that of Mileti. For a more careful, considered summary by a Bernini scholar, see Franco Mormando, Bernini: His Life and His Rome, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011, pp. 80-83.
  10. ^ Franco Mormando, ed. and trans., Domenico Bernini, Life of Gian Lorenzo Bernini, University Park, Penn State Univ. Press, 2011., p. 111.
  11. ^ Hibbard, p. 21
  12. ^
  13. ^ Gale, Thomson. Gian Lorenzo Bernini Encyclopedia of World Biography, 2004. For list of Bernini's siblings, see Franco Mormando, Bernini: His Life and His Rome (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011), pp. 2–3.
  14. ^ For Bernini's marriage to Caterina, and a list of Bernini's children, see Franco Mormando, Bernini: His Life and His Rome University of Chicago Press, 2011, pp. 109–16.
  15. ^ Gian lorenzo Bernini
  16. ^ For this episode in Bernini's life, see Franco Mormando, Bernini: His Life and HIs Rome, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011, pp. 99-106.
  17. ^ Wittkower, p. 14.
  18. ^ Hibbard, p. 14. Although Hibbard, as well as other scholars, are more reticent about the overall quality of the earliest of these sculptures, of Aeneas, Anchises, and Ascanius.
  19. ^ Timothy Clifford and Michael Clarke, Foreword, Effigies and Ecstasies: Roman Barowue Sculpture and Design in the Age of Bernini, Edinburgh: National Gallery of Scotland, 1998, p.7
  20. ^ Wittkower, p. 15.
  21. ^ Hibbard, pp. 53-54.
  22. ^ Wittkower, pp. 14–15.
  23. ^ Hibbard, pp. 48–61.
  24. ^ Hibbard, p. 68
  25. ^ Mormando, p. 72
  26. ^ For the conversion of 17th-century Roman scudi to modern American dollars, see Mormando, "Bernini: His Life and His Rome", 2011, pp. xvii-xix, Money, Wages, and Cost of Living in Baroque Rome.
  27. ^ see Franco Mormando, Bernini: His Life and HIs Rome, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011, p.84
  28. ^ a b Wittkower, p. 88
  29. ^ "Biographies – Gian Lorenzo Bernini", National Gallery of Canada, retrieved 29 October 2009 
  30. ^ Triple Portrait of Charles I
  31. ^ Lionel Cust (31 March 2007). Van Dyck. Wellhausen Press. p. 94. ISBN 978-1-4067-7452-8. Retrieved 19 April 2012. 
  32. ^ For a thorough summary of this entire, long and complicated episode in Bernini's life that takes into account the latest archival discoveries, see Franco Mormando, Domenico Bernini: The Life of Gian Lorenzo Bernini, University Park: Penn State University Press, 2011, pp. 332-34, nn.17-23 and pp. 342-45, nn. 4-21.
  33. ^ Mormando, Bernini: His Life and HIs Rome, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011, p.156 (for work on nave) and p. p. 241 (for Alexander VII quotation).
  34. ^ Mormando, p150
  35. ^ Lavin, Bernini and the Unity of the Visual Arts, passim
  36. ^ Lavin, ibid.
  37. ^ Mormando, Bernini: His Life and His Rome, p. 159
  38. ^ Hibbard, p. 156
  39. ^ Mormando, p. 204
  40. ^ Hibbard, pp. 163–7
  41. ^ Hibbard, pp. 144–8
  42. ^ Hibbard, pp. 149–50
  43. ^ See Gould, Cecil. Bernini in France, an episode in Seventeenth Century History, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London, 1981
  44. ^ Gould, C., 1982. Bernini in France: an episode in 17th-century history. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Pr. For more recent treatments of the same episode in Bernini's life, incorporating the most recent documentary research since Gould's book of 1982, see Mormando, Bernini: His Life and His Rome, 2011, chap. 5, A Roman Artist in King Louis's Court; see also Mormando's many documentary footnotes to Domenico Bernini's account of his father's dealings with the French: Domenico Bernini, Life of Gian Lorenzo Bernini," notes to chapters 16–20.
  45. ^ Hibbard, Howard (1990). Bernini. Penguin. p. 181. 
  46. ^ Mormando, Bernini: His LIfe and His Rome, pp. 255-56, emphasis added.
  47. ^ Fagiolo, M., 2008. Bernini a Parigi: le Colonne d'Ercole, l'Anfiteatro per il Louvre e i progetti per la Cappella Bourbon.
  48. ^ Hibbard, Howard. Bernini. p. 171. 
  49. ^ Wittkower, p. 89
  50. ^ See Marder, Tod A. Bernini and the Art of Architecture Abbeville Press, New York and London, 1998
  51. ^ See McPhee, Sarah. Bernini and the Bell Towers: Architecture and Politics at the Vatican, Yale University Press, 2002
  52. ^ See Domenico Bernini, The Life of Gian Lorenzo Bernini, trans. and ed. Franco Mormando, University Park: Penn State University Press, 2011, pp. 178-179. Magnuson Torgil, Rome in the Age of Bernini, Volume II, Almqvist & Wiksell, Stockholm, 1986: 202
  53. ^ Probably made in collaboration with Lebrun and Le Vau, Blunt, Anthony. Architecture in France 1500–1700, Pelican History of Art, 1953, p. 232
  54. ^ Blunt, Anthony. Guide to Baroque Rome, Granada, 1982, p. 166
  55. ^ This was dismantled in the nineteenth century and reassembled (incorrectly) in the twentieth in the Via Veneto. A second Fontana delle Api in the Vatican has sometimes been attributed to Bernini of which Blunt has written, "Borromini is documented as having carved the fountain in 1626, but it is not certain whether he made the design for it, and it has also been attributed—not very plausibly—to Bernini." Blunt, Anthony. Borromini, Belknap Harvard, 1979, 17
  56. ^ Heckscher, W., "Bernini's Elephant and Obelisk," Art Bulletin, XXIX, 1947, p. 155.
  57. ^ This anecdote regarding the Elephant and Obelisk monument (more formally, it is a monument to Divine Wisdom and a tribute to Pope Alexander VII) is one of the many undocumented popular legends circulating about Bernini. To begin with, the elephant is not smiling. Second, even though he may have had professional reasons to resent Paglia, the conservative, pious and utterly orthodox Bernini personally had no grudges against the Dominican Order or the Inquisition. Moreover, Fr. Giuseppe Paglia was director of the overall project to reconstruct the piazza in front of Santa Maria Minerva, appointed by Pope Alexander VII himself and, as such, had supervisory authority over Bernini and the design of his Elephant and Obelisk monument. The final design of that monument, in fact, owes much to Paglia's direct intervention. Hence, it is unlikely that Paglia (or Pope Alexander) would have allowed this supposed insult to him or his Dominican order. Finally, if Bernini did intend to deliver this visual insult, he failed totally, for there is no contemporary documentation indicating that visitors to the piazza during the artist's lifetime ever noticed the supposed insult: see Franco Mormando, ed. and trans., Domenico Bernini's Life of Gian Lorenzo Bernini (University Park: Penn State University Press, 2011), p. 369, n. 33. Instead, the origins of this anecdote can be traced to the very end of the 17th century, when the satirist, Cardinal Lodovico Sergardi, circulated a two-line epigram in which the elephant tells the Dominicans that the position of his rear end is meant to announce 'where I hold you in my esteem' (see Ingrid Rowland, 'The Friendship of Alexander VII and Athanasius Kircher, 1637-1667' in Early Modern Rome: Proceedings of a Conference Held on May 13–15, 2010 in Rome, ed. Portia Prebys [Ferrara: Edisai, 2011], pp. 669-78, here p. 670; see also p. 671 where Rowland absolves Bernini of any satiric intent: 'The Dominicans, who followed the evolution of Bernini's design for this monument with meticulous care from beginning to end, must have realized that the only reasonable placement for this remarkable creation was the placement that we see today.')
  58. ^ Angela Delaforce et al., 'A Fountain by Gianlorenzo Bernini and Ercole Ferrata in Portugal,' Burlington, vol. 140, issue 1149, pp. 804-811.
  59. ^ What is the source of this information about Bernini's supposed authorship of the paintings in question? highly doubtful claim.
  60. ^ For a concise summary statement about Bernini's training and production as a painter, see Franco Mormando, ed. and trans., Domenico Bernini: The Life of Gian Lorenzo Bernini(University Park: Penn State U Press, 2011), pp. 294-296, nn.4-12.
  61. ^ Ann Sutherland Harris, "Master Drawings," Vol. 41, No. 2, Drawings by Sculptors (Summer, 2003), pp. 119–127. The most complete edition of Bernini drawings remains Heinrich Brauer and Rudolf Wittkower, Die Ziechnungen des Gianlorenzo Bernini, Berlin: Verlag Heinrich Keller, 1931, reprinted New York: Collectors Edition, 1970. Also very useful is Ann Sutherland Harris, Selected Drawings of Gian Lorenzo Bernini, New York: Dover, 1977. More recently, is the catalog of the exhibition of Bernini drawings in Leipzig's Museum der bildenden Kunste (which boasts one of the largest collection of Bernini drawings in the world): Hans-Werner Schmidt et al., Bernini: Erfinder des barocken Rom, Bielefeld: Kerber Art, 2014.
  62. ^ For a list and discussion of important sources for Bernini's life, see Franco Mormando, Bernini: His Life and His Rome (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011), pp. 7–11.
  63. ^ For an unabridged translation and analysis of The Vita Brevis, see Domenico Bernini's Life of Gian Lorenzo Bernini in Mormando, ed., 201 Appendix 1, pp. 237–41.
  64. ^ Baldinucci, Filippo, Life of Bernini. Translated from the Italian by Enggass, C. University Park, Penn State University Press, 2006. Unfortunately, the Enggass edition of Baldinucci contains many translation errors; readers should always consult the text of the original 1682 edition.
  65. ^ See Mormando, Domenico Bernini's Life of Gian Lorenzo Bernini, 2011, pp. 14–34. It is significant that Christina's extant financial records nowhere report the queen's having monetarily subsidized the publication Baldinucci's biography, which would have been her responsibility as patron. As Mormando further explains, we also know that in compiling his famous collection of artists' lives, Baldinucci routinely copied material, word for word, from texts supplied to him by family members and close friends and associates of his subjects. Also significant is the fact that in Domenico's biography of his father, the author is completely silent about the queen's supposed patronage of the Baldinucci biography, a strange omission since he devotes much space to the friendship between Gian Lorenzo and Queen Christina, recording the queen's many signs of favoritism, protection, and adulation towards the artist.

Further reading[edit]

  • Avery, Charles (1997). Bernini: Genius of the Baroque. London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0500092710. 
  • Bacchi, Andrea, ed. (2009). I marmi vivi: Bernini e la nascita del ritratto barocco. Firenze: Firenze musei. ISBN 978-8809742369. 
  • Bacchi, Andrea, and Catherine Hess, Jennifer Montagu, ed. (2008). Bernini and the Birth of Baroque Portrait Sculpture. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum. ISBN 978-0892369324. 
  • Baldinucci, Filippo (2006). The Life of Bernini. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 978-0271730769. 
  • Baldinucci, Filippo (1682). Vita del cavaliere Gio. Lorenzo Bernino. Firenze: Stamperia di V. Vangelisti.  Copy at Google Books.
  • Bernini, Domenico (1713). Vita del Cavalier Gio. Lorenzo Bernino. Rome: Rocco Bernabò.  Copy at Google Books.
  • Bernini, Domenico (2011). Franco Mormando, ed. The Life of Gian Lorenzo Bernini. University Park: Penn State University Press. ISBN 9780271037486. 
  • Borsi, Franco (2005). Bernini. Milano: Rizzoli. ISBN 978-0847805099. 
  • Chantelou, Paul Fréart de (1985). Anthony Blunt, ed. Journal du voyage en France du cavalier Bernin. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0833705310. 
  • Delbeke, Maarten, and Evonne Levy, Steven F. Ostrow, ed. (2006). Bernini's biographies: critical essays. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press. 
  • Fagiolo Dell'Arco, Maurizio (1967). Bernini: una introduzione al gran teatro del barocco. Roma: M. Bulzoni. 
  • Ferrari, Oreste (1991). Bernini. Firenze: Giunti Gruppo. ISBN 978-8809761537. 
  • Fraschetti, Stanislao (1900). Il Bernini: La sua vita, la sua opera, il suo tempo. Milano: U.Hoepli. ISBN 978-1248328897. 
  • Gould, Cecil (1981). Bernini in France: An Episode in Seventeenth Century History. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 978-0297779445. 
  • Hibbard, Howard (1965). Bernini. London: Penguin. ISBN 9780140135985. 
  • Lavin, Irving (1980). Bernini and the Unity of the Visual Arts. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195201840. 
  • Lavin, Irving, ed. (1985). Gianlorenzo Bernini: New Aspects of his Art and Thought. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 978-0271003870. 
  • Lavin, Irving (2007). Visible Spirit: The Art of Gianlorenzo Bernini. London: Pindar Press. ISBN 978-1899828395. 
  • Martinelli, Valentino, ed. (1996). L'ultimo Bernini (1665–1680): nuovi argomenti, documenti e immagini. Roma: Quasar. ISBN 978-8871400952. 
  • Mormando, Franco (2011). Bernini: His Life and His Rome. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226538525. 
  • Petersson, Robert T. (1970). The Art of Ecstasy: Teresa, Bernini, and Crashaw. London: Routledge & K. Paul. ISBN 978-0689705151. 
  • Petersson, Robert T. (2002). Bernini and the Excesses of Art. Florence: Maschietto editore. ISBN 978-8887700831. 
  • Pinton, Daniel (2009). Bernini. I Percorsi Nell'arte. Ediz. Inglese. ATS Italia Editrice. ISBN 978-8875717773. 
  • Wittkower, Rudolf (1955). Gian Lorenzo Bernini: The Sculptor of the Roman Baroque. London: Phaidon Press. ISBN 978-0801414305. 
  • Ann Sutherland Harris (Summer 2003). "Drawings by Sculptors". Master Drawings 41: 119–127. 

External links[edit]