Betty Steiner

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Betty Wilson Steiner-Conduit (1920 – February 16, 1994) was a Canadian psychiatrist. Steiner was the first head of the Gender Identity Clinic at the Clarke Institute of Psychiatry.[1] She is known for her work with transgender and intersex people.[2]

Life and career[edit]

After completing her education in 1958, Steiner was appointed psychiatrist at the Women's College Hospital.[3] She then took an appointment at the Clarke Institute of Psychiatry.[4]

In 1985 she edited Gender Dysphoria, and in 1990, she co-edited Clinical management of gender identity disorders in children and adults with Ray Blanchard.

Steiner-Conduit married marketing executive Andrew Conduit in 1988.[5] She and her husband died of carbon monoxide poisoning after leaving a car running in their garage. Steiner-Conduit was declared dead at the scene; Conduit died ten days later.[6]

Selected publications[edit]

  • Blanchard R, Steiner BW (eds.) (1990). Clinical management of gender identity disorders in children and adults. American Psychiatric Press, ISBN 978-0-88048-187-8
  • Blanchard R, Steiner BW, Clemmensen LH, Dickey R (1989). Prediction of regrets in postoperative transsexuals. Can J Psychiatry. 1989 Feb;34(1):43-5.PMID 2924248
  • Blanchard R, Clemmensen LH, Steiner BW (1987). Heterosexual and homosexual gender dysphoria. Arch Sex Behav. 1987 Apr;16(2):139-52. PMID 3592961
  • Blanchard R, Rachansky I, Steiner B (1986). Phallometric detection of fetishistic arousal in heterosexual male cross-dressers. Journal of Sex Research, 22, 1986: 452-462.
  • Blanchard R, Clemmensen LH, Steiner BW (1985). Social desirability response set and systematic distortion in the self-report of adult male gender patients. Arch Sex Behav. 1985 Dec;14(6):505-16. PMID 4084050
  • Steiner BW (ed.) (1985) Gender dysphoria: development, research, management. Plenum Press, ISBN 978-0-306-41694-1
  • Blanchard R, Steiner BW, Clemmensen LH (1985). Gender dysphoria, gender reorientation, and the clinical management of transsexualism. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1985 Jun;53(3):295-304. PMID 4008715
  • Blanchard R, McConkey JG, Roper V, Steiner BW (1983). Measuring physical aggressiveness in heterosexual, homosexual, and transsexual males. Arch Sex Behav. 1983 Dec;12(6):511-24. PMID 6667110
  • Blanchard R, Clemmensen LH, Steiner BW (1983). Gender reorientation and psychosocial adjustment in male-to-female transsexuals. Arch Sex Behav. 1983 Dec;12(6):503-9. PMID 6667109
  • Freund K, Steiner BW, Chan S (1982). Two types of cross-gender identity. Arch Sex Behav. 1982 Feb;11(1):49-63. PMID 7073469
  • Steiner BW (1981). From Sappho to Stand: historical perspective on crossdressing and cross gender. Can J Psychiatry. 1981 Nov;26(7):502-6. PMID 702824
  • Steiner BW, Bernstein SM (1981). Female-to-male transsexuals and their partners. Can J Psychiatry. 1981 Apr;26(3):178-82. PMID 7237357
  • Bernstein SM, Steiner BW, Glaister JT, Muir CF (1981). Changes in patients with gender-identity problems after parental death. Am J Psychiatry. 1981 Jan;138(1):41-5. PMID 7446780
  • Steiner BW, Satterberg JA, Muir CF (1978). Flight into femininity. The male menopause? Can Psychiatr Assoc J. 1978 Oct;23(6):405-10. PMID 709491
  • Bradley SJ, Steiner B, Zucker K, Doering RW, Sullivan J, Finegan JK, Richardson M (1978). Gender identity problems of children and adolescents: the establishment of a special clinic. Can Psychiatr Assoc J. 1978 Apr;23(3):175-83. PMID 647617
  • Freund K, Langevin R, Satterberg J, Steiner B (1977). Extension of the Gender Identity Scale for Males. Arch Sex Behav. 1977 Nov;6(6):507-19. PMID 931627
  • Langevin R, Paitich D, Steiner B (1977). The clinical profile of male transsexuals living as females vs. those living as males. Arch Sex Behav. 1977 Mar;6(2):143-54. PMID 849139
  • Nelson C, Paitich D, Steiner BW (1976). Medicolegal aspects of transsexualism. Can Psychiatr Assoc J. 1976 Dec;21(8):557-64. PMID 1024695
  • Garfinkel PE, Steiner BW, Hunter RC (1974). The processes of psychiatric residency training. II. Trainees who drop out. Can Psychiatr Assoc J. 1974 Apr;19(2):201-6. PMID 4829419
  • Steiner BW, Garfinkel PE, Hunter RC (1974). The processes of psychiatric residency training. I. Selection of trainees and the outcome of training. Can Psychiatr Assoc J. 1974 Apr;19(2):193-200. PMID 4829418
  • Freund K, Nagler E, Langevin R, Zajac A, Steiner B (1974). Measuring feminine gender identity in homosexual males. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 3, 1974: 249-260. PMID 4836843
  • Freund K, Langevin R, Zajac Y, Steiner B, Zajac A (1974). Parent-child relations in transsexual and non-transsexual homosexual males. Br J Psychiatry. 1974 Jan;124(578):22-3. PMID 4822411
  • Freund K, Langevin R, Zajac Y, Steiner B, Zajac A (1974). The trans-sexual syndrome in homosexual males.J Nerv Ment Dis. 1974 Feb;158(2):145-53. PMID 4813925
  • Steiner BW, Zajac AS, Mohr JW (1974). A gender identity project. The organization of a multidisciplinary study. Can Psychiatr Assoc J. 1974 Feb;19(1):7-12. PMID 4812981
  • Steiner BW (1973). The crisis of middle age. Can Med Assoc J. 1973 Nov 17;109(10):1017-8 passim. PMID 4758860


  1. ^ Millar, Cal (February 17, 1994). Fumes kill psychiatrist, husband clings to life. Car left running in garage of Rosedale home. Toronto Star
  2. ^ Kirkwood Leone (January 27, 1973). Work described with children having 2 sexes. The Globe and Mail
  3. ^ Haworth, Eric (May 9, 1963). The bright promise of the professions. The Woman's Globe and Mail section of The Globe and Mail
  4. ^ Central Press Association (February 17, 1968). Doctor discusses abortions. The Calgary Herald
  5. ^ Barnes, Alan (March 3, 1994). Andrew Conduit, 80, held top post at Reader's Digest. Toronto Star
  6. ^ Millar, Cal (February 26, 1994). Car-fumes accident claims second life. Toronto Star

External links[edit]