||This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. (February 2010)|
|Bhadrakālī (Good Kali, Mahamaya Kali)|
|Sanskrit Transliteration||भद्र कालि|
|Tamil script||பத்ர காளி|
|Mantra||oṁ glauṁ bhadrakālyai namaḥ|
|Weapon||Trident, Scimitar, Sword, Cleaver, Discus, Conch Shell, Spear, Mace, Vajra, Shield, Waterpot, Drinking Bowl, Goad, Dagger, Demon head|
Bhadrakālī (Sanskrit: भद्रकाली, Tamil: பத்ரகாளி, Telugu: భద్రకాళి, Malayalam: ഭദ്രകാളി, Kannada: ಭದ್ರಕಾಳಿ, Kodava: ಭದ್ರಕಾಳಿ) (literally "Good Kali,") is a Hindu goddess popular in Southern India. She is one of the fierce forms of the Great Goddess (Devi) mentioned in the Devi Mahatmyam. Bhadrakali is the popular form of Devi worshipped in Kerala as Sri Bhadrakali and Kariam Kali Murti Devi. In Kerala she is seen as the auspicious and fortunate form of Kali who protects the good. It is believed that Bhadrakāli was a local deity that was assimilated into the mainstream Hinduism, particularly into Shaiva mythology. She is represented with three eyes, and four, twelve or eighteen hands. She carries a number of weapons, with flames flowing from her head, and a small tusk protruding from her mouth. Her worship is also associated with the Tantric tradition of the Matrikas as well as the tradition of the ten Mahavidyas and falls under the broader umbrella of Shaktism.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Origins
- 3 Story of Darika
- 4 Various traditions and forms of worship
- 5 Martial arts and Bhadrakali
- 6 Family deity of communities
- 7 Kalidasa and Vikramaditya
- 8 Folk Art ritual of Kerala and Bhadrakali
- 9 Famous Bhadrakali Temples
- 10 Pathiyanadu Sree Bhadrakali Temple
- 11 Deities
- 12 Festival
- 13 Nercha
- 14 Pooja Timings
- 15 Cultural Programmes
- 16 References
- 17 External links
In Sanskrit, Bhadra means good. A major religious interpretation of this name is that Bhadra comes from 'Bha' and 'dra', The letter 'Bha' means 'delusion' or 'Maya' in Devanagiri and 'dra' is used as a superlative i.e. meaning 'the most/the greatest e.t.c' which makes the meaning of Bhadra as Maha Maya. The Sanskrit word 'Bhadra Kali' therefore can be translated to Hindi as 'Mahamaya Kali'.
There are at least three traditional versions regarding the origin-incarnations or avatar of Bhadrakali. The first version is from Devi Mahatmyam and basically a part of Shaktism, and it was during the battle between Raktabija and Shakti, according to this tradition. The second is associated with the Daksha and Dakshayaga, from the more Shaivism related tradition, and glimpses of this version can be seen in some Puranas. The third and the equally most famous one is her divine birth as the daughter of Shiva to liberate the world from demon Daruka.
According to Tantra Rahasya, she arose from the North (Uttaramnaya) face (Amnayas) of Shiva, which is blue in color and with three eyes.
Story of Darika
The demon Darika, after intense ascetic penances and practices, secured a boon from Lord Brahma that he would be invincible and would not get killed by any man. He began to harass the world and commit numerous crimes. When Lord Shiva came to know about the misdeeds of demon Darika, he became infuriated and created the Goddess Bhadrakali to kill the demon. Full of wrath, he opened his fiery third eye and the massive flaming form of Bhadrakali emerged. She was huge, wore a ferocious look and had countless heads, hands and legs. When Shiva requested Bhadra Kali to destroy Darika, she went through a forest and sought the help of bloodthirsty ghosts and spirits who lived there. When Darika saw Bhadrakali and her largely female army coming, he laughed and dismissed her, forgetting that his boon of invincibility did not pervent his being killed by a woman. After a fierce battle, Bhadrakali and her assistants finally finished him off, and the Goddess began to return home from Kailash, full of wrath and excitement and holding the head of Darika in her left hand. When she reached Kailash, her father Shiva tempted to calm her wrath by dancing naked before her and offering her worship. She was satisfied and henceforth began to receive offerings from devotees as a boon from Shiva.
Various traditions and forms of worship
According to her Keralan devotees, the events described in the Markandeya Purana associated with Bhadrakali (her slaying of the demon Daruka to liberate the universe from the evil) took place in Kerala, near Madayi in the Kannur District. Bhadrakali temples in Kerala commemorate this event during traditional festivals and Bhadrakali is worshipped as the daughter of Lord Shiva, from whose third eye she sprung to defeat the demon. According to the Markandeya Purana, her worship purifies the devotee and grants liberation from the cycle of birth and death. She is seen to protect the honour of women and to bestow all spiritual knowledge. In Kerala, she called Virabhadra her "brother" and refused to be treated by him when she was attacked by the deity Vasoorimala, who had marked her face with smallpox. She said that a brother must not touch the face of his sister. Thus, mild pockmarks are sometimes visible on her face in some Keralan depictions of her.
Among the people of the neighboring states, especially in Tamil Nadu, this form of Shakti is known as 'Malayala Bhagavathy' or 'Malayala Bhadrakali', who provides protection to her devotees irrespective of caste and religion.
In Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and the Southern Travancore area of Kerala, especially in the city of Thiruvananthapuram, the Tamil, Kannada and Telugu speaking communities worship a form of Mahakali as 'Ujjaini Mahakali', and they consider Emperor Vikramaditya as their first teacher in this spiritual tradition as having established the tradition in the South.
In other parts of India, the Tantric name 'Kali' or 'Mahakali' is generally more popular as the consort of Shiva in his form of Rudra or Mahakala, and Bhadrakali is identified as Durga's daughter who helped her during the battle with Raktabija. Other sources state that she is the sister of Virabhadra, who was himself born of the wrath of Shiva as Rudra, and that she is the consort of a form of Mahakala or Bhairava. The deeply Tantric-influenced traditions mostly consider 'Kali' as the consort of Shiva.
Martial arts and Bhadrakali
It is believed Bhadrakali protects the practitioners of Kalarippayattu, a traditional martial arts form. In Malabar, it is believed that all the victories of Thacholi Othenan and other martial artists were due to the blessings of Bhadrakali of the Lokanarkavu Temple, also known as 'The Shaolin Temple of Malayalees'. Most traditional villages in Kerala have their own Kalari, the ancient martial arts schools and local temples dedicated to Bhadrakali associated with them. Among Tamils, Bhadrakali is equally important as the patron deity of traditional martial arts and a guardian of all law abiding citizens.
Family deity of communities
Some communities, like the Kodavas and Nairs, worship this deity as family deity. They worship certain weapons at their temples which they believe to be the weapons used by the goddess. The Kuladevata or community deity of Kudumbi community is Kodungalluramma,the mother goddess of kodungallur. Kodungallur Bhagavathy Temple is one of the most famous temples in Kerala, dedicated to Bhadrakali. During the 'thalappoli' festival, which is celebrated mainly on Makar Sankranti, kudumbi people from all over the state (especially South Kerala) come to the temple. Bhadrakali is also the tutelary deity of the Nadar community of Tamil Nadu.
Kalidasa and Vikramaditya
According to legends, the famous Indian Sanskrit poet Kalidasa became what he was thanks to the divine will of Bhadrakali. Another legend states that the emperor Vikramaditya and his brother Bhatti were also ardent devotees of Bhadrakali, whose blessings resulted in all the success showered upon them. Vikramaditya also helped to establish small wayside Bhadrakali temples and prayer centers for pilgrims in many parts of Southern India, especially in Tamil Nadu. The devotional traditions focused around these small temples exist even today.
Folk Art ritual of Kerala and Bhadrakali
Kerala has a tradition of folk artist rituals and dances associated with worship of Devi in the form of Bhadrakali. These rituals are performed in places of worship called Kavu (roughly translated as grove) or in small temples. Besides the general welfare of the village, these rituals aim at warding off of such calamities like smallpox and other epidemic diseases. The ritual themes generally revolve around the triumph of Bhadrakali over the demon Daruka and other evil characters.
The dance forms are:
- Alpindi Vilakku
Famous Bhadrakali Temples
Pathiyanadu Sree Bhadrakali Temple
The Pathiyanadu Sree Bhadrakali Temple is a highly famous revered shrine in Kerala, India. The shrine is in Mullassery. It is 1.5 kilometres (0.93 miles) from Karakulam. It is 12.5 kilometres (7.8 miles) from Thiruvananthapuram. The temple is managed by Pathiyanadu sree Bhadrakali Kshetram Trust.
The temple enshrines Goddess Bhadrakali as the presiding Diety. The idol stands for Goddess Bhadrakali, the daughter of Lord Shiva. Goddess Kali is situated toward the north (vadakke nada). The idol is known in the local Malayalam language as Thirumudi. The idol of the Goddess in the Pathiyanadu temple is one of the largest among the idols of Kerala Kali temples. The idol is four and a half feet in height as well as width. Other deities worshipped at the Pathiyanadu Sree Bhadrakali Temple called Upadevatha's temples include Lord MahaGanapathy and Nagaraja. The temple also has a small sub-temple where another deity Madan Thampuran is enshrined.
Pathiyanadu Sree Bhadrakali Temple Festival held every year, usually between February and March. But the Dikkubali Mahotsavam held on every three years and Paranettu Mahotsavam held on every six years. These Festivals begins in Malayalam month of Kumbham and the nakshatra Bharani, So all these festivals called Kumbhabharani Mahotsavam.
Swayamvara Parvathy Pooja
This pooja is held on the Festival time ie on the Third day of Festival, On that day girls above 18 came here and participate in this pooja to remove their Dhoshas on their marriage, and get married soon and also get good groom. On that day Trikalayanam( marriage of goddess Bhadrakali, based on Chilapathikaram )takesplaces. There are thousands and thousands of people came here to see this pooja and participate Trikalayanam and to get goddess blessings.
It is the pooja which is seen only in this temple in kerala. It is on the Festival days many people participate in this pooja to remove Durdevadas from their house and get Lekshmi Devi's blessings to their house.
Grahadhosha Nivarana Pooja
It is the pooja which is seen only in this temple in kerala. It is on the Festival days many people participate in this pooja to remove Dhosham like (black magic etc) from their house.
It is the pooja hels on the fifth day of festival, it is performed by priest of the temple performs some trance like dances until he is unconscious. It is done to remove Dhosham like Drishti dhosham, Vilidhosham, Black Magict etc. It believed that on this pooja the presiding diety's bhoothaganams remove these dhosham from the people who paticipated in this pooja and also to the people who watching this pooja.
It is performed by the Kshetra thantri, on Festival day. This pooja is conducted to remove Sarppadhoshas.
Kalamkaval is a famous customs practiced at the temple premises and nearby places during festival. It is believed that the Goddess Bhadrakali searches her enemy demon, Daaruka in all directions before putting him to death. Devotees commemorate this legend by seeing this unique Kalamkaval. Kalamkaval is the ritual in which chief priest, carries the idol on his head and performs some trance like dances until he is unconscious. During kalamkaval, chief priest wears anklet and thiruvabharam (traditional gold ornaments of goddess that includes kappu, vanki, odyanam, paalakka mala, pichi mottu mala, muthu mala etc.). All people believe that the priest gets strength to carry on the trance with the idol on his head, due to the blessings of the Devi enshrined in the temple.
It is believed that Pathiyanadu Sree Bhadrakali searches her enemy demon, Daaruka in all four directions before putting him to death.The four directions are East, South, West, North and also in each of these direction Kalamkaval and Gurusi takesplace.
It is believed that a fight erupted between Devi and the demon Darikan in sky. The fight is enacted on a specially erected stage, about 100 feet high and is conducted at night known as Paranettu.
Nilathilporu that marks the conclusion of the Kumbhabharani Paranettu festival at Pathiyanadu Sree Bhadrakali Temple. During the climactic moment of this ceremony, the demon Daarika (the man with the symbolic crown in the foreground) weeps and begs for mercy from the Goddess. Subsequently the Goddess beheads the demon.
The festival, ended with a grand procession knows as Aaraattu. During Aaraattu the Idol is cleaned using water collected from 101 pots. Aaraattu is conducted at Pathiyanadu Ambalakkadavu. Girls below ten years of age, along with chief priest performs the function.
Pongala at Pathiyanadu Sree Bhadrakali Temple is celebrated during the Festival of Malayalam month of Kumbham on the Punartham Nakshatram (Punarvasu Nakshatra). Pongala is the rice cooked with jaggery, ghee, coconut as well as other ingredients in the open in small pots by women to please the Goddess. In Pathiyanadu Sree Bhadrakali Temple Pongal Thousands and Thousands of Women from different places came and put pongala to makes their wishes true.
Akathu Nivedhyam, Kumkumaarchana, Ikyamathyarchana, Vidhyaasooktham, Rakthapushpaarchana, Bhaagyasooktharchana, Saraswathymantrarchana, Shatruthaasamhararchana, Swayamvaraarchana, Muttirakku (only on sundays), Kumkumabhishekam(only on sundays), Manjalabhishekam(only on sundays), ManjalPara(only on sundays), Swayamavara homam (specific months), Ganapathy homam, Mahaganapathy homam (on swayamvarahomam days and on vinayaka chathurthi),Chandika Homam (once in a year),Guruthi Pushpanjali (only on sundays), Thattam pooja(with all fruits), Nagarchana, Ayilya Pooja, Thulaabhaaram, Kunjoonu, Aazhcha Pooja, Visheshal Pooja etc.
The Temple opens on every Tuesday (03:30pm –07:30pm), Friday (04:00pm–07:30pm), Sunday (07:30am–01:00pm). First day of all Malayalam months, temple will open at morning 5.30am and close at 12.00pm and open at evening 04:00pm and close at 07:00pm(On all first day of Malayalam Month, Annadhanam is there). And also Temple opens on all Hindu Festivals.
There are many cultural programmes held on Festival days, Karkkidakavavu bali, etc. On the Festival days Samskaarika Sammelanam takes place. On that occasion several awards are given to the talented people. Awards like the sadhchitra award, Kalamadhyamasreshtta Puraskaaram, and also awards for the students who are talented in several arts and also in studies. The Kalamadhyamasreshtta Puraskaaram is given to the people who show talent in the fields of Films, Media, etc. In 2011, the Kalamadhyamasreshtta Puraskaaram was given to the actress Chippi; in 2012 it was given to cinema serial actress Indhulekha; In 2013 to Actor Madhu, in 2014 to Sugathakumari teacher, and in 2015 to Kavaalam Narayana Panicker
- Vazhappully temple, Vazhappully Temple in Thrissur, Kerala is a Hindu Temple famous for Guruthi Pooja for Goddess Kali. Guruthi Pooja at Vazhappully Temple is offered for the fierce form of Goddess Kali at Night. During Guruthi pooja the guruthi is offered to the Goddess. Guruthi is a creamed mixture of Turmeric, slaked lime and other pooja ingredients. Guruthi represents blood which is vitality.
- Kalighat Kali Temple,Kalighat Kali Temple is a Hindu temple in West Bengal, India dedicated to the Hindu goddess Kali. It is one of the 51 Shakti Peethas.The temple is visited by pilgrims from all over India irrespective of sectarian differences.Kalighat is also associated with the worship offered to Kali by a Dasanami Monk by name Chowranga Giri, and the Chowringee area of Calcutta is said to have been named after him.
- Bhadrakali Temple in Warangal, Telangana. Bhadrakali (Maha Kali Mata) was the principal deity of the Hindu Kakatiya kingdom of Warangal (Oragallu or Ekashilanagaram) that ruled most of Andhra Pradesh during that period. Rituals and animal (and human, by some accounts) sacrifices on a large scale were performed to invoke the blessings of Goddess Bhadrakali before the Kakatiya warriors went off for battle. As per the writings on the temple wall this temple is believed to be constructed by the King Pulakesi II of Chalukya dynasty around 625 A.D
- Thiruvarkadu Bhagavaty Temple in Payangadi, Kannur, Kerala is the first and foremost Bhadrakali Temple at a place believed to be the fortress of Darukasura. Bhadrakali beheaded Daruka here. The Shakteya Sampradaya pooja is well known here. It is done by Bhattarakas (Pidararas) who are migrant priests from Kashmir and Bengal. The idol of Bhadrakali is around 6 feet tall and is portrayed in the form of slaying Daruka. Tiruvarkattu Bahagavaty Temple is famous for the removal of black magic.
- Kodungallur Bhagavathy Temple, Thrissur, Kerala; is one of the oldest temple in India built during the Sangam age. Mahodayapuram (Kodungallur) was the capital of the Chera Empire which ruled Kerala. Shri Bhadrakali in her fierce form is worshipped along with Mahadevar(Siva) and Saptamathrukkal.
- Thirumandhamkunnu Temple at Angadippuram, Kerala; A famous temple of Shri Bhadrakali, for marriage and child.
- [Kottekkavu Bhagavathy temple] at Kottappady near Kothamangalam one of the oldest of kali temples and famous for the Muduyet ritual held once in every 12 years "Garudan Thookkam on "Meena Bharani","Sathrutha samhara pooja" and "."Rakhshassinum sarpathinum padmamittu nivediam".
- Kalarivathukkal Bhagavathy Temple, Kannur, Kerala; the fierce form of Bhadrakali, as the mother of the martial art Kalaripayattu. Theyyam the folk dance in Malabar starts with the permission of the Chirakkal Raja and the final theyyam in entire Kerala is in Kalarivathukkal Temple. The rituals are in Sakteya method.
- Tirumanthamkunnu Temple, angadipuram, malappuram dist
- Chettikulangara Devi Temple, near Mavelikkara, Kerala
- Panayannarkavu, near Mavelikkara, Kerala
- Pattupurakkavu Bhagavathi temple, Pandalam
- Kalika Mata Temple, Chittorgarh
- Azhoor Bhagavathy Temple, Azhoor, Thiruvananthapuram.
- Rajarajeshwari Temple, Perunguzhi, Thiruvananthapuram.
- Chilambil Bhagavathy Temple, Chilambil, Thiruvananthapuram.
- Sarkaradevi Temple, in Thiruvananthapuram
- Malayalappuzha Devi Temple, in Pathanamthitta
- elangavath kavu moovatupuzha, eranakulam dist. kerala
- Bharanikavu temple kattanam, near mavelikara, alappuzha
- Nanatty Bhagavathy vishnumaya temple 4 km FROM CHALAKUDY,THRISSUR DISTRICT,KERALA
- Paramekkavu Bagavathi Temple in Thrissur.
- Pisharikavu, Koyilandy, Kozhikode,
- Kadinamkulam Padickavilakom Bharanicadu Sree Bhagavathi Temple
The famous Bhadrakali temple located in Kadinamkulam and The festival starts on the shivrathri day of every year.
- Vellayani Devi Temple, Trivandrum, Kerala. One of the most famous Bhadrakali temple, situated at Vellayani, Trivandrum, Kerala conducting longest non-pilgrimage festival in India (60 days of festival once in 3 years). Idol in this temple is very huge and made up of pure gold. The temple is entirely different from other temples due to its traditional rituals.
- A temple of Bhadrakali is found at a place called Bajna at a distance of 36 km from Ratlam city in Malwa region. This Bhadrakali temple is of the period of Parmara rulers and known as Garhkhankhai mataji. This temple is situated in dense forested area of the valley at the sangam of Karan river and Mahi river. Raja Bhoj constructed this temple. This place is also recognized as shaktipitha in India. The excavations at this site has produced rare idols of Shiva in yoga pose, Lakshmi, Gajasursanhar, Surya and Nataraja. The world famous 'Tripurasundari ma' temple at a distance of 60 km from this place is situated at village Talwada in Banswara district in Rajasthan. An inscription of 1540 AD found here reveals that this temple was constructed prior to the rule of Kanishka. Some people[who?] believe it to be constructed before 3rd century AD. There was a very ancient place here known as 'Garhpoli' which is called as 'Umarai' at present. Excavations in 1982 at this place have produced idols of Shiva with Parvati on his thigh. Ganesha and Kartikeya are seated on both sides.
- Pathirakali Amman Temple, Trincomalee, is on Konesar Road, near Swami Rock (Konamalai), home of Koneswaram temple
- Mulluthara Devi Temple, Sree Bhadra Kali & Kariam Kali Moorthi devis - Adoor, Malamekkara, Pathanamthitta, Kerala
- Mathur mannampully kali Bagavathi Temple in palakkad.
- Kodimatha Pallipurathu Kavu Bhagavathy Temple
- Bhadrakali mata temple at village kolar tehsil paonta sahib, distt sirmour, himachal pradesh. It is 22 km from paonta sahib on NH72. The idol in this temple is huge. The temple is being visited by pilgrims..
- A famous Bhadrakali temple is at sehpau. It is 35&npsb;km from district hathras.
- "A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary". Dsal.uchicago.edu. 2002-06-01. Retrieved 2012-02-23.
- the Horse-worship of the Prajapati Daksha The Mahabharata translated by Kisari Mohan Ganguli (1883 -1896), Book 12: Santi Parva: Mokshadharma Parva: Section CCLXXXIV. p. 317. “I am known by the name of Virabhadra’’ and I have sprung from the wrath of Rudra. This lady (who is my companion), and who is called Bhadrakali, hath sprung from the wrath of the goddess.”
- Vishnu Purana SACRIFICE OF DAKSHA (From the Vayu Purana.) The Vishnu Purana, translated by Horace Hayman Wilson, 1840. p. 62, "In former times, Daksha commenced a holy sacrifice on the side of Himaván, at the sacred spot Gangadwara, frequented by the Rishis. The gods, desirous of assisting at this solemn rite, came, with Indra at their head, to Mahadeva, and intimated their purpose; and having received his permission, departed in their splendid chariots to Gangadwára, as tradition reports.” 62:2 The Linga (Purana) is more precise, calling it Kanakhala, which is the village still called Kankhal, near Haridwar. p. 68 I am called Virabhadra, the issue of the wrath of Rudra. Bhadrakálí also, who has sprung from the anger of Devi…
- Shakti and Shâkta by Arthur Avalon (Sir John Woodroffe), , Chapter Six Shakti and Shakta. “4) The face in the North is blue in color and with three eyes. By this face, I revealed the Devis, Dakshinakalika, Mahakali, Guhyakah, Smashanakalika, Bhadrakali, Ekajata, Ugratara, Taritni, Katyayani, Chhinnamasta, Nilasarasvati, Durga, Jayadurga, Navadurga, Vashuli, Dhumavati, Vishalakshi, Gauri, Bagalamukhi, Pratyangira, Matangi, Mahishamardini, their rites and Mantras.”
- Maha Kshethrangalude Munnil, D. C. Books, Kerala
- Markandeya Purana
- Robert L. Hardgrave (1969). The Nadars of Tamilnad: The Political Culture of a Community in Change. University of California Press. p. 38. ISBN 81-7304-701-4.
- Ujjaini Mahakali Ammanin Varalaru, Mahatmyam
- Amit Nigam: Ratlam ki Tripura sundari, Democratic World, 28 December 2006
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bhadrakali.|
- Dictionary of Hindu Lore and Legend (ISBN 0-500-51088-1) by Anna Dallapiccola
- Maha Kshethrangalude Munnil, D. C. Books, Kerala