Betawi wedding costume demonstrate both Middle Eastern (groom) and Chinese (bride) influences.
|(5 million (2000 census))|
|Regions with significant populations|
|Jakarta: 2.3 million|
|Sunni Islam (predominantly), Christianity|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Sundanese, Javanese, Balinese, Malay, Tionghoa, Ambonese|
Betawi people (Orang Betawi in Indonesian meaning "people of Batavia") are the descendants of the people living around Batavia (the colonial name for Jakarta) from around the 17th century. The Betawis are a creole ethnic group that came from various parts of Indonesia, such as Malays, Sundanese, Javanese, Balinese, Minangkabau, Bugis, Makassarese, and Ambonese, also include foreign ethnic groups such as Mardijker, Portuguese, Dutch, Arabs, Chinese and Indian, who was originally brought to or attracted to Batavia to meet labour needs. They have a culture and language distinct from the surrounding Sundanese and Javanese. The Betawis are known for their music, traditions, food, egalitarianism, and being devout Muslims.
The name "Betawi" is derived from Batavia, the old colonial name of Jakarta. In neighboring Javanese and Sundanese languages, the term "Betawi" did originally do refer to colonial Batavia. Thus the term orang Betawi refer to "people of Batavia" or "Batavians", which originally consists of diverse ethnic groups and various demographic make up of the coastal Dutch colony; either within the 17th century fortified city of Old Batavia (now Kota area) or surrounding villages.
The Betawi language is a Malay-based creole language. It was the only Malay-based dialect spoken in northern coast of Java; other northern Java coastal areas are overwhelmingly dominated by Javanese dialects, while some parts are speaking Madurase and Sundanese. Betawi vocabulary has large amount of Hokkien Chinese, Arabic, and Dutch loanwords. Today the Betawi language is a popular informal language in Indonesia and used as the base of Indonesian accent.
Betawi people are overwhelmingly Muslims. Islamic teachings and traditions are well embedded and alive in their culture and social system. Ulama (also called kyai or haji) hold important position in Betawi society. However, there is a small enclave of Christian Betawi in Tugu area, North Jakarta who are descendants of Mardijker Portuguese-speaking people, and also in Kampung Sawah, located on the outskirt of Jakarta. There's also a community of former slaves who was Christianized around old Depok.
The artform of the Betawi people demonstrate the influences experienced by them throughout their history. The Ondel-ondel large bamboo masked-puppet is similar to Chinese, Balinese and Sundanese artform of masked dance. The dances costumes shows Chinese and European influences, while the movements such as Yapong dance is derived from Sundanese Jaipongan dance with a hint of Chinese style. Another dance is Topeng Betawi dance.
Silat Betawi is a popular martial art of Betawi people. Betawi martial art was rooted in Betawi culture of jagoan (lit. "tough guy" or "local hero") that during colonial times often went against colonial authority; despised by the Dutch as thugs and bandits, but highly respected by local pribumis as native's champion. In Betawi dialect, their style of pencak silat is called maen pukulan (lit. playing strike) which related to Sundanese maen po. Notable schools among other are Beksi and Cingkrik. Beksi is one of the most commonly practiced forms of silat in Greater Jakarta, and is distinguishable from other Betawi silat styles by its close-distance combat style and lack of offensive leg action.
During a Betawi wedding ceremony, there is a palang pintu (lit. door's bar) tradition of silat Betawi demonstration. It was a choreographed mock fighting between groom's entourage with bride's jagoan kampung (local champion). The fight naturally won by groom's entourage as the village champs welcomes him to bride's home. The traditional wedding dress of Betawi displays Chinese influence in bride's costume and Arabian influences in groom's costume. Betawi people borrowed Chinese culture of firecrackers during wedding, circumcisions or any celebrative events. The tradition of bringing roti buaya (crocodile bread) during wedding is probably a European custom.
As a thriving port city, the cuisine of Betawi reflects the foreign culinary traditions that has been influenced the inhabitant of Jakarta for centuries. Betawi cuisine is heavily influenced by Peranakan Cuisine of Chinese Indonesian, Malay cuisine, neighboring Sundanese and Javanese cuisine, to some extent Indian, Arabic and European cuisines. Betawi people have several popular cuisines, such as soto betawi, soto kaki, nasi uduk, kerak telor, nasi ulam, asinan, ketoprak, rujak, and gado-gado Betawi.
Notable Betawi people
- Ayu Tingting, dangdut singer
- Fauzi Bowo, governor of Jakarta 2007-2012
- Nawi Ismail, film maker and actor
- Ismail Marzuki, Indonesian composer and musician
- Benyamin Sueb, Indonesian singer and actor
- Mohammad Husni Thamrin, National Hero of Indonesia
- Iko Uwais, martial art actor
- No Money, No Honey: A study of street traders and prostitutes in Jakarta by Alison Murray. Oxford University Press, 1992. Glossary page xi
- Nathalie Abigail Budiman (1 August 2015). "Betawi pencak silat adapts to modern times". The Jakarta Post (Jakarta). Retrieved 10 August 2015.
- Castles, Lance The Ethnic Profile of Jakarta, Indonesia vol. I, Ithaca: Cornell University April 1967
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- Knoerr, Jacqueline Kreolität und postkoloniale Gesellschaft. Integration und Differenzierung in Jakarta, Frankfurt & New York: Campus Verlag, 2007
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- Shahab, Yasmine (ed.), Betawi dalam Perspektif Kontemporer: Perkembangan, Potensi, dan Tantangannya, Jakarta: LKB, 1997
- Wijaya, Hussein (ed.), Seni Budaya Betawi. Pralokarya Penggalian Dan Pengem¬bangannya, Jakarta: PT Dunia Pustaka Jaya, 1976