Bhava

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Translations of
भव
Englishbeing, worldly existence, becoming, birth, be, production, origin;[1] habitual or emotional tendencies.[2]
Paliभव
(bhava)
Sanskritभव
(IAST: bhava)
Glossary of Buddhism
Translations of
भाव
Englishfeeling, emotion, mood, becoming
Paliभाव
(bhāva)
Sanskritभाव
(IAST: bhāva)
Burmeseဘာဝ
(IPA: [bàwa̰])
Monဘာဝ
([həwɛ̀ʔ])
Sinhalaභව or භවය
Glossary of Buddhism

The Sanskrit word bhava (भव) means being, worldly existence, becoming, birth, be, production, origin,[1] but also habitual or emotional tendencies.[2]

In Buddhism, bhava is the tenth of the twelve links of Pratītyasamutpāda.[3] It is the link between the defilements, and repeated birth, that is, reincarnation.[4] In Thai Buddhism, bhava is also interpreted as habitual or emotional tendencies which leads to the arising of the sense of self, as a mental phenomenon.

In Buddhism[edit]

In Buddhism, bhava (not bhāva, condition, nature) means being, worldly existence, becoming, birth, be, production, origin[1] experience,[4] in the sense of rebirths and redeaths, because a being is so conditioned and propelled by the karmic accumulations;[4] but also habitual or emotional tendencies.[2]

The term bhāva (भाव) is rooted in the term bhava (भव), and also has a double meaning, as emotion, sentiment, state of body or mind, disposition and character,[5] and in some context also means becoming, being, existing, occurring, appearance while connoting the condition thereof.[6]

Bhava is the tenth of the twelve links of pratītyasamutpāda (dependent origination), which describes samsara, the repeated cycle of our habitual repsonses to sensory impressions which leads to renewed jāti, birth. Birth is usually interpeted as rebirth in one of the realms of existence, namely heaven, demi-god, human, animal, hungry ghost or hell realms (bhavacakra) of Buddhist cosmology.[4] In Thai Buddhism, bhava is also interpreted as the habitual or emotional tendencies which leads to the arising of the sense of self, as a mental phenomenon.

In the Jātakas, in which the Buddha didactically reminds various followers of experiences they shared with him in a past life, the hearers are said not to remember them due to bhava, i.e. to having been reborn.[7]

In Hinduism[edit]

Bhava appears in the sense of becoming, being, existing, occurring, appearance in the Vedanga literature Srauta Sutras, the Upanishads such as the Shvetashvatara Upanishad, the Mahabharata and other ancient Hindu texts.[8] When we are disrupted in any daily actitivies according to Sutra 1.2 of the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali: “Yoga Chitta Vritti Nirodha”. "Our highest duty Dharma is to ourselves to be in a balanced state of mind & to have faith". Our bhavas, our emotional frame or state of mind, if negativity becomes our frame which makes it difficult for us to perform our duties (dharmic, societal or other), during our daily activities it is correct to see to it that we are in a positive state, to start to balance our mind by making use of techniques of yoga such as; simple asanas, pranayamas, and yogic meditation. Sutra 2.6 of the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali: “Drk-Darsanasaktyoh-Ekatmata-Iva-Asmita”. "Egoism, the seer identifies with the instruments of power of seeing, with sight and mind, that [to the egoist] is seeing". There is either success because work was done in a manner with certainty to guarantee succeeding or it is learning there was no “failure.”. This learning is Jana Bhava or knowledge, learning a different knowledge base of another people isn't a belonging of ours, only our learning truly is ours. Our learning isn't the same interpretation as another's learning, only minding our own learning can we feel sure that it belongs to us. My truth, their truth.[9] Sutra 1.16 of the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali: “Tatparam Purusakhyateh Gunavaitrshnyam”. "Absolute knowledge of the soul of the universe (purusha) is obtained when the qualities of nature (Gunas) are understood and surpassed." We should learn to have a witness to every encounter or our moments like an “attitude.”. This is having a little distance between events and ourselves, a little distance affords us surrendering to a higher reality, so that we are above our ego. We place our ego aside, reacting less and are thought is ahead of ego. Sutra 1.13 of the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali: “Tatra sthitau –yatnaḥ abhyāsaḥ”. "Abhyasa [or] practice is the effort to fix one's own self in a given attitude." When we practice and follow Dharma, Jana, and Vairagya then we have a self-reliance, positivity represented by confidence, will power and energy levels.[10] "Practice makes a man perfect."[11]

In Ramakrishna Mission[edit]

According to Swami Sivananda, there are three kinds of bhava – sattvic, rajasic and tamasic. Which predominates in a person depends on their own nature, but sattvic bhava is Divine bhava or pure bhava (Suddha bhava).[citation needed] Swami Nikhilananda classifies bhava as follows:[12]

  • śāntabhāva, the calm, peaceful, gentle or saintly attitude
  • dāsyabhāva, the attitude of devotion
  • sakhyabhāva, the attitude of a friend
  • vātsalyabhāva, the attitude of a mother towards her child
  • madhurabhāva (or kantabhava), the attitude of a woman in love
  • tanmayabhava, the attitude that the Lord is present everywhere

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Monier Monier-Williams (1899), Sanskrit English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, Archive: भव, bhava
  2. ^ a b c What is Habitual Tendencies? by Bhante Vimalaramsi and Sister Khanti-Khema
  3. ^ Julius Evola; H. E. Musson (1996). The Doctrine of Awakening: The Attainment of Self-Mastery According to the Earliest Buddhist Texts. Inner Traditions. pp. 67–68. ISBN 978-0-89281-553-1.
  4. ^ a b c d Thomas William Rhys Davids; William Stede (1921). Pali-English Dictionary. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 499. ISBN 978-81-208-1144-7.
  5. ^ भव Archived 2017-07-07 at the Wayback Machine, Sanskrit English Dictionary, Koeln University, Germany
  6. ^ Monier Monier-Williams (1899), Sanskrit English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, Archive: भाव, bhAva
  7. ^ Caroline A.F. Rhys Davids, Stories of the Buddha (Being Selections from the Jātakas), 1989, Dover Publications, Introduction, pp. xix, also see pp. 2,6,11,etc.
  8. ^ Monier Monier-Williams (1899), Sanskrit English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, Archive: भाव, bhAva
  9. ^ "Bhavas & Yoga". https://www.theyogainstitute.org. Retrieved 28 June 2019. External link in |website= (help)
  10. ^ Maharaj, Swami Krishnananda. "The Study and Practice of Yoga - Swami Krishnananda". https://www.swami-krishnananda.org. Retrieved 28 June 2019. External link in |website= (help)
  11. ^ "Bhavas & Yoga". https://www.theyogainstitute.org. Retrieved 28 June 2019. External link in |website= (help)
  12. ^ Swami Nikhilananda Vivekananda: The Yogas and Other Works Ramakrishna-Vivekananda Center, 1984 [1953] ISBN 0-911206-04-3 pp. 450-453.
Preceded by
Upādāna
Twelve Nidānas
Bhava
Succeeded by
Jāti