Bethnal Green

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Bethnal Green
Bethnal Green Road.jpg
A view of Bethnal Green Road, looking west towards the City.
Bethnal Green is located in Greater London
Bethnal Green
Bethnal Green
Location within Greater London
Population27,849 (Bethnal Green North and Bethnal Green South wards 2011)[1]
OS grid referenceTQ345825
• Charing Cross3.3 mi (5.3 km) SW
London borough
Ceremonial countyGreater London
Region
CountryEngland
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townLONDON
Postcode districtE1, E2
Dialling code020
PoliceMetropolitan
FireLondon
AmbulanceLondon
EU ParliamentLondon
UK Parliament
London Assembly
List of places
UK
England
London
51°31′39″N 0°03′58″W / 51.5275°N 0.066°W / 51.5275; -0.066Coordinates: 51°31′39″N 0°03′58″W / 51.5275°N 0.066°W / 51.5275; -0.066

Bethnal Green is a district in the East End of London[2][3][4] and is 3.3 miles (5.3 km) northeast of Charing Cross. Bethnal Green forms the north-west part of the London Borough of Tower Hamlets and extends from the City fringe to Victoria Park. Bethnal Green Road is the district centre of the area and includes a street market.[5][6] The area emerged from the hamlet which developed around the Green,[7] much of which survives today as Bethnal Green Gardens.

It is part of the traditional county of Middlesex, but for administrative purposes was part of the County of London following the passing of the Local Government Act 1888, it later became part of Greater London in 1965. The hamlet was part of the ancient parish of Stepney, but adopted its definition as a wider district when, following population increases caused by the expansion of London in the 18th century, it was split off from Stepney as the parish of Bethnal Green in 1743. It became part of the metropolis in 1855 and the County of London in 1889. The parish became the Metropolitan Borough of Bethnal Green in 1900.

The economic history of Bethnal Green is characterised by a shift away from agricultural provision for the City of London to market gardening, weaving and light industry, which has now all but disappeared. The quality of the built environment had deteriorated by the turn of the 20th century and was radically altered by aerial bombardment in the Second World War and the subsequent social housing developments. In 1943, 173 people were killed at a single incident at Bethnal Green Underground station. Bethnal Green has formed part of Greater London since 1965.

Brick Lane and Boundary Estate areas of Bethnal Green have been branded as East Shoreditch[8] due to its large scale gentrification and close proximity to Shoreditch.[9][10]

Toponymy[edit]

The accepted toponymy is that the name Blithehale or Blythenhale, the earliest form of Bethnal Green, is derived from the Anglo-Saxon healh ("angle, nook, or corner") and blithe ("happy, blithe"), or from a personal name Blitha. Over time, the name became Bethan Hall Green, which, because of local pronunciation as Beth'n 'all Green, had by the 19th century changed to Bethnal Green.

History[edit]

Origins[edit]

Parish of Bethnal Green, 1848

In what would become northern Bethnal Green (known as Cambridge Heath) a tract of common land, which stretched to the east and west, belonged to the old Stepney Manor to the south. The heath was used as pasture where people grazed their sheep in the 13th century, though 1275 records suggest at least one house stood there.[11]

A Tudor ballad, the Blind Beggar of Bethnal Green, tells the story of an ostensibly poor man who gave a surprisingly generous dowry for his daughter's wedding. The tale furnishes the parish of Bethnal Green's coat of arms. According to one version of the legend, found in Thomas Percy's Reliques of Ancient English Poetry published in 1765, the beggar was said to be Henry, the son of Simon de Montfort, but Percy himself declared that this version was not genuine.[12] The Blind Beggar public house in Whitechapel is reputed to be the site of his begging.

Growth[edit]

The Green and Poor's Land is the area of open land now occupied by Bethnal Green Library, the V&A Museum of Childhood and St John's Church, designed by John Soane. In Stow's Survey of London (1598) the hamlet was called Blethenal Green. It was one of the hamlets included in the Manor of Stepney and Hackney. Hackney later became separated. In 1678 the owners of houses surrounding the Green purchased the land to save it from being built on and in 1690 the land was conveyed to a trust under which it was to be kept open and rent from it used for the benefit of poor people living in the vicinity. From that date, the trust has administered the land and its minute books are kept in the London Metropolitan Archives. Bethnal House, or Kirby's Castle, was the principal house on the Green. One of its owners was Sir Hugh Platt (1552–1608), author of books on gardening and practical science. Under its next owner it was visited by Samuel Pepys. In 1727 it was leased to Matthew Wright and for almost two centuries it was an asylum. Its two most distinguished inmates were Alexander Cruden, compiler of the Concordance to the Bible, and the poet Christopher Smart. Cruden recorded his experience in The London Citizen Grievously Injured (1739) and Smart's stay there is recorded by his daughter. Records of the asylum are kept in the annual reports of the Commissioner in Lunacy. Even today, the park where the library stands is known locally as "Barmy Park". The original mansion, the White House, was supplemented by other buildings. In 1891 the Trust lost the use of Poor's Land to the London County Council. The asylum reorganised its buildings, demolishing the historic White House and erecting a new block in 1896. This building became the present Bethnal Green Library. A history of Poor's Land and Bethnal House is included in The Green, written by A.J. Robinson and D.H.B. Chesshyre.

Boxing has a long association with Bethnal Green. Daniel Mendoza, who was champion of England from 1792 to 1795 though born in Aldgate, lived in Paradise Row on the western side of Bethnal Green for 30 years.

The north end of the Green is associated with the Natt family. During the 18th century they owned many of its houses. Netteswell House is the residence of the curator of the Bethnal Green Museum. It is almost certainly named after the village of Netteswell, near Harlow, whose rector was the Reverend Anthony Natt. A few of its houses have become University settlements. In Victoria Park Square, on the east side of the Green, No. 18 has a Tudor well in its cellar.[13]

The silk-weaving trade spread eastwards from Spitalfields throughout the 18th century. This attracted many Huguenot and Irish weavers to the district. Large estates of small two-storey cottages were developed in the west of the area to house them. A downturn in the trade in 1769 led to the Spitalfield Riots, and on 6 December 1769, two weavers accused of "cutting" were hanged in front of the Salmon and Ball public house.

Bethnal Green Road Market on the road of the same name, founded in the 18th century, grew and grew and became more full with stalls. By 1959 stalls were choking the streets and the council attempted to relocate the market but had no success. In 1986 there had been many shop closures but the stalls were still trading. The street market is now today recognised as a major local shopping area.[14]

Victorian era[edit]

Slum children in bed, Bethnal Green, 1900–1910

In the 19th century, Bethnal Green remained characterised by its market gardens and by weaving. Having been an area of large houses and gardens as late as the 18th century, by about 1860 Bethnal Green was mainly full of tumbledown old buildings with many families living in each house. By the end of the century, Bethnal Green was one of the poorest slums in London. Jack the Ripper operated at the western end of Bethnal Green and in neighbouring Whitechapel. In 1900, the Old Nichol Street rookery was demolished, and the Boundary Estate opened on the site near the boundary with Shoreditch. This was the world's first council housing, and brothers Lew Grade and Bernard Delfont were brought up here.[15] In 1909, the Bethnal Green Estate was built with money left by the philanthropist William Richard Sutton which he left for "modern dwellings and houses for occupation by the poor of London and other towns and populous places in England".[16][17]

Slum street in Bethnal Green, circa 1900

The Regent's Canal opened in 1820, for horse drawn canal barges to carry cargo from the River Thames to the Grand Union Canal. These supplied local coal merchants and several gas houses built along its banks including Bethnal Green.[18]

The London Society for Promoting Christianity among the Jews built Palestine Place as Cambridge Heath began to be fully developed during the first half of the 19th century, although a windmill survived until at least 1836. However most of the local residents were poor, especially in the streets around the railway line and the Regent's Canal, as well as on Russia Lane. It was during this time the Peabody Trust built the Bethnal Green Estate in 1910.[19]

In 1841, the Anglo-Catholic Nathaniel Woodard, who was to become a highly influential educationalist in the later part of the 19th century, became the curate of the newly created St. Bartholomew's in Bethnal Green. He was a capable pastoral visitor and established a parochial school. In 1843, he got into trouble for preaching a sermon in which he argued that The Book of Common Prayer should have additional material to provide for confession and absolution and in which he criticised the "inefficient and Godless clergy" of the Church of England. After examining the text of the sermon, the Bishop of London condemned it as containing "erroneous and dangerous notions". As a result, the bishop sent Woodard to be a curate in Clapton.

On the eastern side of Bethnal Green lies Globe Town, established from 1800 to provide for the expanding population of weavers around Bethnal Green attracted by improving prospects in silk weaving. The population of Bethnal Green trebled between 1801 and 1831, operating 20,000 looms in their own homes. By 1824, with restrictions on importation of French silks relaxed, up to half these looms became idle and prices were driven down. With many importing warehouses already established in the district, the abundance of cheap labour was turned to boot, furniture and clothing manufacture. Globe Town continued its expansion into the 1860s, long after the decline of the silk industry.[20]

Columbia Road Flower Market is on the street of the same name which has a number of Victorian shops along the roadside and was established as Columbia Market in 1869 as a covered food market which closed in 1886 but was revived as a Sunday flower market years later.[21][22]

Bethnal Green Junction, now just Bethnal Green from 1946 (not to be confused with the much later London Underground station of the same name) and Cambridge Heath railway station are both on the London Overground network and were both opened by the Great Eastern Railway (GER) on the Lea Valley Lines in 1872 as part of a more direct route to Enfield Town. The GER opened two additional tracks now known as the Fast Lines that allow longer distance trains to bypass the stations.[23][24][25] Bethnal Green was also formerly served by trains on the Great Eastern Main Line (GEML) via Stratford and has had two derailments in the later 20th century due to its role as a junction.[26][27]

Early 20th century[edit]

A map showing the wards of Bethnal Green Metropolitan Borough as they appeared in 1916.

St Casimir's was founded in 1901, with a church on the corner of Christian Street and Cable Street. Fr Boleslas Szlamas had his quarters at 197 Whitechapel Road. The present church dates from ten years later, during the rectorate of Fr Casimir G. Matulaitis. It was opened by Cardinal Bourne on 10 March 1912. The Mass on this occasion was said by Fr Benedict Williamson, who was the architect of the church.[28]

The internationally renowned York Hall opened in 1929 with a capacity of 1,200.[29]

The warehouse buildings rose from the Regent's Canal without a towpath to interrupt development, giving direct access to the canal. A row of Victorian workshops was built on Wadeson Street in what was a historically Jewish precinct. This became very overcrowded with 572 inhabitants living in 125 houses by the 1930s.[2] The stretch was then redeveloped into warehouses and factories by 1937.[citation needed]

The Blitz[edit]

During the Second World War the Luftwaffe began The Blitz on 7 September 1940. Bethnal Green was in "Target Area A" along with the rest of the East End of London.[30]

Bethnal Green Library was bombed on the very first night of the Blitz. This forced the temporary relocation of the library into the unopened Bethnal Green Underground Station in order to provide continuity of lending services. The library was rebuilt and opened a few months later for the public.[31] Oxford House also had a major role, with some local residents fleeing into the house off Bethnal Green Road seeking shelter, this location was more attractive than the stables under the nearby Great Eastern Main Line arches. The Chief Shelter Welfare Officer at the time, Jane Leverson said "people came to Oxford House not because it was an air raid shelter but because there they found happiness and a true spirit of fellowship".[32]

It is estimated that during the Second World War, 80 tons of bombs fell on the Metropolitan Borough of Bethnal Green, affecting 21,700 houses, destroying 2,233 and making a further 893 uninhabitable. There were a total of 555 people killed and 400 seriously injured.[33] Many unexploded bombs remain in the area, and on 14 May 2007, builders discovered a Second World War 1 m long 500 lb (230 kg) bomb.[34]

Bethnal Green tube disaster[edit]

Plaque to the 1943 disaster

On 3 March 1943, the air-raid Civil defence siren sounded at 8:17 pm, causing a flow of people down the staircase which had no lights on from the street level into the incomplete Bethnal Green tube station, which had been requisitioned in 1940 by the Metropolitan Borough of Bethnal Green under the supervision of the Regional Commissioners. The panic itself began at 8:27 coinciding with the sound of an anti-aircraft battery (possibly the recently installed Z battery) being fired at nearby Victoria Park. In the wet, dark conditions the crowd was surging forward towards the shelter when a woman tripped on the stairs, causing many others to fall. Within a few seconds 300 people were crushed into the tiny stairwell, resulting in the deaths of 173 people (most of whom were women and children) who were crushed and asphyxiated. Although a report was filed by Eric Linden with the Daily Mail, who witnessed it, it was never published. Very little information was provided at the time.[35][36][37] The results of the official investigation were not released until 1946.[38]

Rebuilding[edit]

Cambridge Heath Road on 25 March 1962.

Bethnal Green tube station opened on 4 December 1946 on the Central Line and is between Liverpool Street and Mile End on the London Underground, however construction of the Central line's eastern extension into then-Essex was started in the 1930s, and the tunnels were largely complete at the outbreak of the Second World War although rails were not laid. It is still the site of the largest loss of life in a single incident on the London Underground network.[39]

The book Family and Kinship in East London (1957) shows an improvement in working class life. Husbands in the sample population no longer went out to drink but spent time with the family. As a result, both birth rate and infant death rate fell drastically and local prosperity increased.

Bethnal Green, being the cultural heart of the East End, has long been a hotbed of organised crime. Its most famous criminals were the Kray twins, known as Ronald "Ronnie" Kray and Reginald "Reggie" Kray who were identical twin brothers and were active during the 1950s and 1960s with a gang known as The Firm.[40]

Frank Dobson Square was constructed by London County Council in 1963, the year of Dobson's death. The centrepiece of the square was the ‘Woman and Fish’ fountain, a sculpture designed and completed by Dobson himself in 1951. The sculpture had been purchased for the borough by London County Council in 1963.[41]

Contemporary[edit]

Bethnal Green Road and market.

The former Bethnal Green Infirmary, later the London County Council Bethnal Green Hospital, stood opposite Cambridge Heath railway station. The hospital closed as a public hospital in the 1970s and was a geriatric hospital under the NHS until the 1980s. Much of the site was developed for housing in the 1990s but the hospital entrance and administration block remains as a listed building. The Albion Rooms are located in Bethnal Green where Pete Doherty and Carl Barât of the Libertines used to live when the band was together. It became part of music history as the band would hold Guerilla Gigs in the flat that would be packed with people.

The 26 bus route was introduced in 1992 to replace the withdrawn section of route 6 between Hackney Wick and Aldwych and included a new night counterpart to Chingford from Hackney Wick, the N26.[42]

On 25 September 1993, route 309 started running between Bethnal Green and Poplar. It was intended to start from the London Chest Hospital but this was delayed due to speed hump problems and it therefore started and ended at Three Colts Lane instead. It was finally extended from Bethnal Green Station to Chest Hospital in 1995.[43]

Ezra Street.

In 2005, Bethnal Green had become a hub of the East London art scene, centred around Vyner Street.[44][45] During this period the 26 bus route was targeted during the 21 July 2005 London bombings by would-be bomber Muktar Said Ibrahim who attempted to explode a device while the bus was on Hackney Road from Waterloo which caused a small explosion but not as intended and there was no significant damage and no loss of life.[46]

Between 2005 to 2008, the EEL (East End Life) established the Vyner Street Festival with the local Victory Pub as a family festival with local bands, artists and market traders, this has a different theme every year, with the Red Arrows performing flyover in 2008.[47] By 2012, however, many artists had moved out due to the effects of the Great Recession as well as the 2012 Olympics.[45] A documentary film was released in the same year titled Vyner Street: this was a short observational piece about two different worlds living inconspicuously and side-by-side in the same place.[48]

Tower Hamlets Council made proposals to transfer the Boundary Estate to a housing association and upgrade the accommodation in 2006. A full refurbishment of one of the blocks, Iffley House was carried out by Sprunt Architects to demonstrate how this might be achieved but the proposal was rejected by a ballot of tenants in November of that year.[49]

As part of "TUBE" Art Installation in November 2013, sound artist Kim Zip[50] created an installation[51] commemorating the Bethnal Green Tube Disaster. The work was backed by the Whitechapel Gallery and promoted as part of the organisation's "First Thursdays" initiative for popular art.[52] "TUBE" exhibited over a period of four weeks in the belfry of Sir John Soane's St John on Bethnal Green Church.[53] The Lady Dinah's Cat Emporium was the first cat café in London, which was opened in 2013.[54][55]

In 2015, Tower Hamlets Council took the owners of Al Amin Tandoori Restaurant to court after a routine inspection, which found mouse droppings throughout the kitchen. The owner Abdul Noor, pleaded guilty at Thames Magistrates' Court to six charges including inadequate control of pests, contamination of equipment and contamination of food.[56] 2015 also saw three children Amira Abase, Shamima Begum, and Kadiza Sultana, referred to in the press as the Bethnal Green trio[57] who were attending the Bethnal Green Academy before leaving home to join the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL).[58]

Bethnal Green has been part of the Night Tube service since 2016.[59]

A plaque was placed at the entrance to the tube station in the 1970s and commemorates it as the site of the worst civilian disaster of the Second World War; and a larger memorial, "Stairway to Heaven", stands in nearby Bethnal Green Gardens. This memorial was unveiled in December 2017 at a ceremony attended by Mayor of London Sadiq Khan and Bethnal Green and Bow MP Rushanara Ali.[60]

Bethnal Green hosted London’s first catfest in the Oval Space in 2018, with guests having the chance to take photos with felines as well as sample street food and meet shelter kittens.[61][62] In the same year, 2018, Cambridge Heath station was chosen for a trial with a pay-by-face system that may end the need for station barriers, due to its low passenger volumes and having no gates.[63] Early in 2018 Frank Wang, who had sold coffee to commuters from his van at the northern exit of Bethnal Green underground station lost his business when the electricity supply from the station was cut off as a result of the nearby site of a disused public lavatory behind his stall being converted into a beach bar called Chiringuito.[64] Tower Hamlets Mayor John Biggs, one of Frank’s long-standing customers came out in support along with the local community, the Chinese community and commuters who protested.[65]

An ex-Truman establishment, now a free house,[66][67] The Hare was cited as the epitome of a ‘good, honest pub’ by the Evening Standard and was listed as one of the 50 best pubs in London in 2019.[68]

Two Huguenot workers' houses on Club Row on the corner of Redchurch Street, which developers had wished to knock down, were saved from demolition. They were deemed of special historic interest, giving the houses protection from destruction from 2019.[69]

Governance[edit]

A map showing the civil parish boundaries in 1870.

Bethnal Green (including Cambridge Heath) is in the constituency of Bethnal Green and Bow, represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2010 by Rushanara Ali of the Labour Party.[70]

London overall has a directly elected executive Mayor of London, currently Sadiq Khan and the City and East seat in the London Assembly is held by the Labour Party member, Unmesh Desai.

Geography[edit]

Pritchard's Road, northern Bethnal Green.

Between 1986 and 1992, the name Bethnal Green was applied to one of seven neighbourhoods to which power was devolved from the council. This resulted in replacement of much of the street signage in the area that remains in place.[71]

Bethnal Green Gardens is located in the heart of Bethnal Green, which holds a war memorial, known as the Stairway To Heaven,[72] and Weavers' Fields, which is a 15.6 acres park and is the 6th largest open space in Tower Hamlets that lies south of Bethnal Green Road.[73]

Bethnal Green has a number of conservation areas set up by Tower Hamlets Council due to its historic history and landscape, including the Bethnal Green Gardens Conservation Area which was designated in July 1969 and then extended in October 2008 to the south west of the tube station due to significant buildings located in and around the junction of Bethnal Green Road, Roman Road and Cambridge Heath Road, which ensures these landmarks will be preserved.[2]

A part of the Hackney Road Conservation Area was designated on 8 October 2008. It is intended to protect the special architectural and historic character of buildings and areas adjoining the road which are composed of a dense concentration of modest sized properties.[74] The Victoria Park Conservation Area was designated in March 1977, altered October 2008 to make way for the Regent's Canal Conservation Area and to expand Driffield Road Conservation Area and now includes the listed park itself, the formal axial road pattern to the south west and the many Victorian terraces.[75]

To the north-west in Bethnal Green is the Old Bethnal Green Road Conservation Area, which was established in October 2008 and focuses around the roads of the Winkley Estate, which has a very cohesive character and little scope exists for change. The buildings contained within the area being considered form an important group worthy of protection and enhancement.[3]

In the Boundary Estate, Arnold Circus is a mark point on several ley alignments, such as for example the Alfred Watkins' "Strand Ley"[76] and "The Coronation Line".[77]

Demographics[edit]

An eastern European shop on Cambridge Heath Road.

Bethnal Green had a total population of 27,849 at the 2011 census, based on the north and south wards of Bethnal Green.[78] The largest single ethnic group is people of Bangladeshi descent, which constitute 38 percent of the area's population. Every year since 1999 the Baishakhi Mela is celebrated in Weavers' Fields, Bethnal Green which celebrates the Bengali New Year.[79] The second largest is the White British, constituting 30 percent of the area's population. Other ethnic groups include Black Africans and Black Caribbeans.[80]

According to the UK census of 2011, the population as a whole has fewer younger persons than the national average but also has a higher proportion of older people than the national average, thus making Bethnal Green an older persons' location. Bethnal Green also has a lower level of residents born in the UK than the national average and a higher rate of residents either born in other European Union member states or outside the EU, and therefore has a significant immigrant population.[81]

Religion[edit]

Bethnal Green is a global centre for the Triratna Buddhist Community while the two main faiths of the people are Islam and Christianity, while the local area is about 50 percent Muslim and 34 percent Christian.[82]

The London Buddhist Centre (LBC) from Globe Road.

The London Buddhist Centre at 51 Roman Road, is one of the largest urban Buddhist centres in the west for the Triratna Buddhists, and is the focus of a large Buddhist residential and business community in the area.[83] This initiative is supported by the local authority, the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. The Times has also reported on the centre's work with those affected by alcohol dependency [84]

There are many historical churches in Bethnal Green. Notable Church of England churches include St John on Bethnal Green,[85] located near Bethnal Green Underground station, on Bethnal Green Road and Roman Road. The church was built from 1826 to 1828 by the architect John Soane. Other notable churches include St Matthew – built by George Dance the Elder in 1746. St Matthew is the mother church of Bethnal Green; the church's opening coincided with a vast population increase in the former village of Stepney, resulting in the need to separate the area around Bethnal Green from the mother Parish of St Dunstan's, Stepney. All but the bell tower, still standing today, was destroyed by fire and the church again suffered devastating damage during the bombing campaigns of the Second World War, resulting in the installation of a temporary church within the bombed-out building. St. Matthew's remains a major beacon of the local East End community and is frequented on Sundays and other religious occasions by a mixture of established locals and more recent migrants to the area.[86] Other churches include St Peter's (1841) and St James-the-Less (1842), both by Lewis Vulliamy, St James the Great by Edward Blore (1843) and St Bartholomew by William Railton (1844). The church attendance in Bethnal Green was 1 in 8 people since 1900 (only 10% attend regularly in the UK). Baptisms, marriages and burials have been deposited nearly at all churches in Bethnal Green.[clarification needed][87][88]

There is one major Roman Catholic church, the Church of Our Lady of the Assumption,[89] in Bethnal Green. The Church of Our Lady of the Assumption hosts the London Chinese Catholic Centre and Chinese mass is held weekly.[90] Other Christian churches include The Good Shepherd Mission,[91] The Bethnal Green Medical Mission,[92] The Bethnal Green Methodist Church.[93] The Quakers hold regular meetings in Old Ford Road.[94]

St. Casimir's Lithuanian Church serves London's Lithuanian community and masses are held in both Lithuanian and English.[28] [95]

There are at least eight Islamic mosques or places of worship in Bethnal Green for the Muslim community.[96] These include the Baitul Aman Mosque and Cultural Centre,[97] Darul Hadis Latifiah,[98] the Senegambian Islamic Cultural Centre and the Globe Town Mosque and Cultural Centre.

Community[edit]

The Marquis of Cornwallis.

Bethnal Green is in the heart of the East End of London. It has long been a destination for people from across Tower Hamlets and beyond.[6] Along with the communities of Poplar, Mile End and Bow it is known for its shared vibrancy and cultural activity, its history and people. Together they form a wider association of communities that make up the heart of London’s East End with a rich history.[99][30]

The Oxford House is an proactive community centre that has its roots in helping the local community. Founded in 1884 as one of the first "settlements" by Oxford University,[100] it has helped alleviate or remove the impact of poverty and today still remains a focus point by providing a programme of community classes, events and weekly activities.[101]

The Approach Gardens, once an unused space, has been developed into a thriving community food garden, a shared fruit orchard and an award-winning wildlife area which brings together many diverse local groups, such as families from the Approach Estate, school and daycare centre.[102]

The Nomadic Community Gardens, once an area fenced off and overgrown, is now a social project that is popular among a diverse range of people such as locals without gardens, tourists and artists,[103] and is made up of found materials, street art, sculpture and allotments.[104]

The Gallery Cafe in St. Margaret's House reopened as a vegetarian not-for-profit, community café in 2006, and became a fully vegan café in December 2017 [105]. The café offers low-cost vegan dishes, desserts, locally-ground coffee, and juices and is also a community centre, which runs different art exhibitions each month, and hosts events including live music, spoken-word nights and comedy performances. [106]. It has won Best Café in Bethnal Green at the Time Out Love London Awards in 2014, 2015,[107] and 2016. [108]

Education[edit]

Bethnal Green Montessori School.

Bethnal Green has numerous primary schools serving children aged three to 11. St. Matthias School on Bacon Street,[109] off Brick Lane, is over a century old and uses the Seal of the old Metropolitan Borough of Bethnal Green as its badge and emblem.[citation needed] The school is linked with the nearby 18th-century St. Matthew's Church on St. Matthew's Row.[citation needed] The Bangabandhu Primary School, named after the father of Bangladesh, Sheikh Mujib, a non-selective state community school,[110] was opened in January 1989, moved to a new building in November 1991, and has over 450 pupils. 70% of the school's pupils speak English as a second language, with a majority speaking Sylheti, a dialect of Bengali, at home.[citation needed]

Bethnal Green's oldest secondary school is Raine's Foundation School, with sites on Old Bethnal Green and Approach roads, a voluntary aided Anglican school founded in 1719.[111] The school relocated several times, amalgamating with St. Jude's School [112] to become coeducational in 1977. Bethnal Green Academy is one of the top schools and sixth form colleges in London. Other schools in the area include Oaklands School, and Morpeth School.

Bethnal Green Gardens and Bethnal Green Library provide leisure facilities and information.

Culture[edit]

Bethnal Green is well known as an art quarter, with Clare Street having many art works. The art is a mixture of pure graff and permissioned murals.[113]

Sport[edit]

Non-League football club Bethnal Green United F.C. plays at Mile End Stadium. Now known as Tower Hamlets FC (since the 2014–15 season), it plays in the Essex Senior League. Another locally based team also based at Mile End Stadium are Sporting Bengal FC. The boxer Joe Anderson, 'All England' champion of 1897, was from Bethnal Green.[114]

Location[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Census Information Scheme (2012). "2011 Census Ward Population Estimates". Greater London Authority. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
  2. ^ a b c London Borough of Tower Hamlets (4 November 2009). "Bethnal Green Gardens" (PDF). Retrieved 31 May 2019.
  3. ^ a b London Borough of Tower Hamlets (4 November 2009). "Old Bethnal Green Road" (PDF). Retrieved 31 May 2019.
  4. ^ London Borough of Tower Hamlets (4 November 2009). "Globe Road" (PDF). Retrieved 31 May 2019.
  5. ^ London Borough of Tower Hamlets (2016). "Bethnal Green district centre" (PDF). Retrieved 31 May 2019.
  6. ^ a b London Borough of Tower Hamlets. "Bethnal Green Road". Retrieved 31 May 2019.
  7. ^ T F T Baker (ed.) (1998). "A history of the county of Middlesex, volume 11, Stepney, Bethnal Green – Bethnal Green: settlement and building to 1836". pp. 91–95.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  8. ^ London Borough of Tower Hamlets (22 May 2019). "East Shoreditch". Retrieved 20 June 2019.
  9. ^ Zephyr (2016). "Brick Lane - About Brick Lane". Retrieved 20 June 2019.
  10. ^ The Guardian (5 March 2016). "Shoreditch slums give way to country's first social housing: archive, 5 March 1900".
  11. ^ "Cambridge Heath - eastlondonhistory.com". eastlondonhistory.com.
  12. ^ Blind Beggar of Bethnal Green (East London History) Archived 30 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ The Green, Land assessments records, Gascoyne's survey of 1703.
  14. ^ Bethnal Green Business Forum (2014). "History". Retrieved 1 June 2019.
  15. ^ 'Bethnal Green: Building and Social Conditions from 1876 to 1914', A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 11: Stepney, Bethnal Green (1998), pp. 126–32 accessed: 14 November 2006.
  16. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 19 August 2012. Retrieved 10 January 2012.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  17. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 23 January 2012. Retrieved 10 January 2012.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
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