Bharoto Bhagyo Bidhata

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Bharoto Bhagyo Bidhata (Bengali: ভারত ভাগ্য বিধাতা, lit.'Dispenser of India's destiny') is a five-stanza Brahmo hymn in Bengali language[1] dedicated to Supreme divine God who is the dispenser of the destiny of India. It was composed and scored in Bengali by Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore in 1911. The first stanza of the song has been adopted as the National Anthem of India.[2][3][4]

History of Jana Gana Mana[edit]

The poem was first sung on the second day of the annual session of the Indian National Congress in Calcutta on 27 December 1911. Song was performed by Sarala Devi Chowdhurani, Tagore's niece, along with a group of school students, in front of prominent Congress Members like Bishan Narayan Dhar, Indian National Congress President and Ambika Charan Majumdar.

In 1912, the song was published under the title Bharat Bhagya Bidhata in the Tatwabodhini Patrika, which was the official publication of the Brahmo Samaj and of which Tagore was the Editor.

Outside of Calcutta, the song was first sung by the bard himself at a session in Besant Theosophical College in Madanapalle, Andhra Pradesh on 28 February 1919. The song enthralled the college authorities and they adopted the English version of the song as their prayer song which is still sang today. Tagore made the first English translation of the song at Madanapalle.

On the occasion of India attaining freedom, the Indian Constituent Assembly assembled for the first time as a sovereign body on 14 August 1947, midnight and the session closed with a unanimous performance of Jana Gana Mana.

The members of the Indian Delegation to the General Assembly of the United Nations held at New York in 1947 gave a recording of Jana Gana Mana as the country's national anthem. The song was played by the house orchestra in front of a gathering consisting of representatives from all over the world.

Jana Gana Mana was officially proclaimed as India's National Anthem by the Constituent Assembly of India on 24 January 1950.[5]

Lyrics of all 5 stanzas[edit]

The English translation below has been adapted from an unverifiable source.[6] Some changes have been made to both the translation and romanization.

Bengali (বাংলা) Bengali transliteration Romanisation of Bengali (ISO 15919) English translation

জনগণমন-অধিনায়ক জয় হে ভারতভাগ্যবিধাতা!
পাঞ্জাব সিন্ধু গুজরাট মরাঠা দ্রাবিড় উৎকল বঙ্গ
বিন্ধ্য হিমাচল যমুনা গঙ্গা উচ্ছলজলধিতরঙ্গ
তব শুভ নামে জাগে, তব শুভ আশিষ[a] মাগে,
গাহে তব জয়গাথা।
জনগণমঙ্গলদায়ক জয় হে ভারতভাগ্যবিধাতা!
জয় হে, জয় হে, জয় হে, জয় জয় জয় জয় হে॥

Jōno gōno mōno odhinayōko jōyo he Bharōto bhagyo bidhata!
Panjab Šindhu Gujraṯ Mōraṯha Drabiṟo Utkōlo Bōngo
Bindhyo Himachōlo Jomuna Gōnga Uchchhōlo jōlodhitōrongo
Tōbo shubho name jage, tōbo shubho ashisho mage,
Gahe tōbo jōyo gatha.
Jōno gōno mōngolodayōko jōyo he Bharōto bhagyo bidhata!
Jōyo he, jōyo he, jōyo he, jōyo jōyo jōyo jōyo he.

Janaganamana-adhināẏaka jaẏa hē Bhāratabhāgyabidhātā[b]!
Pañjāba Sindhu Gujarāṭa Marāṭhā Drābiṛa[c] Utkala Baṅga[d]
Bindhya[e] Himācala Yamunā Gaṅgā ucchalajaladhitaraṅga
Taba[f] Śubha nāmē jāgē, taba[f] śubha āśiṣa māgē,
gāhē taba[f] jaẏagāthā /
Janaganamaṅgaladāẏaka jaẏa hē Bhāratabhāgyabidhātā[b]!
Jaẏa hē, Jaẏa hē, Jaẏa hē, jaẏa jaẏa jaẏa jaẏa hē.

Oh! the ruler of the minds of people, victory be to You, dispenser of the destiny of India!
Punjab, Sindh, Gujarat, Maratha (Marathi heartland), Dravida (South India), Orissa and Bengal,
The Vindhyas, the Himalayas, the Jumna (Yamuna) and the Ganges, and the oceans with foaming waves all around.
Wake up listening to Your auspicious name, ask for Your auspicious blessings,
And sing to Your glorious victory.
Oh! You who impart well being to the people, victory be to You, dispenser of the destiny of India!
Victory, victory, victory to You!

অহরহ তব আহ্বান প্রচারিত, শুনি তব উদার বাণী
হিন্দু বৌদ্ধ শিখ জৈন পারসিক মুসলমান খৃস্টানী
পূরব পশ্চিম আসে তব সিংহাসন-পাশে
প্রেমহার হয় গাঁথা।
জনগণ-ঐক্য-বিধায়ক জয় হে ভারতভাগ্যবিধাতা!
জয় হে, জয় হে, জয় হে, জয় জয় জয় জয় হে॥

Ōhorōho tōbo aobhano procharito, shuni tōbo udaro bani;
Hindu Bouddho Shikh Joino Parošik Musolmano Khrishṯani
Purōbo poshchimo aše, tōbo šinghašōno pashe,
Premoharo hoy gãtha.
Jōno gōno oikyo-bidhayōko jōyo he Bharōto bhagyo bidhata!
Jōyo he, jōyo he, jōyo he, jōyo jōyo jōyo jōyo he.

Aharaha taba[f] āhbāna[g] pracārita, śuni taba[f] udāra bānī[h]
Hindu Baudhha[i] Śikha Jaina Pārasika Musalamāna Khr̥sṭānī
Pūraba[j] Paścima āsē taba[f] siṁhāsana-pāśē
Prēmahāra haẏa gām̐thā /
Janagana-aikya-bidhāẏaka[k] jaẏa hē Bhāratabhāgyabidhatā[b]!
Jaẏa hē, Jaẏa hē, Jaẏa hē, jaẏa jaẏa jaẏa jaẏa hē.

Your call is announced continuously, we heed Your gracious call
The Hindus, Buddhists, Sikhs, Jains, Parsis, Muslims and Christians,
The East and the West come together, to the side of Your throne
And weave the garland of love.
Oh! You who bring in the unity of the people! Victory be to You, dispenser of the destiny of India!
Victory, victory, victory to You!

পতন-অভ্যুদয়-বন্ধুর পন্থা, যুগ যুগ ধাবিত যাত্রী।
হে চিরসারথি, তব রথচক্রে মুখরিত পথ দিনরাত্রি।
দারুণ বিপ্লব-মাঝে তব শঙ্খধ্বনি বাজে
সঙ্কটদুঃখত্রাতা।
জনগণপথপরিচায়ক জয় হে ভারতভাগ্যবিধাতা!
জয় হে, জয় হে, জয় হে, জয় জয় জয় জয় হে॥

Pōtono obhyudhōyo bondhuro pōntha, jugo jugo dhabito jatri.
He chirošarothi, tōbo rōthochokre mukhoritho pōtho dinoratri.
Daruno biplōbo majhe, tōbo shōnkhodhoni baje
Šōnkoṯo duːkho trata.
Jōno gōno pōthoporichayōko jōyo he Bharōto bhagyo bidhata!
Jōyo he, jōyo he, jōyo he, jōyo jōyo jōyo jōyo he.

Patana-abhuyadaẏa-bandhura[l] panthā, yuga yuga dhābita[m] yātrī /
Hē cirasārathi, taba[f] rathacakrē mukharita patha dinarātri /
Dāruna biplaba-mājhē[n] taba[f] śaṅkhadhbani[o] bājē[p]
Saṅkaṭaduḥkhatrātā.
Janaganapathaparicāẏaka jaẏa hē Bhāratabhāgyabidhātā[b]!
Jaẏa hē, Jaẏa hē, Jaẏa hē, jaẏa jaẏa jaẏa jaẏa hē.

The way of life is somber as it moves through ups and downs, but we, the pilgrims, have followed it through ages.
Oh! Eternal Charioteer, the wheels of your chariot echo day and night in the path
In the midst of fierce revolution, your conch shell sounds.
You save us from fear and misery.
Oh! You who guide the people through torturous path, victory be to You, dispenser of the destiny of India!
Victory, victory, victory to You!

ঘোরতিমিরঘন নিবিড় নিশীথে পীড়িত মূর্ছিত দেশে
জাগ্রত ছিল তব অবিচল মঙ্গল নতনয়নে অনিমেষে।
দুঃস্বপ্নে আতঙ্কে রক্ষা করিলে অঙ্কে
স্নেহময়ী তুমি মাতা।
জনগণদুঃখত্রায়ক জয় হে ভারতভাগ্যবিধাতা!
জয় হে, জয় হে, জয় হে, জয় জয় জয় জয় হে॥

Ghōro timiro ghōno nibiro nishithe pirito murchhito deshe
Jagrōto chhilo tōbo obichōlo mōngolo nōtonōyone ōnimeshe.
Duːšopone atōnke rōkkha korile ōnke
Snehomoyi tumi mata.
Jōno gōno duːkhotrayōko jōyo he Bharōto bhagyo bidhata!
Jōyo he, jōyo he, jōyo he, jōyo jōyo jōyo jōyo he.

Ghōratimiraghana nibiṛa[q] niśīthē pīṛita mūrchita dēśē
Jāgrata chila taba[f] abicala[r] maṅgala natanaẏanē animeṣē /
Duḥsbapnē[s] ātaṅkē rakṣā karilē aṅkē
Snēhamaẏī tumi mātā /
Janaganaduḥkhatrāẏaka jaẏa hē Bhāratabhāgyabidhātā[b]!
Jaẏa hē, Jaẏa hē, Jaẏa hē, jaẏa jaẏa jaẏa jaẏa hē.

During the bleakest of nights, when the whole country was sick and in swoon
Wakeful remained Your incessant blessings, through Your lowered but wink-less eyes
Through nightmares and fears, you protected us on Your lap,
Oh Loving Mother
Oh! You who have removed the misery of the people, victory be to You, dispenser of the destiny of India!
Victory, victory, victory to You!

রাত্রি প্রভাতিল, উদিল রবিচ্ছবি পূর্ব-উদয়গিরিভালে –
গাহে বিহঙ্গম, পূণ্য সমীরণ নবজীবনরস ঢালে।
তব করুণারুণরাগে নিদ্রিত ভারত জাগে
তব চরণে নত মাথা।
জয় জয় জয় হে জয় রাজেশ্বর ভারতভাগ্যবিধাতা!
জয় হে, জয় হে, জয় হে, জয় জয় জয় জয় হে॥

Ratri probhatilo, udilo robichchhobi purbo udōyo giri bhale
Gahe bihōngōmo, punyo šomirōno nōbo jibōnorōšo dhale.
Tōbo korunaruno rage nidrito Bharōto jage
Tōbo chōrone nōto matha.
Jōyo jōyo jōyo he jōyo rajeshwōro Bharōto bhagyo bidhata!
Jōyo he, jōyo he, jōyo he, jōyo jōyo jōyo jōyo he.

Rātri prabhātila, udila rabicchabi[t] pūrba-udaẏagiribhālē[u] -
Gāhē bigaṅgama,[v] pūrnya samīrana nabajībanarasa[w] ḍhālē /
Taba[f] karunārurarāgē nidrita Bhārata jāgē
taba[f] caranē nata māthā /
Jaẏa Jaẏa Jaẏa hē jaẏa rājēśbara[x] Bhāratabhāgyabidhātā[b]!
Jaẏa hē, Jaẏa hē, Jaẏa hē, jaẏa jaẏa jaẏa jaẏa hē.

The night is over, and the Sun has risen over the hills of the eastern horizon.
The birds are singing, and a gentle auspicious breeze is pouring the elixir of new life.
By the halo of Your compassion, India that was asleep is now waking
On your feet we now lay our heads
Oh! Victory, victory, victory to you, the Supreme King, victory be to You, dispenser of the destiny of India!
Victory, victory, victory to You!

Apart from the above translation which follows the original very closely, Tagore's own interpretation of Jana Gana Mana in English is available as The Morning Song of India  – via Wikisource..

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.news18.com/news/movies/bharat-bhagyo-bidhata-from-rajkahini-is-a-tagore-song-and-not-an-extended-version-of-the-national-anthem-1108614.html IBNLive.com The original Tagore song – "Not a single note of the original Rabindranath Tagore composition has been altered"
  2. ^ Bhattacharya, Sabyasachi (2011). Rabindranath Tagore : an interpretation. New Delhi: Viking, Penguin Books India. p. 206. ISBN 978-0670084555. Incidentally a myth regarding this song needs to be refuted and laid to rest. It is on record that the song was written on 11 December 1911. On 12 December 1911 the Delhi Durbar met to honour King Emperor George V. Obviously a poem written on 11 December could not be intended for an event the following day. The song was actually sung at the twenty-seventh session of the Indian National Congress, Calcutta on 28 December 1911 as the opening song at the beginning of the day’s proceedings. Thereafter it was also sung at the foundation day anniversary of Adi Brahma Samaj in February 1912 and included in their collection of psalms, Brahma Sangit.
  3. ^ "Untitled Document". satyashodh.com.
  4. ^ "National Anthem – National Symbols – Know India. Nation Portal of Government of India". knowindia.gov.in. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 14 February 2016.
  5. ^ "Interesting Facts About Our National Anthem". Retrieved 24 September 2017.
  6. ^ "All 5 stanzas of Jana Gana Mana with Bengali script".

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ আশিস is also used
  2. ^ a b c d e f Sanskrit transliteration "Bhāratabhāgyavidhātā"
  3. ^ Sanskrit transliteration "Drāviṛa"
  4. ^ Sanskrit transliteration "Vaṅga"
  5. ^ Sanskrit transliteration "Vindhya"
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Sanskrit transliteration "tava"
  7. ^ Sanskrit transliteration "āhvāna"
  8. ^ Sanskrit transliteration "vani"
  9. ^ Sanskrit transliteration "Baudha"
  10. ^ Sanskrit transliteration "Pūrava"
  11. ^ Sanskrit transliteration "Janagana-aikya-vidhāẏaka"
  12. ^ Sanskrit transliteration "patana-abhuyadaẏa-bandhura"
  13. ^ Sanskrit transliteration "dhāvita"
  14. ^ Sanskrit transliteration "viplava-mājhē"
  15. ^ Sanskrit transliteration "śaṅkhadhvani"
  16. ^ Sanskrit transliteration "vājē"
  17. ^ Sanskrit transliteration "niviṛa"
  18. ^ Sanskrit transliteration "avicala"
  19. ^ Sanskrit transliteration "duḥsvapnē"
  20. ^ Sanskrit transliteration "ravicchavi"
  21. ^ Sanskrit transliteration "pūrva-udaẏagiribhālē"
  22. ^ Sanskrit transliteration "vigaṅgama"
  23. ^ Sanskrit transliteration "navajīvanarasa"
  24. ^ Sanskrit transliteration "rājēśvara"

External links[edit]