Bhima Ratha

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Bhima Ratha
Bhima Ratha
Bhima Ratha
Geography
Country India
State Tamil Nadu,
District Kancheepuram district
Location Mahabalipuram
Culture
Primary deity Shiva
History and governance
Date built c. 650[1] Common era[2]

Bhima Ratha is a monument in the Pancha Rathas complex at Mahabalipuram, on the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal, in the Kancheepuram district of the state of Tamil Nadu, India. It is an example of monolith Indian rock-cut architecture. Dating from the late 7th century, it is attributed to the reign of King Mahendravarman I and his son Narasimhavarman I (630–680 AD; also called Mamalla, or "great warrior") of the Pallava Kingdom. The entire complex is under the auspices of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), and is one of the Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1984.[3]

Resembling a chariot (ratha), it is carved out of a single, long stone of granite.[4][3][5] Though sometimes mistakenly referred to as a temple, the structure was not consecrated because it was not completed[6] following the death of Narasimhavarman I.[4][5][7] The structure is named after one of the Pancha Pandavas, of epic Mahabharata fame,[3][5][8] though the nomenclature is not supported by history.[4] It is dedicated to Vishnu.

Geography[edit]

The monument is located at Mahabalipuram (previously known as Mammallapuram) on the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal of Indian Ocean in Kancheepuram district. It is approximately 35 miles (56 km) south of Chennai (previously known as Madras), the capital city,[9] while Chengalpattu is about 20 miles (32 km) distant.[10]

History[edit]

Main article: Pancha Rathas

The feature of this ratha and the other four cannot be definitely dated to any other similar constructions in the past in any ancient Indian architecture. However, the five rathas have been forerunners or templates for the development of Indian temple architecture. Like the other four Pancha Rathas, this stone edifice is a replica of a wooden version which preceded it.[11] Though it is considered to be a monolith temple, "temple" is a misnomer given that the five rathas were never completed,[12] as evidenced by un-carved bedrock at the ground floor and pinnacle. Hence, the rathas were neither consecrated nor worship offered. The incomplete status of all the five rathas is attributed to the death of the king Narasimhavarman I in 668 AD.[8][13] Even the epic name associated with the Pandavas is not supported by history.[4]

Architecture[edit]

All the Pancha Rathas are aligned in a north-south direction and share a common plinth. They have no precedent in Indian architecture and have proved to be "templates" for building larger temples in the South Indian tradition of Dravidian temple architecture.[8] Though cut out of monolithic rocks, they are carved in the form of structural temples in regular building form and hence termed as “quasimonolithic temple form”.

Layout[edit]

Bhima Ratha to the left of Dharmaraja Ratha

Similar to the Arjuna and Dharmaraja Rathas, the stone temple is a replica of an earlier wooden version which preceded it.[11] Bhima Ratha is an ektala or single tiered oblong temple, with a barrel-vaulted roof and ornate columns. It is the third ratha after Draupadi and Arjuna Rathas, carved over an extended long pink granite rock out crop that gradually rises from the north to south. It is cut out over a base plan of 42 by 24 feet (12.8 m × 7.3 m), and rising to a height of 25 feet (7.6 m) over two floors. The ground floor has remained incomplete. The unfinished features of the lower floor gives a picture of what was planned to be built, namely a circumambulatory passage supported on pillars mounted with lion posts as the base. The oblong scheme of the layout is conjectured as a plan that was intended to house an Anantashayana Vishnu (reclining image of god Vishnu).[13][14]

Features[edit]

Architectural feature on the exterior face of Bhima Ratha

The ratha is reminiscent of Buddhist cave architecture, such as Sala[disambiguation needed]-Sikhara.[15] Archaeologist, however, are of the opinion that the stupa suggests a shikhara (temple tower) style; there are twelve such styles depicted in all the rathas experimented by sculptors during the Pallvava period.[13] It is also mentioned that it has palace architectural style considering its barrel vaulting and long columned porch. The roof section resembles a boat.[16] The Bhima Ratha has a pillared open veranda, a column with a Pallava seated lion, and "horseshoe-arch dormer like projections" called kudus. These decorations are carved on the external faces of the ratha, above the cornices which also forms the dividing line between the ground floor and the first floor of the structure. Oblong-shaped shrines are carved at the cornices linked with a passage. The small shrines have a wagon-type roof supported on lion mounted pillars.[13] The ends of the gables have fine decorative motifs, with a miniature model of a square at the centre.[15] The niches seen are carved with regular spacing and are supported on two pilasters. Nasikas are mentioned in inscriptions inside the temple.[16]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Culture of India. The Rosen Publishing Group. 2010. p. 315. ISBN 9780852297629. 
  2. ^ Ramchandani, Indu (2000). Student Britannica India 7 Vols. Popular Prakashan. p. 5. ISBN 9780852297629. 
  3. ^ a b c "Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram". World Heritage. Retrieved 2007-02-08. 
  4. ^ a b c d "File:Five Rathas, Mahabalipuram.jpg". Archaeological Survey of India, Chennai Circle. Retrieved 9 April 2013. 
  5. ^ a b c "Pancha Rathas, Mamallapuram". Archaeological Survey of India. Retrieved 23 October 2012. 
  6. ^ Stokstad, Marilyn (2008). Art history. Pearson Education. p. 333. ISBN 9780131577046. 
  7. ^ "Mahabalipuram". UCLA Education, South Asia. Retrieved 30 December 2012. 
  8. ^ a b c "The Rathas, monolithic [Mamallapuram]". Online Gallery of the British Library. Retrieved 19 February 2013. 
  9. ^ Gunther, Michael D. "Pancha Rathas, Mamallapuram". art-and-archaeology.com. Retrieved 23 October 2012. 
  10. ^ Ayyar, P. V. Jagadisa (1982). South Indian Shrines: Illustrated. Asian Educational Services. pp. 157–. ISBN 978-81-206-0151-2. Retrieved 7 February 2013. 
  11. ^ a b Moffett, Marian; Fazio, Michael W.; Wodehouse, Lawrence (2003). World History of Architecture. Laurence King Publishing. p. 75. ISBN 978-1-85669-371-4. Retrieved 9 January 2013. 
  12. ^ Stokstad, Marilyn (2008). Art history. Pearson Education. p. 333. ISBN 9780131577046. 
  13. ^ a b c d "Mahabalipuram – The Workshop of Pallavas – Part III". 3. Bhima Ratha. Indian History and Architecture, Puratattva.in. Retrieved 20 February 2013. 
  14. ^ Singh, Upinder (2008). A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Pearson Education India. p. 636. ISBN 978-81-317-1677-9. Retrieved 9 January 2013. 
  15. ^ a b "World Heritage Sites – Mahabalipuram – Monolithic Temples". Archaeological Survey of India. Retrieved 9 January 2013. 
  16. ^ a b "The Five Rathas of Mahabalipuram". Varalaaru. Retrieved 9 January 2013.