Bharat Petroleum

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Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited
Traded asBSE500547
IndustryOil and Gas
Founded1976 Edit this on Wikidata
HeadquartersMumbai, Maharashtra, India
Key people
D Rajkumar
(Chairman & MD)[1]
Natural gas
RevenueIncrease 342,916 crore (US$50 billion) (2019)[1]
Increase 11,968 crore (US$1.7 billion) (2019)[1]
Increase 8,527 crore (US$1.2 billion) (2019)[1]
Total assetsIncrease 136,930 crore (US$20 billion) (2019)[1]
Total equityIncrease 40,834 crore (US$5.9 billion) (2019)[1]
OwnerGovernment of India (53.29%)
Number of employees
12,157 (2018)[1]

Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL) is a Government of India controlled Maharatna[2] oil and gas company headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra.The Corporation operates two large refineries of the country located in Kochi and Mumbai.[3] The company is India's 2nd largest downstream oil company and is ranked 275th on the Fortune list of the world's biggest corporations as of 2019.[4] BPCL ranked 672 in the Forbes 2018 list.


1891 to 1976[edit]

The company today known as BPCL started off as Rangoon Oil and Exploration company set up to explore the new discoveries off Assam and Burma during the British colonial rule of India. In 1889 during vast industrial development, an important player in the South Asian market was the Burmah Oil Company. Though incorporated in Scotland in 1886, the company grew out of the enterprises of the Chef Rohit Oil Company, which had been formed in 1871 to refine crude oil produced from primitive hand dug wells in Upper Burma.

In 1928, Asiatic Petroleum Company (India) started cooperation with Burma oil company. Asiatic Petroleum was a joint venture of Royal Dutch, Shell and Rothschilds formed to address the monopoly of John D Rockefeller's Standard Oil, which also operated in India as Esso. This alliance led to the formation of Burmah-Shell Oil Storage and Distributing Company of India Limited. Burmah Shell began its operate operations with import and marketing of Kerosene.[5]

In the mid 1950s, the company began to sell LPG cylinders to homes in India and further expanded its delivery network. It also marketed kerosene, diesel and petrol in cans in order to reach remote parts of India. In 1951, the Burmah shell began to build a refinery in Trombay (Mahul, Maharashtra) under an agreement with the Government of India.

Post 1976[edit]

In 1976, the company was nationalized under the Act on the Nationalisation of Foreign Oil companies ESSO (1974), Burma Shell (1976) and Caltex (1977).[6] On 24 January 1976, the Burmah Shell was taken over by the Government of India to form Bharat Refineries Limited. On 1 August 1977, it was renamed Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited. It was also the first refinery to process newly found indigenous crude Bombay High.

BPCL petrol filling station near Nakirekal, Telangana, India
BPCL petrol filling station at Basaveshwaranagar, Bangalore, Karnataka, India

In 2003, the government attempted to further privatize the company. However, following a petition by the Centre for Public Interest Litigation, the Supreme Court restrained the Central government from privatizing Hindustan Petroleum and Bharat Petroleum without the approval of Parliament.[7] As counsel for the CPIL, Rajinder Sachar and Prashant Bhushan said that the only way to disinvest in the companies would be to repeal or amend the Acts by which they were nationalized in the 1970s.[8] As a result, the government would need a majority in both houses to push through any privatization.[9]

In 2016, the Repealing and Amending Act of 2016 annulled "187 obsolete and redundant laws lying unnecessarily on the Statue-Book" including the Act of 1976 that had nationalized erstwhile Burmah Shell. The government repealed the legislation that had nationalized the company, doing away with the need to seek Parliament nod before selling it off to private and foreign firms.[10]

In 2017, Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL) received Maharatna status, putting it in the category of government-owned entities in India with the largest market capitalization and consistently high profits.[2] status on 12 September 2017.

On the 21st of November 2019, the Government of India approved the privatization of Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL).[11]


Bharat Petroleum operates the following refineries:

The company business is divided in seven SBUs( Strategic Business Units), like Retail, Lubricants, Aviation, Refinery, Gas, I&C and LPG.

They have popular Loyalty Program like Petrocard, Smartfleet.


As of September 2018, 54% of the shares of BPCL were owned by the Government of India (through the President of India), with the rest owned by Foreign Portfolio Investors (17%), BPCL trust for investing in shares (9%), Mutual funds and UTI (7.5 %), Insurance companies (6%) and the balance held by individual share holders.[14]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g "Annual Report 2018 - 19" (PDF). Bharat Petroleum. 30 October 2018. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 July 2019. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
  2. ^ a b "BPCL gets Maharatna status; shares rise over 4%". The Economic Times. 12 September 2017. Archived from the original on 27 March 2019. Retrieved 28 December 2018.
  3. ^ "About BPCL - our journey". BPCL Official website. BPCL. Archived from the original on 11 October 2018. Retrieved 11 October 2018.
  4. ^ "Fortune Global 500 list". Archived from the original on 7 August 2019. Retrieved 18 October 2019.
  5. ^ "The history and journey of BPCL". BPCL. Archived from the original on 11 October 2018. Retrieved 11 October 2018.
  6. ^ "SC stays disinvestment in HPCL, BPCL". The Tribune. 17 September 2003. Archived from the original on 2 December 2008. Retrieved 11 October 2018.
  7. ^ SAMANWAYA RAUTRAY AND PHEROZE L. VINCENT (4 March 2011). "Feather in cap for graft fighters". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 9 May 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
  8. ^ Ramakrishna, G. V. (2004). Two Score and Ten: My Experiences in Government. Academic Foundation. p. 301. ISBN 8171883397.
  9. ^ Gopal Ganesh (2008). Privatisation And Labour Restructuring. Academic Foundation. p. 136. ISBN 8171886345.
  10. ^ "BPCL nationalisation Act repealed in 2016; privatisation way clear". Archived from the original on 8 October 2019. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
  11. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 23 November 2019. Retrieved 23 November 2019.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  12. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 19 September 2012. Retrieved 8 October 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  13. ^
  14. ^ "Shareholding pattern - September 2018". BPCL Official website. BPCL. Archived from the original on 11 October 2018. Retrieved 11 October 2018.
  15. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 9 May 2018. Retrieved 20 October 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)

External links[edit]