Beryllium hydroxide

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Beryllium hydroxide
BeOH.png
Names
IUPAC name
Beryllium hydroxide
Other names
Hydrated beryllia
Identifiers
13327-32-7 N
ChEBI CHEBI:35102 YesY
ChemSpider 24727701 N
EC Number 236-368-6
1024
Jmol 3D model Interactive image
MeSH Beryllium+hydroxide
PubChem 25879
RTECS number DS3150000
Properties
BeH2O2
Molar mass 43.03 g·mol−1
Appearance Vivid white, opaque crystals
Density 1.92 g cm−3[1]
Melting point 1,000 °C (1,830 °F; 1,270 K) (decomposes)
slightly soluble
Structure
Linear
Thermochemistry
1.443 J K−1
47 J·mol−1·K−1[2]
-904 kJ mol−1[3]
-818 kJ/mol
Hazards
Main hazards Carcinogenic
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
4 mg kg−1 (intravenous, rat)
US health exposure limits (NIOSH):
PEL (Permissible)
TWA 0.002 mg/m3
C 0.005 mg/m3 (30 minutes), with a maximum peak of 0.025 mg/m3 (as Be)[4]
REL (Recommended)
Ca C 0.0005 mg/m3 (as Be)[4]
IDLH (Immediate danger)
Ca [4 mg/m3 (as Be)][4]
Related compounds
Related compounds
Aluminium oxide

Magnesium hydroxide

Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
N verify (what is YesYN ?)
Infobox references

Beryllium hydroxide, Be(OH)2, is an amphoteric hydroxide, dissolving in both acids and alkalis. Industrially, it is produced as a by-product in the extraction of beryllium metal from the ores beryl and bertrandite.[5] The natural pure beryllium hydroxide is rare (in form of the mineral behoite, orthorhombic) or very rare (clinobehoite, monoclinic).[6][7] When alkali is added to beryllium salt solutions the α-form (a gel) is formed. If this left to stand or boiled, the rhombic β-form precipitates.[8] This has the same structure as zinc hydroxide, Zn(OH)2, with tetrahedral beryllium centers.[9]

Reactions[edit]

With alkalis it dissolves to form the tetrahydroxidoberyllate(2-) anion.[10] With sodium hydroxide solution:

2NaOH(aq) + Be(OH)2(s) → Na2Be(OH)4(aq)

With acids, beryllium salts are formed.[10] For example, with sulfuric acid, H2SO4, beryllium sulfate is formed:

Be(OH)2 + H2SO4 → BeSO4 + 2H2O

Beryllium hydroxide dehydrates at 400 °C to form the soluble white powder, beryllium oxide:[10]

Be(OH)2 → BeO + H2O

Further heating at higher temperature produces acid insoluble BeO.[10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pradyot Patnaik. Handbook of Inorganic Chemicals. McGraw-Hill, 2002, ISBN 0-07-049439-8
  2. ^ Zumdahl, Steven S. (2009). Chemical Principles 6th Ed. Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0-618-94690-X. 
  3. ^ Zumdahl, Steven S. (2009). Chemical Principles 6th Ed. Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0-618-94690-X. 
  4. ^ a b c "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0054". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). 
  5. ^ Jessica Elzea Kogel, Nikhil C. Trivedi, James M. Barker and Stanley T. Krukowski, 2006, Industrial Minerals & Rocks: Commodities, Markets, and Uses, 7th edition, SME, ISBN 0-87335-233-5
  6. ^ Mindat, http://www.mindat.org/min-603.html
  7. ^ Mindat, http://www.mindat.org/min-1066.html
  8. ^ Mary Eagleson, 1994, Concise encyclopedia chemistry, Walter de Gruyter, ISBN 3-11-011451-8
  9. ^ Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-08-037941-9. 
  10. ^ a b c d Egon Wiberg, Arnold Frederick Holleman (2001) Inorganic Chemistry, Elsevier ISBN 0-12-352651-5