Sullivan Square in 1907
|Motto: Incorporated Ninth Town in Maine|
|• Type||Town Manager Plan|
|• Chairman||Tom Wright|
|• Vice-Chairman||Robert Crichton|
|• Selectmen||Edward Ganiere
|• Total||37.86 sq mi (98.06 km2)|
|• Land||37.52 sq mi (97.18 km2)|
|• Water||0.34 sq mi (0.88 km2)|
|Elevation||338 ft (103 m)|
|• Estimate (2012)||7,460|
|• Density||193.1/sq mi (74.6/km2)|
|Time zone||Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC-4)|
Originally part of Kittery, the area later comprised by Berwick was settled about 1631 and called Kittery Commons or Kittery North Parish. It was later called Unity after the ship that transported Scots prisoners of war from the Battle of Dunbar in 1650 to the colonies. (These Scots had been force-marched to Durham Cathedral in Durham, England, then tried for treason for supporting Charles II rather than Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector. Many settled near Berwick in an area near the northern Eliot-York border, which came to be known – and still is – as Scotland Bridge.)
Landing in Massachusetts, the royalist soldiers were sold as indentured servants, many of whom went to work at the Great Works sawmill, located on the Great Works River, until they were able to pay for their own freedom. (George Gray, formerly of Lanark, Scotland, was an example of the 150 prisoners who endured this ordeal. In 1675, he defended his family and lands when the community was attacked during King Philip's War, and died in Unity in 1693. His descendants would populate other areas of Maine, notably Deer Isle and Stonington, Maine).
The raid by Indians in 1675 was the first of several during what was known as King Philip's War. In 1690–1691 during King William's War, the village was burned and abandoned in the Raid on Salmon Falls. It was resettled in 1703 and called Newichawannock, its old Abenaki name. In 1713, it was incorporated by the Massachusetts General Court as Berwick, after Berwick-upon-Tweed, England. The first schoolhouse in the state was built here in 1719. The town was raided numerous times during Father Rale's War. Berwick was once considerably larger in size, but South Berwick was set off in 1814, followed by North Berwick in 1831. Lumbering was a principal early industry. The first lumber exported from the American colonies was clapbords and barrel staves loaded aboard Pied Cowe at South Berwick in 1634. Beginning in the 19th century, Berwick had a symbiotic economic relationship with Somersworth, New Hampshire, the mill town to which it is connected by bridge.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 37.86 square miles (98.06 km2), of which, 37.52 square miles (97.18 km2) of it is land and 0.34 square miles (0.88 km2) is water. Berwick is drained by the Little River and Salmon Falls River. Diamond Hill, elevation 490 feet (149.4 m) above sea level, is the town's highest point. The lowest elevation, which is approximately 70 feet (21.3 m) above sea level, is on the Salmon River as it crosses the southern most town border with South Berwick.
This climatic region is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold) winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Berwick has a humid continental climate, abbreviated "Dfb" on climate maps.
- See also: Berwick (CDP), Maine
As of the census of 2010, there were 7,246 people, 2,749 households, and 2,029 families residing in the town. The population density was 193.1 inhabitants per square mile (74.6/km2). There were 2,934 housing units at an average density of 78.2 per square mile (30.2/km2). The racial makeup of the town was 96.2% White, 0.5% African American, 0.2% Native American, 1.3% Asian, 0.2% from other races, and 1.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.3% of the population.
There were 2,749 households of which 36.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.1% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.0% had a male householder with no wife present, and 26.2% were non-families. 20.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62 and the average family size was 3.01.
The median age in the town was 39.1 years. 25.2% of residents were under the age of 18; 6.7% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 26.9% were from 25 to 44; 30.1% were from 45 to 64; and 11% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the town was 49.4% male and 50.6% female.
As of the census of 2000, there were 6,353 people, 2,319 households, and 1,723 families residing in the town. The population density was 171.1 people per square mile (66.1/km²). There were 2,414 housing units at an average density of 65.0 per square mile (25.1/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 97.31% White, 0.36% Black or African American, 0.14% Native American, 1.16% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.06% from other races, and 0.93% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.54% of the population.
There were 2,319 households out of which 40.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.0% were married couples living together, 11.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 25.7% were non-families. 20.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.72 and the average family size was 3.15.
In the town the population was spread out with 29.1% under the age of 18, 7.6% from 18 to 24, 32.5% from 25 to 44, 21.2% from 45 to 64, and 9.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 95.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.6 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $44,629, and the median income for a family was $53,776. Males had a median income of $36,329 versus $24,911 for females. The per capita income for the town was $18,988. About 6.9% of families and 8.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.0% of those under age 18 and 15.9% of those age 65 or over.
- John Jay Butler, minister and professor
- Jonathan Lethem, writer
- Alphonso M. Lunt, army sergeant
- James Sullivan, seventh governor of Massachusetts
Schools in Berwick
Berwick Maine is part of MSAD60/RSU 60.
There are three schools in Berwick:
- Vivian E. Hussey School (K–3)
- Eric L. Knowlton School (4–5)
- Noble Middle School (6–7)
Students in grades 8–12 from Berwick will attend Noble High School in the neighboring town of North Berwick.
- "Town Manager". Retrieved September 4, 2012.
- "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-12-16.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-12-16.
- "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-07-06.
- Coolidge, Austin J.; John B. Mansfield (1859). A History and Description of New England, General and Local. Boston: Austin J. Coolidge. pp. 53–54.
- Scottish Prisoners of 1650 - Old Berwick Historical Society
- "The Northern: The Way I Remember" (PDF). John E. Mcleod. Retrieved 2012-12-19.
- Varney, George J. (1886), Gazetteer of the state of Maine. Berwick, Boston: Russell
- Climate Summary for Berwick, Maine
- "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014". Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- Town of Berwick, Maine
- Berwick Public Library
- Berwick Historical Society
- Old Berwick Historical Society
- Berwick at Maine.gov
- City Data profile
- Epodunk town profile