|Beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1|
|Symbols||; ASP2; BACE; HSPC104|
|External IDs||ChEMBL: GeneCards:|
|RNA expression pattern|
Beta-secretase 1 (BACE1), also known as beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1, beta-site APP cleaving enzyme 1, membrane-associated aspartic protease 2, memapsin-2, aspartyl protease 2, and ASP2, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the BACE1 gene.
BACE1 is an aspartic-acid protease important in the formation of myelin sheaths in peripheral nerve cells. The transmembrane protein contains two active site aspartate residues in its extracellular protein domain and may function as a dimer.
Role in Alzheimer's disease
Generation of the 40 or 42 amino acid-long amyloid-β peptides that aggregate in the brain of Alzheimer's patients requires two sequential cleavages of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Extracellular cleavage of APP by BACE1 creates a soluble extracellular fragment and a cell membrane-bound fragment referred to as C99. Cleavage of C99 within its transmembrane domain by γ-secretase releases the intracellular domain of APP and produces amyloid-β. Since alpha-secretase cleaves APP closer to the cell membrane than BACE1 does, it removes a fragment of the amyloid-β peptide. Initial cleavage of APP by alpha-secretase rather than BACE1 prevents eventual generation of amyloid-β.
Unlike APP and the presenilin proteins important in γ-secretase, no known mutations in the gene encoding BACE1 cause early-onset, familial Alzheimer's disease, which is a rare form of the disorder. However, levels of this enzyme have been shown to be elevated in the far more common late-onset sporadic Alzheimer's. The physiological purpose of BACE's cleavage of APP and other transmembrane proteins is unknown. BACE2 is a close homolog of BACE1 with no reported APP cleavage in vivo.
Drugs to block this enzyme (BACE inhibitors) in theory would prevent the buildup of beta-amyloid and may help slow or stop Alzheimers disease.
In April 2012 Merck & Co., Inc reported phase I results for its candidate MK-8931. Merck began a Phase II/III trial of MK-8931 in December, 2012 estimated to be completed in July 2019. In September 2014 AstraZeneca and Eli Lilly and Company announced an agreement to codevelop AZD3293. A pivotal Phase II/III clinical trial of AZD3293 started in late 2014 and is planned to recruit 1,500 patients and end in May 2019.
Tests in mice have indicated that BACE proteases, specifically BACE1, are necessary for the proper function of muscle spindles. These results raise the possibility that BACE inhibiting drugs currently being investigated for the treatment of Alzheimer's may have significant side effects related to impaired motor coordination, though BACE1 knockout mice are healthy.
Relationship to plasmepsin
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- "Alzheimer's-fighting gene may inspire treatments". July 2012.
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- "CoMentis BACE Inhibitor Debuts". April 2008.
- "Merck Presents Results of a Phase I Clinical Trial Evaluating Investigational BACE inhibitor MK-8931 at American Academy of Neurology". April 2012.
- "Merck Initiates Phase II/III Study of Investigational BACE Inhibitor, MK-8931, for Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease". December 2012.
- "AstraZeneca and Lilly announce alliance to develop and commercialise BACE inhibitor AZD3293 for Alzheimer’s disease". 16 Sep 2014. Retrieved 8 Oct 2014.
- "AstraZeneca and Lilly move Alzheimer's drug into big trial". December 2014.
- Cheret, Cecil; Michael Willem; Florence R Fricker; Hagen Wende (June 2013). "Bace1 and Neuregulin-1 cooperate to control formation and maintenance of muscle spindles". European Molecular Biology Organization.
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- The MEROPS online database for peptidases and their inhibitors: A01.004
- beta-Secretase: Molecule of the Month, by David Goodsell, RCSB Protein Data Bank