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Betaenones are phytotoxins found in the fungus Pleospora betae.[1] The compounds were found to inhibit a variety of protein kinases.[2]

Molecular structures of betaenone A, B and C.

Two further betaenones were found in a species of the fungus Microsphaeropsis, which was isolated from the marine sponge Aplysina aerophoba.[3]


  1. ^ Ichihara A.; Oikawa, Hideaki; Hayashi, Kazuko; Sakamura, Sadao; Furusaki, Akio; Matsumoto, Takeshi (1983). "Structures of Betaenones A and B, Novel Phytotoxins from Phoma betae Fr.". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 105: 2907–2908. doi:10.1021/ja00347a070. 
  2. ^ Patrick, D.; Heimbrook, D (1996). "Protein kinase inhibitors for the treatment of cancer.". Drug Discovery Today. 1: 325–330. doi:10.1016/1359-6446(96)10030-1. 
  3. ^ Brauers, G. (2000). "Anthraquinones and Betaenone Derivatives from the Sponge-Associated Fungus Microsphaeropsis Species: Novel Inhibitors of Protein Kinases.". Journal of Natural Products. 63: 739–745. doi:10.1021/np9905259. PMID 10869191.