Beryllium sulfate

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Beryllium sulfate
Beryllium sulfate.svg
Beryllium sulfate 4 hydrate.jpg
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEBI
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.033.478
EC Number 236-842-2
RTECS number DS4800000
Properties[1]
BeSO4
Molar mass 105.075 g/mol (anhydrous)
177.136 g/mol (tetrahydrate)
Appearance white solid
Odor odorless
Density 2.44 g/cm3 (anhydrous)
1.71 g/cm3 (tetrahydrate)
Melting point 110 °C (230 °F; 383 K) (tetrahydrate, −2H2O)
400 °C (dihydrate, dehydr.)
550–600 decomposes
Boiling point 2,500 °C (4,530 °F; 2,770 K) (anhydrate)
580 °C (tetrahydrate)
36.2 g/100 mL (0 °C)
40.0 g/100 mL (20 °C)
54.3 g/100 mL (60 °C)
Solubility insoluble in alcohol
1.4374 (tetrahydrate)
Thermochemistry
90 J/mol K
-1197 kJ/mol
-1088 kJ/mol
Hazards
Safety data sheet ICSC 1351
GHS pictograms Acute Tox. 2 Carc. 1B Aquatic Chronic 2
GHS signal word DANGER
H350, H330, H301, H372, H319, H335, H315, H317, H411
Flash point Non-flammable
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
82 mg/kg (rat, oral)
80 mg/kg (mouse, oral)[3]
US health exposure limits (NIOSH):
PEL (Permissible)
TWA 0.002 mg/m3
C 0.005 mg/m3 (30 minutes), with a maximum peak of 0.025 mg/m3 (as Be)[2]
REL (Recommended)
Ca C 0.0005 mg/m3 (as Be)[2]
IDLH (Immediate danger)
Ca [4 mg/m3 (as Be)][2]
Related compounds
Other cations
Magnesium sulfate
Calcium sulfate
Strontium sulfate
Barium sulfate
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Beryllium sulfate normally encountered as the tetrahydrate, [Be(H2O)4]SO4 is a white crystalline solid. It was first isolated in 1815 by Jons Jakob Berzelius.[4]

Beryllium sulfate may be prepared by treating an aqueous solution of any beryllium salt with sulfuric acid, followed by evaporation of the solution and crystallization. The hydrated product may be converted to anhydrous salt by heating at 400 °C.[5] The tetrahydrate contains a tetrahedral Be(OH2)42+ unit and sulfate anions. The small size of the Be2+ cation determines the number of water molecules that can be coordinated. This contrasts with the analogous magnesium salt, MgSO4·6H2O which contains an octahedral Mg(OH2)62+ unit.[6]

The anhydrous compound has a structure similar to that of berlinite. The structure contains alternating tetrahedrally coordinated Be and S and each oxygen is 2 coordinate (Be-O-S). The Be-O distance is 156 pm and the S-O distance is 150 pm.[7]

A mixture of beryllium and radium sulfate was used as the neutron source in the discovery of nuclear fission.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Weast, Robert C., ed. (1981). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (62nd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. p. B-82. ISBN 0-8493-0462-8. .
  2. ^ a b c "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0054". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). 
  3. ^ "Beryllium compounds (as Be)". Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). 
  4. ^ Lathrop Parsons, Charles (1909), The Chemistry and Literature of Beryllium, London, pp. 29–33 .
  5. ^ Patnaik, Pradyot (2002), Handbook of Inorganic Chemicals, McGraw-Hill, ISBN 0-07-049439-8 .
  6. ^ Wells A.F. (1984) Structural Inorganic Chemistry 5th edition Oxford Science Publications ISBN 0-19-855370-6
  7. ^ Grund, Alfred (1955). "Die Kristallstruktur von BeSO4". Tschermaks Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen. 5 (3): 227–230. doi:10.1007/BF01191066. ISSN 0041-3763. 

External links[edit]

Salts and esters of the sulfate ion
H2SO4 He
Li2SO4 BeSO4 B esters
ROSO3
(RO)2SO2
(NH4)2SO4
[N2H5]HSO4
(NH3OH)2SO4
NOHSO4
HOSO4 F Ne
Na2SO4
NaHSO4
MgSO4 Al2(SO4)3
Al2SO4(OAc)4
Si P SO42−
HSO3HSO4
(HSO4)2
Cl Ar
K2SO4
KHSO4
CaSO4 Sc2(SO4)3 Ti(SO4)2
TiOSO4
VSO4
V2(SO4)3
VOSO4
CrSO4
Cr2(SO4)3
MnSO4
Mn2(SO4)3
FeSO4
Fe2(SO4)3
CoSO4
Co2(SO4)3
NiSO4 CuSO4
Cu2SO4
[Cu(NH3)4(H2O)]SO4
ZnSO4 Ga2(SO4)3 Ge As Se Br Kr
RbHSO4
Rb2SO4
SrSO4 Y2(SO4)3 Zr(SO4)2 Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh PdSO4 Ag2SO4 CdSO4 In2(SO4)3 SnSO4 Sb2(SO4)3 Te I Xe
Cs2SO4 BaSO4   Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg2SO4
HgSO4
Tl2SO4
Tl2(SO4)3
PbSO4 Bi2(SO4)3 Po At Rn
Fr Ra   Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Nh Fl Mc Lv Ts Og
La Ce2(SO4)3
Ce(SO4)2
Pr2(SO4)3 Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb2(SO4)3 Lu
Ac Th Pa U(SO4)2
UO2SO4
Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr