Bettie Page

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Bettie Page
Bettie Page-2.jpg
Bettie Page
Born
Betty Mae Page

(1923-04-22)April 22, 1923
Nashville, Tennessee, U.S.
DiedDecember 11, 2008(2008-12-11) (aged 85)
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Resting placeWestwood Village Memorial Park Cemetery
34°03′30″N 118°26′27″W / 34.0583333°N 118.4408333°W / 34.0583333; -118.4408333
NationalityAmerican
Alma materPeabody College (part of Vanderbilt University)
Multnomah University
OccupationModel
Playboy centerfold appearance
January 1955
Preceded byTerry Ryan
Succeeded byJayne Mansfield
Personal details
MeasurementsBust: 36 in (91 cm)
Waist: 23 in (58 cm)
Hips: 35 in (89 cm)
Height5 ft 5.5 in (166.4 cm)[1]

Betty Mae Page (April 22, 1923 – December 11, 2008), known professionally as Bettie Page, was an American model who gained a significant profile in the 1950s for her pin-up photos.[2][3] Often referred to as the "Queen of Pinups", her shoulder-length jet-black hair, blue eyes, and trademark bangs have influenced artists for generations.

A native of Nashville, Tennessee, Page lived in California in her early adult years before moving to New York City to pursue work as an actress. There, she found work as a pin-up model, and posed for dozens of photographers throughout the 1950s. Page was "Miss January 1955", one of the earliest Playmates of the Month for Playboy magazine. "I think that she was a remarkable lady, an iconic figure in pop culture who influenced sexuality, taste in fashion, someone who had a tremendous impact on our society," said Playboy founder Hugh Hefner to the Associated Press in 2008.[4]

In 1959, Page converted to evangelical Christianity and worked for Billy Graham,[5] studying at Bible colleges in Los Angeles and Portland, Oregon, with the intent of becoming a missionary. The latter part of Page's life was marked by depression, violent mood swings, and several years in a state psychiatric hospital suffering from paranoid schizophrenia.[6][7][8] After years of obscurity, she experienced a resurgence of popularity in the 1980s.

Early life[edit]

Betty Mae Page, who in childhood began spelling her first name "Bettie",[9] was born in Nashville, Tennessee, the second of six children to Walter Roy Page (1896–1964)[10] and Edna Mae Pirtle (1901–1986).[11][12][13] At a young age, Page had to face the responsibilities of caring for her younger siblings, particularly after her father was convicted for car theft and spent two years in an Atlanta, Georgia, prison.[14] Her parents divorced when she was 10 years old, and her mother worked two jobs, one as a hairdresser during the day and washing laundry at night.[15] Unable to care for all her children, Edna placed Page, at 10, and two sisters in a Protestant orphanage for a year.[6] Their father remained in the area, at one point renting a basement room from the cash-strapped Edna. Page said he began sexually molesting her when she was 13 years old.[16]

As a teenager, Page and her sisters tried different makeup styles and hairdos imitating their favorite movie stars. She also learned to sew. These skills proved useful years later for her pin-up photography when Page did her own makeup and hair and made her own bikinis and costumes. During her early years, the Page family traveled around the country in search of economic stability.[13]

A good student and debate team member at Hume-Fogg High School, she was voted "Girl Most Likely to Succeed".[17] On June 6, 1940, Page graduated as the salutatorian of her high school class[13] with a scholarship. She enrolled at George Peabody College (later part of Vanderbilt University), with the intention of becoming a teacher. However, the next fall she began studying acting, hoping to become a movie star. At the same time, she got her first job, typing for author Alfred Leland Crabb. Page graduated from Peabody with a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1944.

Shortly before graduating from Fogg-Hume High, Page had met Willam E. "Billy" Neal, a former rival high school sports star two years older than her. In September 1942, he was drafted into the Army for World War II,[18] and he and Page married on February 18, 1943, before he shipped out.[18][19] For the next few years, she moved from San Francisco to Nashville to Miami and to Port-au-Prince, Haiti, where she felt a special affinity with the country, its people and its culture.[13] She and Neal divorced in 1947.[20][3]

Modeling career[edit]

Discovery and early work[edit]

In late 1947, Page moved to New York City, where she hoped to find work as an actress. She supported herself by working a secretarial job at the American Bread Company, near Penn Station.[21] Within days she became the victim of a sexual assault by a group of men, and retreated home to Nashville, where she briefly worked for the L & N Railroad.[22] Within weeks, she returned to New York, becoming secretary to a real-estate developer and an insurance broker who shared offices in the Eastern Airlines Building at Rockefeller Plaza.[23]

In 1950, while walking alone along the Coney Island shore, Bettie met NYPD Officer Jerry Tibbs, who was an avid photographer, and he gave Bettie his card. He suggested she'd make a good pin-up model, and in exchange for allowing him to photograph her, he'd help make up her first pin-up portfolio, free of charge.[13] It was Officer Tibbs who suggested to Bettie that she style her hair with bangs in front, to keep light from reflecting off her high forehead when being photographed.[6] Bangs soon became an integral part of her distinctive look.

In late-1940s America, "camera clubs" were formed to circumvent laws restricting the production of nude photos. These camera clubs existed ostensibly to promote artistic photography, but in reality, many were merely fronts for the making of pornography. Page entered the field of "glamour photography" as a popular camera club model, working initially with photographer Cass Carr.[13] Her lack of inhibition in posing made her a hit, and her name and image became quickly known in the erotic photography industry. In 1951, Bettie's image appeared in men's magazines such as Wink, Titter, Eyefull and Beauty Parade.[24]

Early 1950s to 1957: Irving Klaw; film work[edit]

Page appearing in S&M and bondage reels by Irving and Paula Klaw
A video featuring Bettie Page as a slave, lashing out against her Mistress and then getting spanked, 1955

From late 1951 or early 1952[25] through 1957, she posed for photographer Irving Klaw for mail-order photographs with pin-up and BDSM themes, making her the first famous bondage model. Klaw also used Page in dozens of short, black-and-white 8mm and 16mm "specialty" films, which catered to specific requests from his clientele. These silent one-reel featurettes showed women clad in lingerie and high heels, acting out fetishistic scenarios of abduction, domination, and slave-training; bondage, spanking, and elaborate leather costumes and restraints were included periodically. Page alternated between playing a stern dominatrix, and a helpless victim bound hand and foot.

Klaw also produced a line of still photos taken during these sessions. Some have become iconic images, such as his highest-selling photo of Page—shown gagged and bound in a web of ropes, from the film Leopard Bikini Bound. Although these "underground" features had the same crude style and clandestine distribution as the pornographic "stag" films of the time, Klaw's all-female films (and still photos) never featured any nudity or explicit sexual content. Commenting on the bondage photos and the reputation they afforded her, Page said retrospectively:

They keep referring to me in the magazines and newspapers and everywhere else as the "Queen of Bondage." The only bondage posing I ever did was for Irving Klaw and his sister Paula. Usually every other Saturday he had a session for four or five hours with four or five models and a couple of extra photographers, and in order to get paid you had to do an hour of bondage. And that was the only reason I did it. I never had any inkling along that line. I don’t really disapprove of it; I think you can do your own thing as long as you’re not hurting anybody else — that’s been my philosophy ever since I was a little girl. I never looked down my nose at it. In fact, we used to laugh at some of the requests that came through the mail, even from judges and lawyers and doctors and people in high positions. Even back in the ’50s they went in for the whips and the ties and everything else.[26]

In 1953, Page took acting classes at the Herbert Berghof Studio, which led to several roles on stage and television. She appeared on The United States Steel Hour and The Jackie Gleason Show.[13] Her Off-Broadway productions included Time is a Thief and Sunday Costs Five Pesos. Page acted and danced in the feature-length burlesque revue film Striporama directed by Jerald Intrator in which she was given a brief speaking role. She then appeared in two more burlesque films by Irving Klaw (Teaserama and Varietease). These featured exotic dance routines and vignettes by Page and well-known striptease artists Lili St. Cyr and Tempest Storm. All three films were mildly risqué, but none showed any nudity or overtly sexual content.

In 1954, during one of her annual vacations to Miami, Florida, Page met photographers Jan Caldwell, H. W. Hannau and Bunny Yeager.[13] At that time, Page was the top pin-up model in New York. Yeager, a former model and aspiring photographer, signed Page for a photo session at the now-closed wildlife park Africa USA in Boca Raton, Florida. The "Jungle Bettie" photographs from this shoot are among her most celebrated. They include nude shots with a pair of cheetahs named Mojah and Mbili. Page herself made the leopard-skin-patterned jungle girl outfit she wore, along with much of her lingerie. A collection of the Yeager photos, and Klaw's, were published in the book Bettie Page Confidential (St. Martin's Press, 1994).

After Yeager sent shots of Page to Playboy founder Hugh Hefner, he selected one to use as the Playmate of the Month centerfold in the January 1955 issue of the two-year-old magazine. The famous photo shows Page, wearing only a Santa hat, kneeling before a Christmas tree holding an ornament and playfully winking at the camera. In 1955, Page won the title "Miss Pinup Girl of the World".[13] She also became known as "The Queen of Curves" and "The Dark Angel". While pin-up and glamour models frequently have careers measured in months, Page was in demand for several years, continuing to model until 1957.[3]

Although she frequently posed nude, she never appeared in scenes with explicit sexual content. In 1957, Page gave "expert guidance" to the FBI regarding the production of "flagellation and bondage pictures" in Harlem.[27]

1958–92: Retirement; departure from spotlight[edit]

The reasons reported for Page's departure from modeling vary. Some reports[which?] mention the Kefauver Hearings of the United States Senate Special Committee to Investigate Crime in Interstate Commerce (after a young man apparently died during a session of bondage which was rumored to be inspired by bondage images featuring Page). After leaving modeling, Page converted to born-again Christianity on December 31, 1959, while living in Key West, Florida, and recalled in 2008, "When I gave my life to the Lord I began to think he disapproved of all those nude pictures of me."[28]

Photographer Sam Menning was the last person to photograph a pin-up of Page before her retirement.[29][30]

On New Year's Eve 1958, during one of her regular visits to Key West, Florida, Page attended a service at what is now the Key West Temple Baptist Church. She found herself drawn to the multiracial environment and started to attend on a regular basis. She would, in time, attend three bible colleges, including the Bible Institute of Los Angeles, Multnomah University in Portland, Oregon and, briefly, a Christian retreat known as "Bibletown", part of the Boca Raton Community Church, Boca Raton, Florida.

She dated industrial designer Richard Arbib in the 1950s, and then married Armond Walterson in 1958;[31] they divorced in 1963.[6]

During the 1960s, she attempted to become a Christian missionary in Africa, but was rejected for having had a divorce. Over the next few years, she worked for various Christian organizations before settling in Nashville in 1963, and re-enrolled at Peabody College to pursue a master's degree in education, but eventually dropped out.[6] She worked full-time for Rev. Billy Graham.[3][5] She and first husband Billy Neal remarried very briefly in late 1963 or in 1964, but that marriage was soon annulled.[32]

Bettie Page in the 1955 movie Teaserama

She returned to Florida in 1967, and married again, to Harry Lear,[33] but that marriage ended in divorce in 1972.[34]

She moved to Southern California in October 1978.[35] There she had a nervous breakdown and had an altercation with her landlady. The doctors who examined her diagnosed her with acute schizophrenia, and she spent 20 months in Patton State Hospital in San Bernardino, California. After a fight with another landlord, she was arrested for assault, but was found not guilty by reason of insanity and placed under state supervision for eight years.[5] She was released in 1992.[8]

Revival of public interest[edit]

In the 1950s, artists Gene Bilbrew [36] and Eric Stanton [37] were among the first to paint Bettie images. In 1979, artist Robert Blue had a show titled Steps Into Space, at a gallery on Melrose Place in Los Angeles, where he showed his collection of Bettie Page paintings. At that time in New York, De Berardinis had begun painting Bettie for Italian jean manufacturer Fiorucci. De Berardinis has continued to paint Bettie, and compiled a collection of this artwork in a book titled Bettie Page by Olivia (2006), with a foreword by Hugh Hefner.[13][38]

In 1976, Eros Publishing Co. published A Nostalgic Look at Bettie Page, a mixture of photos from the 1950s. Between 1978 and 1980, Belier Press published four volumes of Betty Page: Private Peeks, reprinting pictures from the private-camera-club sessions, which reintroduced Page to a new but small cult following.[39] In 1983, London Enterprises released In Praise of Bettie Page — A Nostalgic Collector's Item, reprinting camera-club photos and an old cat fight photo shoot.[citation needed]

A larger cult following was built around Page during the 1980s, of which she was unaware. This renewed attention was focused on her pinup and lingerie modeling rather than those depicting sexual fetishes or bondage. This attention also prompted speculation of what happened to her after the 1950s. The 1990s edition of Book of Lists[40] included Page in a list of once-famous celebrities who had vanished from the public eye.

In the early 1980s, comic-book artist Dave Stevens based the female love interest of his hero Cliff Secord (alias "The Rocketeer") on Page.[41]

By the mid-1980s, De Berardinis noted that women began to frequent her gallery openings sporting Bettie bangs, fetish clothing, and tattoos of Page. She described “black bangs, seamed stockings and snub-nosed 6-inch stilettos. These are Bettie Page signatures.... Although the fantasy world of fetish/bondage existed in some form since the beginning time, Bettie is the iconic figurehead of it all. No star of this genre existed before her. Monroe had predecessors, Bettie did not.” [13]

In 1987, Greg Theakston started a fanzine called The Betty Pages[39] and recounted tales of her life, particularly the camera-club days. Additionally, numerous articles about the missing pop-cultural figure began appearing in the mainstream media. Since almost all of her photos were in the public domain,[citation needed] some entities launched Page-related products.

In a 1993 telephone interview with Lifestyles of the Rich and Famous, Page told host Robin Leach that she had been unaware of the resurgence of her popularity, stating that she was "penniless and infamous". Entertainment Tonight produced a segment on her. Page was living in a group home in Los Angeles. Theakston contacted her and extensively interviewed her for The Betty Page Annuals V.2.[citation needed]

Her brother Jack finally brought her back into public life, explaining, "My son had noticed all the books and calendars and plates being sold with her face on them,...I called her up and said, 'Bettie, there is a chance for you to make money off this'".[42]

In 1993,[43] Jack persuaded Page to pursue royalties through Chicago attorney James L. Swanson,[42] who with Karen Essex wrote the 1996 coffee table book Bettie Page: The Life of a Pin-Up Legend.

...it was her appearance on Lifestyles of the Rich and Famous, an American TV show that ran from 1984 to 1995, that led to her acquiring an agent, Everett Fields, the grandson of WC (Fields). One of his partners, Swanson, took over her management and co-authored her biography, but the relationship deteriorated into lawsuits. It was primarily Stevens and J.B. Rund, the publisher of Private Peeks, who worked to get her better representation, which helped her collect royalties on the images of her used in popular culture.[44]

Three years later, nearly penniless and failing to receive any royalties, Page fired Swanson.[citation needed]

In 1993, Page signed with Mark Roesler and his Curtis Management Group, later CMG Worldwide.[45] Page occasionally autographed pinups at her agents' offices in Los Angeles, California.[7]

After Jim Silke made a large-format comic featuring Page's likeness, in the 1990s Dark Horse Comics published a comic book based on her fictional adventures.[citation needed] Eros Comics published several Bettie Page titles, including the tongue-in-cheek Tor Love Bettie which comically suggested a romance between Page and wrestler-turned-Ed Wood film actor, Tor Johnson.[citation needed]

In 1996, Page granted a TV interview to entertainment reporter Tim Estiloz for the NBC morning magazine program Real Life.[46] Another biography, The Real Bettie Page: The Truth about the Queen of Pinups (1997)[47] was written by Richard Foster. The book stated that a Los Angeles County Sheriff's police report said Page suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and, at age 56, had stabbed her elderly landlords[44] on the afternoon of April 19, 1979 in an unprovoked attack, during a fit of insanity.[48]

In 1997, E! True Hollywood Story aired a feature on Page titled, Bettie Page: From Pinup to Sex Queen.[49]

In a late-1990s interview, Page stated she would not allow any current pictures of her to be shown because of concerns about her weight. However, in 1997, Page changed her mind and agreed to a television interview for the aforementioned E! True Hollywood Story on the condition that the location of the interview and her face not be revealed (she was shown with her face and dress electronically blacked out). Page allowed a publicity picture to be taken of her for the August 2003 edition of Playboy. In 2006, the Los Angeles Times ran an article headlined “A Golden Age for a Pinup”, covering an autographing session at CMG Worldwide. Once again, Page declined to be photographed.

In a 1998 interview, she commented of her career, "I never thought it was shameful. I felt normal. It's just that it was much better than pounding a typewriter eight hours a day, which gets monotonous."[34]

In her last years, she hired a law firm to help her recoup some of the profits being made with her likeness. According to MTV: "Katy Perry's rocker bangs and throwback skimpy jumpers; Madonna's Sex book and fascination with bondage gear; Rihanna's obsession with all things leather, lace and second-skin binding; Uma Thurman in Pulp Fiction; the SuicideGirls website; the Pussycat Dolls; and the entire career of Marilyn Manson's ex-wife Dita Von Teese" would not have been possible without Page.[50]

In 2011, Page's estate made the Forbes annual list of top-earning dead celebrities, earning $6 million and tied with the estates of George Harrison and Andy Warhol, at 13th on the list.[51] In 2014, Forbes estimated that Page's estate earned $10 million in 2013.[52]

Death[edit]

Bettie Page's grave

According to long-time friend and business agent Mark Roesler, Page was hospitalized in critical condition on December 6, 2008.[53] Roesler was quoted by the Associated Press as saying Page had suffered a heart attack[5] and by Los Angeles television station KNBC as claiming Page was suffering from pneumonia.[54] Her family eventually agreed to discontinue life support, and she died on December 11, 2008.[3][7]

Biographies[edit]

In 2004, Cult Epics produced the direct-to-DVD biographical film Bettie Page: Dark Angel. Centering on the 1953–1957 Irving Klaw period, it recreates six lost fetish films she did for Klaw. Model Paige Richards plays the title role.

The Notorious Bettie Page (2005) follows her life from the mid-1930s through the late 1950s. It stars Gretchen Mol as the adult Page. Bonus footage added to the DVD release includes color film from the 1950s of Page playfully undressing and striking various nude poses for the camera.

In 2012, Bettie Page Reveals All was filmed and premiered, then released nationwide the following year. It was an authorized biographical documentary by director Mark Mori. The documentary included narration from Page herself, culled from more than six hours of interviews with her, as well as commentary from Dita Von Teese, Hugh M. Hefner, Rebecca Romijn, Tempest Storm, Bunny Yeager, Paula Klaw, Mamie Van Doren and Naomi Campbell.[55][56][57]

Further reading[edit]

  • Eric Stanton & the History of the Bizarre Underground by Richard Pérez Seves. Atglen: Schiffer Publishing, 2018. ISBN 978-0764355424

In popular culture[edit]

Fashion and visual art[edit]

  • For its Polynesian-inspired Spring-Summer 2011 ready-to-wear collection, French fashion house Christian Dior styled the hair of its models with Bettie Page as inspiration.[58]
  • In Seattle, Washington, a homeowner became the subject of a short-lived controversy when he had an artist friend paint a large mural of Page on the side of his home. The mural is visible from Interstate 5, just south of the 65th Street exit.[59] In 2016, the mural was vandalized, leading to a restoration and the addition of drag star Divine.[60]

In film[edit]

In comics[edit]

In literature[edit]

  • In one of his numerous fictional capsule biographies for his books, Harlan Ellison claimed to be "writing a biography of Betty [sic] Page for young adults".[68]

In television shows[edit]

In video games[edit]

  • In Suda51's video game Lollipop Chainsaw, a pre-order downloadable outfit took inspiration from Bettie Page as a pinup girl outfit, and included her signature haircut with bangs.[69]

Music[edit]

  • Beyoncé pays homage to Bettie Page in her music video for "Video Phone".[70]
  • Alternative country band BR5-49 recorded an ode to Page named "Bettie, Bettie" on their 1996 debut EP Live From Robert's. In interviews, Page stated that this was her favorite of the songs written about her.[71]
  • German punk band Bettie Ford recorded the song "Bettie Page" for its 2004 album League of Fools.[72]
  • Swedish concept band DC-Pöbeln (a.k.a. Dagcenterpöbeln) from Örebro put Bettie Page on the cover of its only record Bettan/Dödgrävaren (1985).[73]
  • The Jazz Butcher included the song "Just Like Betty Page" on the album, A Scandal in Bohemia (1984), using Page for a simile in the chorus "You have me/As far as I can see/roped and trussed just like dear Betty Page."[74]
  • Post-punk group Public Image Ltd released a song called "Bettie Page" on its 2015 album What the World Needs Now...[75]
  • The Hungarian rockabilly band Mystery Gang Rockabilly Trio recorded the song "My Baby Wants to Look Like Bettie Page".[76][77]
  • American guitarist and former Fleetwood Mac member Rick Vito celebrated Betty on his 2003 album Band Box Boogie, with the song "Where Did You Go Betty Page?"[78]
  • Neo-swing band Royal Crown Revue released the song "Port-Au-Prince (travels with Betty Page)" on its 1998 album The Contender.[79]

Astronomy[edit]

Other[edit]

  • In 2006, Folsom Street Fair introduced a women's area, first dubbed "Bettie Page's Secret" then changing its name in subsequent years to "Venus' Playground".

Filmography[edit]

  • Striporama (1953)
  • Varietease (1954)
  • Teaserama (1955)
  • Irving Klaw Bondage Classics, Volume I (London Enterprises, 1984)[citation needed]
  • Irving Klaw Bondage Classics, Volume II (London Enterprises, 1984)[citation needed]
  • 100 Girls by Bunny Yeager (Cult Epics, 2005), a documentary with behind-the-scenes footage on Yeager's photo sessions with Page and other pin-up models[citation needed]
  • Bettie Page: Bondage Queen (Cult Epics, 2005)[citation needed]
  • Bettie Page: Pin Up Queen (Cult Epics, 2005), a compilation of her burlesque dancing performances from Striporama, Varietease, and Teaserama, plus The Exotic Dances of Bettie Page (13 black-and-white dancing and cat-fight shorts)[80]
  • Bizarro Sex Loops, Volume 4 (Something Weird Video, 2007)[citation needed]
  • Bizarro Sex Loops, Volume 20 (Something Weird Video, 2008), Page appears in a set of Irving Klaw bondage reels in a collection of vintage fetish shorts[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Official website facts page Archived December 19, 2011, at the Wayback Machine Accessed December 17, 2011.
  2. ^ 50s pin-up queen Bettie Page dies, BBC News, December 12, 2008; accessed 12, December 2008
  3. ^ a b c d e McFadden, Robert D. (December 12, 2008). "Bettie Page, Queen of Pinups, Dies at 85". The New York Times. Retrieved December 21, 2010.
  4. ^ "Bettie Page dies at 85 / Pin-up queen was a pop culture phenomenon". Variety. December 11, 2008. Retrieved February 27, 2009.
  5. ^ a b c d "Pinup model Bettie Page dies in L.A. at 85". MSNBC. Associated Press. 2008. Archived from the original on December 12, 2008. Retrieved December 12, 2008. Bettie Page, the 1950s secretary-turned-model whose controversial photographs in skimpy attire or none at all helped set the stage for the 1960s sexual revolution, died Thursday. She was 85.
  6. ^ a b c d e Mori, Mark (director) (2013). Bettie Page Reveals All.
  7. ^ a b c Sahagun, Louis (December 11, 2008). "Pinup queen Bettie Page dead at 85". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 11, 2008. Bettie Page, the brunet pinup queen with a shoulder-length pageboy hairdo and kitschy bangs whose saucy photos helped usher in the sexual revolution of the 1960s, has died. She was 85.
  8. ^ a b Sahagun, Louis (December 13, 2008). "Pin-up Bettie Page, whose poses ushered in sexual revolution, dies". The Age. Melbourne.
  9. ^ Essex, Karen; Swanson, James L. (1996). "Bettie Page: The Life of a Pin-up Legend". General Pub. Group. p. 17 – via Open WorldCat.
  10. ^ "Walter Roy Page". Geni.com. Retrieved December 22, 2017.
  11. ^ "Edna Mae Page". Geni.com. Retrieved December 22, 2017.
  12. ^ "Bettie Page: Classic Pin-Ups (1923–2008)". Biography.com. A&E Networks. Archived from the original on September 7, 2011. Retrieved March 12, 2013. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |website= (help)
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Who am I – Bettie Page Biography". Bettie Page official website. Retrieved 2016-02-20.
  14. ^ Essex, Swanson, pp.18-19.
  15. ^ Essex, Swanson, p.24: "But Edna's divorce did not maker her life any easier. In 1933 America was still steeped in the Great Depression."
  16. ^ Essex, Swanson, p.25.
  17. ^ Essex, Swanson, p.29.
  18. ^ a b Essex, Swanson, pp.37-38.
  19. ^ Tennessee, State Marriage Index, 1780–2002; page: 282. Retrieved from FamilySearch January 28, 2012.
  20. ^ Essex, Swanson, p. 52: "In November 1947 Bettie moved into the YWCA and filed for a divorce."
  21. ^ Essex, Swanson, p.51.
  22. ^ Essex, Swanson, pp.51-52.
  23. ^ Essex, Swanson, pp.52-53.
  24. ^ Pérez Seves, Eric Stanton & the History of the Bizarre Underground, p. 44.
  25. ^ Essex, Swanson, p.143: "In late 1951 or early 1952 — concurrently with her camera club and men's magazine modeling — Bettie began modeling for Irving Klaw....
  26. ^ Sharkley, Lorelei (1998-06-17). "Not the Pin-Up We Played Her For". Nerve. Retrieved 2014-11-26.
  27. ^ "Bettie Page, FBI Consultant". The Smoking Gun. Retrieved October 23, 2012.
  28. ^ Cook, Playboy, p.4.
  29. ^ Catlin, Roger (April 6, 2010). "Sam Menning: Photographer, Character Actor". Hartford Courant. Archived from the original on August 15, 2010. Retrieved April 17, 2010.
  30. ^ "Character actor Sam Menning dies at 85". The Hollywood Reporter. April 5, 2010. Retrieved January 7, 2019. Bonnie Howard, a talent agent who made Menning her first client, noted that he was the last photographer to shoot pinup girl Bettie Page.
  31. ^ Florida, Marriage Index, 1927–2001; volume: 1776; certificate number: 32899. Retrieved from FamilySearch January 28, 2012.
  32. ^ Essex, Swanson, p.230: "At the end of 1963, Bettie and Billy started seeing each other again.... The two remarried. ... They didn't consummate the marriage. Bettie claims that Billy got the notion that she had contracted a venereal disease in New York ... [and] was 'unclean'.... [After an incident of domestic violence] Bettie was able to procure an annulment...." Note: Cook in Playboy erroneously gives the remarriage year as 1953.
  33. ^ Florida, Marriage Index, 1927–2001; volume: 2493; certificate number: 4402. Retrieved from FamilySearch January 28, 2012.
  34. ^ a b Cook, Playboy, p.3.
  35. ^ Essex, Swanson, p.231.
  36. ^ Pérez Seves, Richard (2019). GENE BILBREW REVEALED: The Unsung Legacy of a Fetish Art Pioneer. New York: Fethistory. p. 169. ISBN 1072487543.
  37. ^ Pérez Seves, Eric Stanton & the History of the Bizarre Underground, pp. 43,44.
  38. ^ De Berardinis, Olivia (2006). Bettie Page by Olivia. foreword by Hugh Hefner. Ozone Productions, Ltd.
  39. ^ a b "Bettie Page". Cult Sirens. Archived from the original on 2012-12-06.
  40. ^ Wallechinsky, David; Wallace, Amy (1993). The People's Almanac Presents the Book of Lists — the '90s Edition. Little Brown & Co. ISBN 978-0-316-92079-7.
  41. ^ Corliss, Richard (December 11, 2008). "Bondage Babe Bettie Page Dies at 85". Time magazine. Retrieved December 12, 2008. The beatification process began in 1980, when artist Dave Stevens created a Bettie character in his graphic novel The Rocketeer.
  42. ^ a b "Her Growing Mob Of Fans Demand To Know: Where Is Bettie Page?". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved June 8, 2018.
  43. ^ "The Original Supermodel". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved June 8, 2018.
  44. ^ a b Carlson, Michael (December 13, 2008). "Obituary: Bettie Page". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved June 8, 2018.
  45. ^ "Bettie Page". CMG Worldwide. Retrieved June 8, 2018.
  46. ^ Tim Estiloz, REAL Bettie Page TV Interview - Her Life In Her OWN Words, retrieved 2019-02-01
  47. ^ Foster, Richard (1997). The Real Bettie Page: The Truth About the Queen of the Pinups. Carol Publishing Group/Birch Lane Press. ISBN 1-55972-432-3.
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