Bhangar I

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Bhangar I
Community development block
Bhangar I is located in West Bengal
Bhangar I
Bhangar I
Location in West Bengal
Coordinates: 22°27′02″N 88°36′41″E / 22.45056°N 88.61139°E / 22.45056; 88.61139
Country  India
State West Bengal
District South 24 Parganas
Parliamentary constituency Jadavpur, Jaynagar
Assembly constituency Bhangar, Canning Purba
Area
 • Total 59.31 sq mi (153.62 km2)
Elevation 26 ft (8 m)
Population (2011)
 • Total 249,170
 • Density 4,200/sq mi (1,600/km2)
Time zone IST (UTC+5.30)
PIN 743507 (Bodra)
Area code(s) 03218
Vehicle registration WB-19, WB-20, WB-22
Literacy Rate 72.06 per cent
Website http://s24pgs.gov.in/

Bhangar I (archaic spelling Bhangore) is a community development block that forms an administrative division in Baruipur subdivision of South 24 Parganas district in the Indian state of West Bengal.

History[edit]

Tebhaga movement[edit]

During the Bengal famine of 1943 the Communist Party of India provided relief to the peasantry of the Sundarbans area. In September 1946 Bangiya Pradeshik Kisan Sabha decided to launch the Tebhaga movement. The peasant movement broke out in Kakdwip, Sonarpur, Bhangar and Canning. Kakdwip and Namkhana were the storm centres of the movement. The movement aimed at improving the share of the peasant engaged as sharecroppers. The prominent leaders of the movement were: Kansari Halder, Ashoke Bose and Rash Behari Ghosh. Peasant leaders like Gajen Malik, Manik Hazra, Jatin Maity, Bijoy Mondal and others rose to prominence. The movement continued till 1950, when the Bargadari Act was enacted. The Act recognised the right of the sharecropper to two-thirds of the produce when he provided the inputs.[1]

Land reforms[edit]

Although the Bargadari Act of 1950 recognised the rights of bargadars to a higher share of crops from the land that they tilled, it was not implemented. Large tracts, beyond the prescribed limit of land ceiling, remained with the rich landlords. In 1967, West Bengal witnessed a peasant uprising, against non-implementation of land reforms legislation, starting from Kheyadaha gram panchayat in Sonarpur CD Block. From 1977 onwards major land reforms took place in West Bengal under the Left Front government. Land in excess of land ceiling was acquired and distributed amongst the peasants. Subsequently, “Operation Barga” was aimed at securing tenancy rights for the peasants. In Bhangar I CD Block 2,228.47 acres of land was acquired and vested. Out of this 1,292.81 acres or 58.14% of the vested land was distributed amongst the peasants. The total number of patta holders was 4,364.[2]

Geography[edit]

Location[edit]

Bodra, a constituent panchayat of Bhangore I block, is located at 22°27′02″N 88°36′41″E / 22.4505°N 88.6115°E / 22.4505; 88.6115.

Bhangar I CD Block is bounded by Bhangar II CD Block in the north, Minakhan CD Block in North 24 Parganas district in the east, Canning II block in the south and Sonarpur CD Block in the west.[3][4]

It is located 32 km from Alipore, the district headquarters.[3]

Area and administration[edit]

Bhangar I CD Block has an area of 153.62 km2. Bhangar police station serves this CD Block. Bhangar I panchayat samity has 9 gram panchayats. The block has 82 inhabited villages.[5] Headquarters of this block is at Gobindapur.

Topography[edit]

South 24 Parganas district is divided into two distinct physiographic zones: the marine-riverine delta in the north and the marine delta zone in the south. As the sea receded southwards, in the sub-recent geological period, a large low lying plain got exposed. Both tidal inflows and the rivers have been depositing sediments in this plain. The periodical collapse of both the natural levees and man-made embankments speed up the process of filling up of the depressions containing brackish water wetlands. The marine delta in the south is formed of interlacing tidal channels. As non-saline water for irrigation is scarce, agriculture is monsoon dominated. Some parts of the wetlands are still preserved for raising fish.[6]

Gram panchayats[edit]

Gram panchayats of Bhangore I block/panchayat samiti are: Bodra, Chandaneswar I, Chandaneswar II, Durgapur, Jagulgachhi, Narayanpur, Pranganj, Sanksahar and Tardah.[7]

Demographics[edit]

Population[edit]

As per 2011 Census of India Bhangar I CD Block had a total population of 249,170, of which 228,528 were rural and 20,642 were urban. There were 127,702 (51%) males and 121,465 (49%) females. Population below 6 years was 35,693. Scheduled Castes numbered 52,312 and Scheduled Tribes numbered 3,133.[8]

As per 2001 census, Bhangore I block had a total population of 204,326, out of which 104,670 were males and 99,656 were females. Bhangore I block registered a population growth of 24.50 per cent during the 1991-2001 decade. Decadal growth for South 24 Parganas district was 20.89 per cent. Decadal growth in West Bengal was 17.84 per cent. Scheduled castes at 47,822 formed around one-fourth the population. Scheduled tribes numbered 7,138.[5][9][10]

Census towns and large villages[edit]

Census towns in Bhangar I CD Block (2011 census figures in brackets): Maricha (4,842), Bhangar Raghunathpur (6,037) and Gobindapur (9,763).[8]

Large villages in Bhangar I CD Block (2011 census figures in brackets): Kharamba (4,591), Tardaha Kapasati (11,869), Ghunimeghi (4,151), Narayanpur (9,107), Madhabpur (4,369), Dari Madhabpur (6,556), Chak Barali (5,978), Dhara (5,231), Ghatak Pukur (5,048), Kalikapur (4,591), Rani Gachhi (4,265), Satberia (5,019), Kashinathpur (4,688), Chandaneswar (4,980), Khar Gachhi (4,673), Naora (4,572), Bodra (5,324) and Badi (4,173).[8]

Literacy[edit]

As per 2011 census the total number of literates in Bhangar I CD Block was 153,835 (72.06% of the population over 6 years) out of which 84,390 (55%) were males and 69,445 (45%) were females.[8]

As per 2011 census, literacy in South 24 Parganas district was 77.51[11] Literacy in West Bengal was 77.08% in 2011.[12] Literacy in India in 2011 was 74.04%.[12]

As per 2001 census, Bhangore I block had a total literacy of 60.55 per cent for the 6+ age group. While male literacy was 69.57 per cent female literacy was 51.05 per cent. South 24 Parganas district had a total literacy of 69.45 per cent, male literacy being 79.19 per cent and female literacy being 59.01 per cent.[5]

See also – List of West Bengal districts ranked by literacy rate


Language[edit]

Bengali is the local language in these areas.[3]

Religion[edit]

Religion in Bhangar I CD Block
Muslim
  
67.38%
Hindu
  
32.38%
Others
  
0.24%

In the 2011 census Muslims numbered 167,892 and formed 67.38% of the population in Bhangar I CD Block. Hindus numbered 80,669 and formed 32.38% of the population. Others numbered 609 and formed 0.24% of the population.[13]

In the 2011 census, Hindus numbered 5,155,545 and formed 63.17% of the population in South 24 Parganas district. Muslims numbered 2,903,075 and formed 35.57% of the population.[13] In West Bengal Hindus numbered 64,385,546 and formed 70.53% of the population. Muslims numbered 24,654,825 and formed 27.01% of the population.[13]

Human Development Report[edit]

According to the South 24 Parganas district Human Development Report it is an overwhelmingly rural district with 85% of the population living in rural areas. An analysis of the district’s population shows that 33 percent of the district’s population belongs to Scheduled Castes. While 65.86% of people are Hindus, 33.24% are Muslims. 86% of the population resided in the 29 CD Blocks. In 2005, more than 4 lakh households were identified as living below poverty line, pushing the poverty ratio in the district to 34.11%, way above the state and national poverty ratios.[14]

Bhangar I CD Block has a poverty ratio of 28.22% of the households in 2005. In standard of living it had a rank 12 amongst all the 29 blocks. In Infrastructure development it had the 5th rank amongst all CD Blocks. In Bhangar I, 20.16% households have access to electricity. The length of surfaced roads is 0.70 km per km2 area. The number of bank branches is 0.84 per 10,000 population. In Bhangar I, 47.12% of rural households are engaged as daily/ agricultural/ other physical labour, 20.40% are culivators, 9.60% are self-employed rural artisans/ hawkers, 7.97% are engaged in labour oriented regular jobs in the unorganised sector, and 14.92% are engaged in the organised sector or work as professionals.[14]

As per 1991 census, while male literacy rate was 56.97% female literacy was 28.89% and there was a gender gap of 27.08% in Bhangar I. The CD Blocks are gradually catching up with the municipalities in matters of literacy. In 2006, Bhangar I had 17 secondary and higher secondary schools. All of them had libraries but 14 of them did not have computer facilities.[14]

In 2006, in Bhangar I for 148 villages there were 23 health sub-centres and 2 rural hospital/public health centres having 25 beds with 5 medical officers, 7 nurses, 53 health assistants and 3 pharmacists and technicians. 74.0% of the 273 habitations in Bhangar I CD Block were fully covered with safe drinking water (including tube wells and tap water), 18.3% habitations were partly covered and 7.7% habitations not covered.[14]


Health[edit]

Certain areas of South 24 Parganas district has been identified where ground water is affected by arsenic contamination.[15] High levels of arsenic in ground water were found in twelve blocks of the district. Water samples collected from tubewells in the affected places contained arsenic above the normal level (10 microgram a litre as specified by the World Health Organisation). The affected blocks are Baruipur, Bhangar I, Bhangar II, Bishnupur I, Bishnupur II, Basanti, Budge Budge, Canning I, Canning II, Sonarpur, Mograhat II and Joynagar.[16]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "District Human Development Report: South 24 Parganas". Chapter 1.2, South 24 Parganas in Historical Perspective, pages 7-9. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2009. Retrieved 17 April 2016. 
  2. ^ "District Human Development Report: South 24 Parganas". (1) Chapter 1.2, South 24 Parganas in Historical Perspective, pages 7-9 (2) Chapter 3.4, Land reforms, pages 32-33. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2009. Retrieved 17 April 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c "Bhangar I Block". onefivenine. Retrieved 2 April 2016. 
  4. ^ "South 24 Parganas". CD Block/Tehsil map. Maps of India. Retrieved 2 April 2016. 
  5. ^ a b c "District Statistical Handbook – 2009 – South 24 Parganas" (PDF). South 24 Parganas at a glance, Tables 2.1, 2.2, 2.4 (b), 4.5. Bureau of Applied Economics and Statistics, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 3 April 2016. 
  6. ^ "District Human Development Report: South 24 Parganas". Chapter 1 South 24 Parganas: An Overview, p 9-12. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2009. Retrieved 1 April 2016. 
  7. ^ "Blocks and Gram Panchayats in South 24 Parganas". South 24 Parganas District Administration. Retrieved 1 April 2016. 
  8. ^ a b c d "C.D. Block Wise Primary Census Abstract Data(PCA)". 2011 census: West Bengal – District-wise CD Blocks. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 2 April 2016. 
  9. ^ "Provisional Population Totals, West Bengal. Table 4". Census of India 2001 – South 24 Parganas. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on July 19, 2011. Retrieved 2011-01-20. 
  10. ^ "Provisional Population Totals, West Bengal. Table 4". Census of India 2001. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved 2011-01-20. 
  11. ^ "District Census 2011". Population Census 2011. Retrieved 24 January 2016. 
  12. ^ a b "Provisional population tables and annexures" (PDF). Census 2011:Table 2(3) Literates and Literacy rates by sex. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 9 February 2016. 
  13. ^ a b c "C1 Population by Religious Community". West Bengal. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 18 June 2016. 
  14. ^ a b c d "District Human Development Report: South 24 Parganas". Intro: pp 16-19, 42 Block specific: pp 39-40, 73, 99, 132, 146, 192, 221. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2009. Retrieved 7 April 2016. 
  15. ^ "Groundwater Arsenic contamination in West Bengal-India (19 years study )". Groundwater arsenic contamination status of North 24-Parganas district, one of the nine arsenic affected districts of West Bengal-India. SOES. Retrieved 2011-09-28. 
  16. ^ "High arsenic levels in South". The Statesman, 24 June 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2011-09-28.