Gs exerts its effects via two pathways. Firstly, it directly opens L-type calcium channels (LTCC) in the plasma membrane. Secondly, it renders adenylate cyclase activated, resulting in an increase of cAMP, activating protein kinase A (PKA) which in turn phosphorylates several targets, such as phospholamban, LTCC, Troponin I (TnI), and potassium channels. Phospholamban's phosphorylation deactivates its function which is normally inhibition of SERCA on the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in cardiac myocytes. Due to this, more calcium enters the SR and is therefore available for the next contraction. LTCC phosphorylatation increases its open probability and therefore allows more calcium to enter the myocyte upon cell depolarisation. Both of these mechanisms increase the available calcium for contraction and therefore increase inotropy. Conversely, TnI phosphorylation results in its facilitated dissociation of calcium from troponin C (TnC) which speeds the muscle relaxation (positive lusitropy). Potassium channel phosphorylation increases its open probability which results in shorter refractory period (because the cell repolarises faster), also increasing lusitropy. Furthermore, in nodal cells such as in the SA node, cAMP directly binds to and opens the HCN channels, increasing their open probability, which increases chronotropy.
Beta-1 adrenergic receptor has been shown to interact with DLG4 and GIPC1. Interaction between testosterone and β-1 ARs have been shown in anxiolytic behaviors in the basolateral amygdala.
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