Beşiktaş J.K.

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Beşiktaş Jimnastik Kulübü
Full name Beşiktaş Jimnastik Kulübü[1]
Nickname(s) Kara Kartallar (Black Eagles)[2][3]
Siyah Beyazlılar (Black and Whites)
Founded 4 March 1903; 114 years ago (1903-03-04),[4][5][6][7][8]
as Beşiktaş Bereket Jimnastik Kulübü[9]
Ground Vodafone Arena
Istanbul, Turkey
Ground Capacity 41,903
Chairman Fikret Orman[10]
Manager Şenol Güneş
League Süper Lig
2015–16 1st
Website Club home page
Current season

Beşiktaş Jimnastik Kulübü (Turkish pronunciation: [beˈʃiktaʃ], English: Beşiktaş Gymnastics Club), known as simply Beşiktaş (pronounced: Beshiktash), is a Turkish sports club founded in 1903, and based in the Beşiktaş district of Istanbul.

The club's football team is one of the most successful teams in Turkey, having never been relegated to a lower division. The club last won the Turkish Süper Lig championship during the 2015–16 season.

The home ground of Beşiktaş is Vodafone Arena, a 41,903 all-seater capacity stadium located next to Dolmabahçe Palace.

The club also competes in other branches including basketball, volleyball, handball, athletics, boxing, wrestling, chess, bridge, gymnastics, rowing, table tennis, paralympic sports, eSports and beach football.[11]


Active departments of Beşiktaş
Athletics pictogram.svg Basketball pictogram.svg Boxing pictogram.svg
Athletics Basketball
Poker-sm-211-As.png Chess pictogram.svg Simple Game.svg
Bridge Chess e-Sports
Football pictogram.svg Gymnastics (artistic) pictogram.svg Handball pictogram.svg
Gymnastics Handball
Rowing pictogram.svg Table tennis pictogram.svg Volleyball (indoor) pictogram.svg
Rowing Table tennis Volleyball
Wheelchair basketball pictogram (Paralympics).svg Wrestling pictogram.svg
Wheelchair Basketball Wrestling
Members of Beşiktaş in 1903

Bereket Gymnastic Club was founded under special permission on 4 March 1903.[12] Their sporting activities gained more freedom with the declaration of the Constitutional Monarchy in 1908. After the political events of 31 March 1909, Fuat Balkan and Mazhar Kazancı, who were in Edirne, came to Istanbul with the Movement Army. After the political events settled down, Fuat Balkan, who was a good fencing coach, and Mazhar Kazancı, a good wrestler and weight lifter, found the youths involved in gymnastics in Serencebey and got them to agree to participate in sports together. Refik and Şerafettin Beys, friends of Fuat Bey, were also good fencers. Fuat Balkan made the space under his home in Ihlamur the Club’s headquarters, and the title of Bereket Gymnastics Club was changed to Beşiktaş Ottoman Gymnastics Club. Thus, a stronger sports club, where gymnastics, wrestling, boxing, fencing and athletics were emphasized, was formed.

In the meantime, Beşiktaş Ottoman Gymnastics Club became the first registered Turkish sports club on 13 January 1910 with the encouragement of Beyoğlu Governor Muhittin Bey. The interest among the youths of the neighborhood in the sports club grew and the number of members involved in sports suddenly grew to 150. The headquarters of the club was moved from Ihlamur to Building 49 in Akaretler. When this building became too small, Building 84, also in Akaretler, became their headquarters. The yard behind this building was turned into a sports pitch.

Some of the young patriots from the Beşiktaş district of Istanbul formed two football clubs called "Valideçeşme" and "Basiret" under the leadership of Şeref Bey. The Valideçeşme and Basiret football clubs joined under the Beşiktaş Ottoman Gymnastics Club in 1911. In a very short time, football became the foremost branch in the club.

For years, the original colours of the Beşiktaş were believed to be Red and White; and then temporarily changed into Black and White as a sign of mourning for the dead in Balkan Wars, which included some players of the club. Although most written sources endorse this claim, a detailed study carried out for Beşiktaş’s 100th anniversary documentary had shown that red was never used in club’s first colors; and Beşiktaş’s colours were always Black and White.[13]

Initial years of football[edit]

1923–24 Istanbul League champions
Players of Beşiktaş before the match against Galatasaray, 19 March 1939.

With football becoming the main sport of the Ottoman Empire around 1910, Beşiktaş members slowly started to give more attention to football. In August 1911, Ahmet Şerafettin Bey started the football team. Beşiktaş didn't enter the Istanbul Friday and Sunday leagues, and didn't have any championships until 1918, when they won the Istanbul Turkish 1st Sports League. In 1921, that particular league's final season, they won it again. In 1924, Beşiktaş entered the Istanbul Football League along with Galatasaray, Fenerbahçe and other Istanbul teams. Beşiktaş became the league's first champion in 1924, but was not able to get more success in the league. Galatasaray and Fenerbahçe were the two dominant teams through the middle of the 1930s.

Beşiktaş won their second Istanbul League championship in 1934, as well as their first Turkish Football Championship in the same year. In 1937, the Turkish National League was formed. In the Istanbul League season prior to the National League's first season, Beşiktaş finished in fourth place, which earned them a berth in the National League. Beşiktaş finished third place in the National league, behind Fenerbahçe and Galatasaray. In 1938, Beşiktaş finished in third place in the Istanbul league and second place in the National league, behind Güneş. Beşiktaş won a record five consecutive Istanbul league championships between 1939 and 1943. In the National league, Beşiktaş finished fourth in 1939, fifth in 1940, first in 1941 and third in 1943 (1942 league was not held). The club won the Istanbul league in 1945 and 1946, as well as the National league in 1944 and 1947.

After 1959[edit]

In 1959, the Turkish First League was formed, the nation's first professional football league. In the inaugural year, Beşiktaş came in third place, while in 1960 it won the league title. In 1960, the club also participated in the European Cup, becoming the first Turkish team ever to participate in the tournament. In subsequent years, Beşiktaş finished third in both 1961 and 1962, as well as second in 1963, 1964 and 1965. In 1966 and 1967, meanwhile, the club won back-to-back championship titles, and in the latter year, they also won their first Turkish Super Cup. In 1968, Beşiktaş finished in second.

Silent 1970s[edit]

After 1967, Beşiktaş's performance declined slightly, finishing in 8th, 12th, 5th, 4th many times, while Trabzonspor, Fenerbahçe and Galatasaray continued their success. Beşiktaş only finished in second place once in the decade, in 1975.

1980s Revival[edit]

Beşiktaş put an end to their poor performances in 1982 with a surprise Turkish championship, earning another in 1986. They finished the league in the second place four times in the second half of the decade, save for 1985–86. Hooliganism was also a major problem that had started in Europe and spread throughout Turkey as well. Beşiktaş fan hooliganism had been a major issue with many fights inside and outside the stadium, although this has become less of an issue in more recent years.

Gordon Milne era: 1987–1993[edit]

Main article: Metin-Ali-Feyyaz

Beşiktaş had their most successful run in the Süper Lig with three consecutive championships under the management of Gordon Milne in the early 1990s. Three players of the squad – Metin Tekin, Ali Gültiken and Feyyaz Uçar – were notable for significant contributions to the team during this period. These players had been called Metin-Ali-Feyyaz ("MAF") and they formed the front of the team's line-up. The supporters composed various chants for the trio devoted to their delighting style on the pitch, their goals, and above all for their friendship and modesty. The trio is regarded by supporters as the best ever attacking line of the club.

The only three-in-a-row title term in club history occurred in the 1989–90, 1990–91 and 1991–92 seasons. Most notably, Beşiktaş became the first undefeated champion in Süper Lig history.[14][15] So far, Beşiktaş is the only team that has achieved these honors.

Under Milne, the team adopted the 4–4–2 system. By playing down the lines, crossing and winning balls in the air, the team scored many goals. On 15 October 1989, Beşiktaş broke the Süper Lig record for the biggest winning margin in a game with a 10–0 victory over Southern Turkey team Adana Demirspor.[16] This match was designated as one of the 16 biggest matches in club history.[17]

Legend of the Black Eagles[edit]

There is a legend surrounding the nicknaming of the team as "The Black Eagles". Beşiktaş, the title holder of the previous two seasons, started the 1940–41 season with a young and renewed team. As the weeks went by, this team was more and more secure in the leader's seat in the league. With five weeks remaining in the season, the opponent was Süleymaniye. Beşiktaş had started the game in Şeref Stadium on Sunday 19 January 1941, with the following players: Faruk, Yavuz, İbrahim, Rıfat, Halil, Hüseyin, Şakir, Hakkı, Şükrü, Şeref, Eşref. The team went ahead in the first half. Halfway through the second half of the game, Beşiktaş attacked continuously, despite being in front. And then, according to legend, a voice was heard from the stands towards which Beşiktaş was attacking. The voice said, "Come on, Black Eagles! Attack, Black Eagles!" The story goes that the owner of the voice from the stands was a fisherman called Mehmet Galin. Beşiktaş finished the game with a 6–0 win. The Beşiktaş players, who had very successfully defeated their opponents that season, were being described as "Black Eagles", and the football they played was being compared to "Attacking like Black Eagles". The comparison resonated with the team and the fans, and so it was adopted by the Beşiktaş community as their team's nickname.[18]

Colours and badge[edit]

BJK İnönü Stadium entrance, displaying the club emblem and stars for Turkish Super League championships.

Since only individual sports were done at the beginning in the Osman Pasha Mansion, there was no need for any colours for a uniform. However, the number of sportsmen increased with new youths who joined sport teams each passing day. Mehmet Şamil Bey (first president of the Club), who had graduated from the French school gathered the Founders Committee. He removed the pin he used in his school days bearing the colours of his school from his lapel and showed it around. He said, "We must have a pin just like this one made and we must force all members who attend sports in our Club to bear this pin." Those attending the meeting eagerly agreed with Mehmet Şamil Bey’s proposal. At the end of the meeting, the colours of the Club to be shown on the pin were decided. The two principal colours of nature in full contrast to each other were chosen as the Club colours: black and white.

The date Beşiktaş' first badge was made was written as "1906" in Latin years inspired by the badges in the French school. On top, it said "Beşiktaş" in Arabic letters, the letter "J" was placed on the rights and letter “K” was placed on the left. On the back of the badge, there was a script saying it was made in Constantinople and there was the seal of the craftsmen who made the badge on the inside. It is interesting that the star on the crest on the badge has six points. This six-pointed star was used until the second Constitutional Monarchy (1908). This badge was donated by Iskender Yakak to Süleyman Seba, the late Honorary President of Beşiktaş J.K.

The current emblem of Beşiktaş symbolizes the foundation date. There are two white and three black bars on the emblem. It consists of nine parts in total. There is one white bar, three black bars, and another white bar, and there are nine parts in total. Thus: 1319, the year of the club's foundation. (The Islamic calendar was still used in the Ottoman Empire at the time of the club's foundation. 1319 is the equivalent of 1903 in Gregorian Calendar.)

Home colours[edit]


Away colours[edit]


Third colours[edit]



Main article: BJK İnönü Stadium
BJK İnönü Stadium in 2009

BJK İnönü Stadium was located near the Bosphorus and was very close to Taksim Square. The stadium could be reached easily by many means of public transport (bus, ferry, metro, light-rail, funicular etc.) easily due to its central location.

There were four different parts of the stadium; 1."Kapalı" is where the most hot-blooded fans were during the matches; 2."Yeni Açık" was the larger side, which faced the sea; 3."Eski Açık" was the smaller curve on the seaside, where visiting supporters were typically placed; 4."Numaralı" is where press, VIP and protocol stands could be found.

2013 was the last season of the İnönü Stadium as Beşiktaş's home ground. The club played their 2013-14 and 2014-15 season home games mostly at the Ataturk Olympic Stadium and the Başakşehir Fatih Terim Stadium. The new stadium, Vodafone Arena, has completed in April 2016. And Beşiktaş hasn't lost any match in this stadium in Süper Lig.


Current squad[edit]

As of 19 January 2017[19]

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Position Player
1 Spain GK Fabricio
2 Croatia DF Matej Mitrovic
3 Brazil DF Adriano
4 Turkey DF Ersan Gülüm (on loan from Hebei China Fortune)
6 Serbia DF Duško Tošić
7 Portugal MF Ricardo Quaresma
8 Austria MF Veli Kavlak
9 Cameroon FW Vincent Aboubakar (on loan from Porto)
13 Canada MF Atiba Hutchinson
15 Turkey MF Oğuzhan Özyakup (third-captain)
17 Turkey FW Ömer Şişmanoğlu
18 Germany MF Tolgay Arslan
20 Turkey MF Necip Uysal (vice-captain)
22 Armenia MF Aras Özbiliz
No. Position Player
23 Turkey FW Cenk Tosun
29 Turkey GK Tolga Zengin (captain)
30 Brazil DF Marcelo
32 Germany DF Andreas Beck
33 Turkey DF Atınç Nukan (on loan from RB Leipzig)
44 Brazil DF Rhodolfo
49 Netherlands MF Ryan Babel
77 Turkey DF Gökhan Gönül
80 Switzerland MF Gökhan Inler
88 Turkey DF Caner Erkin (on loan from Inter)
94 Brazil MF Talisca (on loan from Benfica)
97 Turkey GK Utku Yuvakuran
99 Senegal FW Demba Ba (on loan from Shanghai Shenhua)

Out on loan[edit]

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Position Player
71 Ukraine GK Denys Boyko (at Málaga until 30 June 2017)
19 Colombia DF Pedro Franco (at Millonarios until 30 June 2017)
4 Sweden DF Alexander Milošević (at Darmstadt 98 until 30 June 2017)
No. Position Player
Turkey MF Gökhan Töre (at West Ham United until 30 June 2017)
11 Turkey FW Mustafa Pektemek (at İstanbul Başakşehir until 30 June 2017)

Technical staff[edit]

Position Name
Manager Turkey Şenol Güneş
Assistant Manager Turkey Tamer Tuna
Assistant Manager Turkey Şeref Çiçek
Assistant Manager Turkey Mehmet Kulaksızoğlu
First Team Coach Turkey Dolu Arslan
First Team Coach Turkey Eren Şafak
Fitness Coach Spain Miguel Peiró Montanana
Goalkeeping Coach Croatia Marjan Mrmić
First Team Doctor Turkey Sarper Çetinkaya
First Team Doctor Turkey Murat Çevik (former) Günel Kaybetimer Oglu
Physiotherapist Turkey Zeki Cetin
Physiotherapist Turkey Aşkın Dede
Physiotherapist Turkey Mehmet Alpözgen
Football Interpreter Turkey Halil Yazıcıoğlu
Kit Manager Turkey Ünal Akkoyun
Kit Manager Turkey Süreyya Soner
Chief Scout Turkey Gökhan Keskin


Picture of the 2002–03 Süper Lig champions' trophy, won by Beşiktaş during the club's centenary year (1903–2003)



Picture of the 2006–07 Turkish Cup Trophy, won by Beşiktaş.

UEFA achievements[edit]

European record[edit]

Current ranking[edit]

As of 21 April 2017[20]
Rank Team Coefficient
42 Netherlands PSV Eindhoven 46.092
43 Turkey Beşiktaş 45.840
44 Belgium Genk 45.480
45 Italy FC Internazionale 44.499


As of 21 April 2017[21]
Competition Pld W D L GF GA GD
UEFA Champions League 74 23 17 34 73 118 −45
UEFA Cup Winners' Cup 20 4 4 12 21 38 −17
UEFA Europa League 102 46 21 35 159 125 +34
Total 196 73 42 81 253 281 −28

Best campaigns[edit]

Season Achievement Notes
European Cup / UEFA Champions League
1986–87 Quarter-finals eliminated by Dynamo Kyiv 0–2 in İzmir, 0–5 in Kiev
European Cup Winners' Cup
1993–94 Last 16 eliminated by Ajax 1–2 in Amsterdam, 0–4 in Istanbul
1994–95 Last 16 eliminated by Auxerre 2–2 in İstanbul, 0–2 in Auxerre
1998–99 Last 16 eliminated by Vålerenga 0–1 in Oslo, 3–3 in Istanbul
UEFA Cup / UEFA Europa League
1996–97 Last 16 eliminated by Valencia 1–3 in Valencia, 2–2 in Istanbul
2002–03 Quarter-finals eliminated by Lazio 0–1 in Rome, 1–2 in Istanbul
2011–12 Last 16 eliminated by Atlético Madrid 1–3 in Madrid, 0–3 in Istanbul
2014–15 Last 16 eliminated by Club Brugge 1–2 in Bruges, 1–3 in Istanbul
2016–17 Quarter-finals eliminated by Olympique Lyonnais 1–2 in Lyon, 2–1 in regular time and 6-7 on penalties in Istanbul

Recent seasons[edit]

Season Div. Pos. Pl. W D L GS GA P Cup Europe Manager
2005–06 SL 3 34 15 9 10 52 39 54 Winners UC Group stage Rıza ÇalımbayJean Tigana
2006–07 SL 2 34 18 7 9 43 32 61 Winners UC Group stage Jean Tigana
2007–08 SL 3 34 23 4 7 58 32 73 Quarter-finals UCL Group stage Ertuğrul Sağlam
2008–09 SL 1 34 21 8 5 60 30 71 Winners UC First round Ertuğrul SağlamMustafa Denizli
2009–10 SL 4 34 18 10 6 47 25 64 Group stage UCL Group stage Mustafa Denizli
2010–11 SL 5 34 15 9 10 53 36 54 Winners UEL Round of 32 Bernd SchusterTayfur Havutçu
2011–12 SL 4 34+6 15+1 9+2 10+3 50+5 39+9 54+5 Round of 16 UEL Round of 16 Carlos CarvalhalTayfur Havutçu
2012–13 SL 3 34 16 10 8 63 49 58 Round of 16 Samet Aybaba
2013–14 SL 3 34 17 11 6 53 33 62 Round of 32 UEL Play-off Slaven Bilić
2014–15 SL 3 34 21 6 7 55 32 69 Round of 16 UCL
Round of 16
2015–16 SL 1 34 25 4 5 75 35 79 Quarter-finals UEL Group Stage Şenol Güneş
2016–17 SL - 28 19 7 2 57 25 64 Round of 16 UCL
Group Stage
Şenol Güneş

Last updated: 9 June 2015 (2015-06-09)
Div.=Division; Pos.=Position; Pl=Match played; W=Won; D=Drawn; L=Lost; GS=Goals scored; GA=Goals against; P=Points
SL=Süper Lig; UCL=UEFA Champions League; UCWC=UEFA Cup Winners' Cup; UC=UEFA Cup; UEL=UEFA Europa League; Cup=Turkish Cup
Background colours: Gold=winners; Silver=runners-up; Bronze=third


Name[22] Period[22]
Turkey Mehmet Üstünkaya 1981–84
Turkey Süleyman Seba 1984–00∞
Turkey Serdar Bilgili 2000–04
Turkey Yıldırım Demirören 2004–12
Turkey Fikret Orman 2012–


There have been managers from various European countries at the helm of the club. The longest serving manager of Beşiktaş is Şeref Bey, managing the club for 14 years. The most successful manager is Gordon Milne, winning the league three times in a row along with other trophies as well.[23]


Years Shirt sponsor Kit manufacturer
1988 Toshiba and TITIbank Adidas
1988–1998 Beko
1998–2001 Reebok
2001–2004 Puma
2004–2005 Turkcell
2005–2009 Cola Turka Umbro
2009–2011 Adidas
2011–2014 Toyota
2014– Vodafone


  1. ^ "Beşiktaş Jimnastik Kulübü Derneği Tüzüğü" (PDF) (in Turkish). p. 1. Retrieved 6 September 2013. 
  2. ^ "Kara Kartallar Efsanesi". Beşiltaş JK. 22 October 2004. Retrieved 6 September 2013. 
  3. ^ "Turkey - Club Nicknames". RSSSF. 10 July 2005. Retrieved 8 January 2014. 
  4. ^
  5. ^
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^ "Info Bank » Club Details". Retrieved 6 September 2013. 
  11. ^ "Branches, Football". Beşiktaş club website. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Basketball". Beşiktaş club website. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Volleyball". Beşiktaş club website. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Handball". Beşiktaş club website. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Athletics". Beşiktaş club website. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Boxing". Beşiktaş club website. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Wrestling". Beşiktaş club website. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Chess". Beşiktaş club website. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Cards Bridge". Beşiktaş club website. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Gymnastics". Beşiktaş club website. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Rowing". Beşiktaş club website. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Table Tennis". Beşiktaş club website. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Disabled Sports". Beşiktaş club website. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Beşiktaş Beach Football Team is Established". Beşiktaş club website. Retrieved 24 July 2012. 
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^ "1991–92 League Ranking". Retrieved 18 January 2008. 
  15. ^ "1991–92 League Ranking". Turkish Football Association. Retrieved 18 January 2008. 
  16. ^ "Beşiktaş – Adana Demirspor : 10–0". Beşiktaş club website. 1 November 2005. Retrieved 18 January 2008. 
  17. ^ "Basarilarimiz" [Our Achievements]. Beşiktaş club website. Retrieved 18 January 2008. 
  18. ^
  19. ^ "First team". Beşiktaş J.K. Retrieved 23 August 2016. 
  20. ^ [1]
  21. ^ UEFA club competition record –
  22. ^ a b "Başkanlarımız" (in Turkish). Beşiktaş official website. Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
  23. ^ Teknik Direktörlerimiz Beşiktaş JK

External links[edit]