|This article relies largely or entirely upon a single source. (October 2012)|
Bhavani river as seen from Savandapur
Headwaters of the Bhavani river in Attappati Reserve Forest
|Location||Kongu Nadu region of Tamil Nadu, India|
|Length||135 km (217 mi)|
Bhavani river originates from the Silent Valley National Park in Kerala and flows towards Tamil Nadu. The Bhavani is a 217-kilometre (135 mi) long perennial river fed mostly by the southwest monsoon and supplemented by the northeast monsoon. Its watershed drains an area of 0.62 million hectares (2,400 sq mi) spread over Tamil Nadu (87%), Kerala (9%) and Karnataka (4%). The main river courses majorly through Coimbatore district and Erode district in Tamil Nadu. About 90 per cent of the river's water is used for agriculture irrigation.
Industrial, municipal and agricultural pollution of the river results in poor water quality and negative impacts on the health of people, plants and animals dependent on the river water.
Twelve major rivulets including West and East Varagar rivers join Bhavani draining the southern Nilgiri slopes. At Mukkali, Bhavani takes an abrupt 120-degree turn towards the northeast and flows for another 25 kilometres (16 mi) through Attappady plateau. It gets reinforced by the Kunda river coming from the north. Siruvani River, a perennial stream and the Kodungarapallam river, flowing from the south and southeast respectively join the Bhavani at Kerala-Tamil Nadu border. Thereafter, Bhavani flows east along the base of Nilgiris and enters the plains near Bathra Kaliamman temple at Mettupalayam after joining with Coonoor river coming from northwest.
About 30 kilometres (19 mi) downstream, Moyar River, a major tributary originating in Mudumalai National Park, flows in from the northwest, where it drains the valley between the northern slopes of the Nilgiris and the southern slopes of the Bilgiri Hills. After the Moyar it is blocked by the Lower Bhavani Dam, feeding Lower Bhavani Project Canal near Sathyamangalam in Erode District. The river continues east for over 160 kilometres (99 mi). through Erode District, traversing Kodiveri Dam, near Gobichettipalayam which feeds the Arakkankottai and Thadappalli canals constructed for agricultural purposes. A small barrage across the river was built by Kalingarayan in 1283 AD to feed the 90-kilometre (56 mi) Kalingarayan irrigation canal near Sangameshwarar Temple, Bhavani, where it is believed that the mystic Sarasvati River also joins the confluence.
- Centre for Science and Environment, rainwaterharvesting.org, retrieved 8/25/2007 River Bhavani
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