|Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)|
|Energy||1,619 kJ (387 kcal)|
|Dietary fiber||10 g|
|†Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
Gram flour or chickpea flour or besan (Hindi: बेसन; Burmese: ပဲမှုန့်; Urdu: بيسن), is a pulse flour made from a variety of ground chickpea known as Bengal gram. It is a staple ingredient in the cuisine of the Indian subcontinent, including in Indian, Bangladeshi, Burmese, Nepali, Pakistani and Sri Lankan cuisines. Gram flour can be made from either raw or roasted gram beans. The roasted variety is more flavorful, while the raw variety has a slightly bitter taste.
In the form of a paste with water or yogurt, it is also popular as a facial exfoliant in the Indian Subcontinent. When mixed with an equal proportion of water, it can be used as an egg replacement in vegan cooking.
Gram flour is under popular use in the Indian subcontinent, where it is used to make the following:
- A variety of snacks
- Bikaneri Bhujia
- Chila/Cheela/Dhirda/Dhirde (besan dosa)
- Soan papdi
- Mysore pak
In Andhra Pradesh, it is used in a curry with gram flour cakes called Senaga Pindi Kura (Telugu: శెనగ పిండి కూర) and is eaten with Chapati or Puri, mostly during winter for breakfast. Chila (or chilla), a pancake made with gram flour batter, is a popular street food in India.
Chickpea flour is used on a large basis in Indian cuisines, especially in sweet desserts, snacks and various other dishes.
Southeast and East Asia
Along the coast of the Ligurian Sea, flour made from garbanzo beans, which are a different variety of chickpea closely related to Bengal gram, is used to make a thin pancake that is baked in the oven. This popular street food is called farinata in Italian cuisine, fainâ in Genoa, and is known as socca or cade in French cuisine. It is used to make panelle, a fritter in Sicilian cuisine. In Spanish cuisine, gram flour is an ingredient for tortillitas de camarones. Also in Cyprus and Greece, it is used as a garnishing ingredient for the funeral ritual food Koliva, blessed and eaten during Orthodox Memorial services.
In Morocco, they make a dish called karan from gram flour and eggs, which is baked in the oven. A similar famous dish is prepared in Algeria called Garantita or Karantita (believed to be originated from the Spanish term Calentica that means hot ).
- List of chickpea dishes
- Oralu kallu, a type of grinding machine using stone to produce flour in some parts of India
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- The Vegan Society. "Egg Substitutes". Vegansociety.com. Archived from the original on 2011-07-16. Retrieved 2009-12-31.
- "Chickpea flour (besan)". Nutrition Data: Nutrition Facts and Calorie Counter. Retrieved 2007-09-29.
- "Grains and Flours Glossary: Besan". Celiac Sprue Association. Archived from the original on 2007-10-03. Retrieved 2007-09-29.
- "Senagapindi Kura (Onion curry with Besan)". Archived from the original on January 6, 2014. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
- "Chickpea Flour Market: APEJ to Remain Dominant By 2026". Future Market Insights. 2018-01-25.
- "Karantita, Garantita, La Petite Panière". Retrieved July 18, 2016.