Beta-actin (human gene and protein abbreviation ACTB/ACTB) is one of six different actin isoforms which have been identified in humans. This is one of the two nonmuscle cytoskeletal actins. Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in cell motility, structure and integrity. Alpha actins are a major constituent of the contractile apparatus.
Beta-actin has been shown to interact with SPTBN2. In addition, RNA-binding protein Sam68 was found to interact with the mRNA encoding β-actin, which regulates the synaptic formation of the dendritic spines with its cytoskeletal components.
Beta-actin has been shown to activate eNOS, thereby increasing NO production. An eight-amino acid residue (326-333) in actin has been shown to mediate the interaction between actin and eNOS
Beta actin is often used in Western blotting as a loading control, to normalize total protein amounts and check for eventual protein degradation in the samples. Its transcript is also commonly used as a housekeeping gene standard in qPCR. Its molecular weight is approximately 42 kDa.
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