The Bharshiva dynasty (c. 170–350 CE) was the most powerful dynasty of the pre-Gupta period. The Nagas of Vidisha moved to Mathura and start annexing other kingdoms under Virasena. They made Padmavati Pawaya, Kantipuri and Vidisha their capitals and placed their family members as rulers of the states. The Nagas of Mathura were the head of the Bharshiva dynasty according to K.P. Jayaswal.
Due to the decline of Kushans, Nagas of Mathura under King Virasena gained Independence and establish Bharshiva Dynasty. The Bharshiva territories extended from Malwa to Eastern Punjab, and had three capitals at Mathura, Kantipuri and Padmavati.
After Virasena Nag, the family of Padmavati succeeded him and briefly ruled over the whole Bharshiva Empire, before it was divided into three parts.