Bhatnagar–Gross–Krook operator

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The Bhatnagar–Gross–Krook operator (abbreviated BGK operator) term refers to a collision operator used in the Boltzmann equation and in the lattice Boltzmann method, a computational fluid dynamics technique. It is given by the following formula:

where is a local equilibrium value for the population of particles in the direction of link The term is a relaxation time, and related to the viscosity.

The operator is named after Prabhu L. Bhatnagar, Eugene P. Gross, and Max Krook, the three scientists who introduced it in a paper in Physical Review in 1954.[1]


  1. ^ P.L. Bhatnagar; E.P. Gross; M. Krook (1954). "A Model for Collision Processes in Gases. I. Small Amplitude Processes in Charged and Neutral One-Component Systems". Physical Review. 94 (3): 511–525. Bibcode:1954PhRv...94..511B. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.94.511.