Bhapa describes Sikhs who migrated to India, especially from the Rawalpindi area, also known as the Khukhrain's area, and its neighbouring regions. The Bhapa name at first was only associated with migrated Sikh traders/shopkeepers.
Bhapa was a common term for the elder brother or father, and is still often used in that sense. It is somewhat equivalent of sir. Derived from Sanskrit Bappa or Vapra, it is cognate to Bawa. The term has occasionally been used as a royal title in some regions of India. The best-known king with the title was Bappa Rawal, the founder of the Guhilot dynasty.
- "The Sardar joke is on you". Mumbai Mirror. 3 January 2016. Retrieved 17 May 2016.
- "Nihang Fateh Singh ousted Master Tara Singh from the Shiromani Akali Dal, ascribing Tara Singh’s professorial leanings as a sign of weakness implicit in the caste to which he belonged, rejecting him as a meek Bhapa – a pejorative slang for the merchant-class Khatri and Aroras – in an open forum.".
- "The SAD’s chances will depend on the polarisation of Hindu votes and the extent to which urban Sikhs (Bhapas) would support a Hindu nominee.". Archived from the original on 2015-04-25.
- McLeod, W. H. (2005). Historical Dictionary of Sikhism. Rowman & Littlefield.
- Monier Williams' Sanskrit-English Dictionary
- Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, Printed at the Govt. Central Press, 1896