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Bhīmāshankar (Maharashtra, India)
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Bhīmāshankar Temple is a Jyotirlinga shrine located 50 km northwest of Khed (alias Rajguru Nagar), near Pune, in India. It is located 127 km from Shivaji Nagar (in Pune) in the Ghat region of the Sahyadri hills. Bhīmāshankar is also the source of the river Bhima, which flows southeast and merges with the Krishna river near Raichur. The other Jyotirlinga shrines in Maharashtra are Trimbakeshwara near Nashik and Grishneshwar near Aurangabad.
As per the Shiv Mahapuran, once Brahma (the Hindu God for creation) and Vishnu (the Hindu God for protection) had an argument about creation. To test them, Shiva pierced the three worlds as a huge endless pillar of light, the jyotirlinga. Vishnu and Brahma split their ways to search downwards and upwards respectively to find the end of the light in either direction. Brahma lied that He found out where it ends, while Vishnu conceded defeat. Shiva appeared as a second pillar of light and cursed Brahma that He would have no place in ceremonies while Vishnu would be worshipped till the end of eternity. The jyotirlinga is the supreme partless reality, out of which Shiva partly appears. The jyothirlinga shrines, thus are places where Shiva appeared as a fiery column of light. There are 64 forms of Shiva, not to be confused with Jyotirlingas. Each of the twelve jyothirlinga sites take the name of the presiding deity - each considered different manifestation of Shiva. At all these sites, the primary image is lingam representing the beginningless and endless Stambha pillar, symbolizing the infinite nature of Shiva. The twelve jyothirlinga are Somnath in Gujarat, Mallikarjuna at Srisailam in Andhra Pradesh, Mahakaleswar at Ujjain in Madhya Pradesh, Omkareshwar in Madhya Pradesh, Kedarnath in Himalayas, Bhīmāshankar in Maharashtra, Viswanath at Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh, Triambakeshwar in Maharashtra, Vaidyanath Jyotirlinga at Deoghar in Jharkhand, Nageshvara Jyotirlinga at Dwarka in Gujarat, Rameshwar at Rameswaram in Tamil Nadu and Grishneshwar in Maharashtra.
The Bhīmāshankar temple is a composite of old and new structures in the Nagara style of architecture. It shows the excellency of the skills achieved by ancient Vishwakarma sculptors. It is a modest yet graceful temple and it dates back to the 13th century while the sabhamandap was built in the 18th century by Nānā Phadnavis. The shikhara was built by Nana Phadnavis. The great Maratha ruler Shivaji is said to have made endowments to this temple to facilitate worship services. As with other Shiva temples in this area, the sanctum is at a lower level.
Although the structure here is fairly new, the shrine Bhīmāshankaram (and the Bhīmārathi river) have been referred to in literature dating back to the 13th century CE. Saint Jñāneshwar is said to have visited Tryambakeshwar and Bhīmāshankar. A unique bell (Roman style) can be seen in front of the temple. This bell has an idol of Mother Mary with Jesus.This large bell was presented by Chimaji Appa (Brother of Bajirao Peshwa I and uncle of Nanasaheb Peshwa). On 16 May 1739, Chimaji Appa collected five large bells after he won a war against the Portuguese from the Vasai Fort. He offered one here at Bhīmāshankar and the others at Menavali near Wai in front of a Shiva Temple on the banks of the Krishna river, Banshanker temple (Pune), Omkareshwar Temple (Pune) and Ramlinga temple (Shirur)
There are Buddha style carvings of Amba-Ambika, Bhootling and Bhīmāshankar in the hills of Manmaad near Bhīmāshankar at a height of 1034 metres. A big bell in Hemadpanthi structure built by Nānā Phadanavis is a feature of Bhīmāshankar. Places that can be visited in the vicinity include Hanuman Lake, Gupt Bhīmāshankar, Origin of River Bhīmā, Nāg Phani, Bombay Point, and Sākshi Vināyak. Bhīmāshankar is a reserved forest area of 130.78 km2 and was declared a wildlife sanctuary in 1985. This sanctuary is a part of the Western Ghats, so it is rich in floral and faunal diversity. A variety of birds, animals, insects and plants can be seen. A rare animal Malabar Giant squirrel locally called as "Shekaru" can be found in the deep woods. The Bhorgiri fort is close to Bhīmāshankar.
Bhīmāshankar also has one prominent trek and one can go to Nāgfani when one has reached the highest point. Nāgfani derives its name from the head of the snake (फन/फण in Hindi/Marathi).
Other temples and shrines
There is a shrine known as Kalmaja near the Bhīmāshankar temple. Kalamaja is a Goddess dedicated to a tree named Kalamb. She is a local tribal Goddess and many stories have been spawned due to the influence of Hinduism on this region.
The Mokshakund thirtha is behind the Bhīmāshankar temple, and it is associated with the rishi Kaushika. There are also the Sarvathīrtha, the Kushāranya thīrtha - where the Bhīmā river begins to flow eastward, and the Jyānakund.
Bhīmāshankar is an ancient shrine, one of the 12 Jyotirlingas of Shiva. Far away from the tumult of urban life, peeping through the white clouds, Bhīmāshankar can be termed a pilgrim's paradise. The dense forests surrounding the high ranges are an abode for rare species of flora and fauna. Situated at the extreme end of the Sahyādrī Ranges, this place gives a wonderful view of the world around the local rivers and hill stations.
Bhīmāshankar is the source of the Bhima River, which flows southeast and merges with the Krishna River. With endless stretches of virgin forests, lofty peaks that seem to reach out to the heavens, and the whispering waters of the Bhīmā River, Bhīmāshankar is definitely one of God's choicest creations.
It seems as if Lord Shiva is keeping a silent vigil over the majestic ranges of the Sahyādrīs. The serenity interrupted only by the silent murmuring of the cool breeze and the occasional chirping of birds, Bhīmāshankar is a trekker's delight and a traveller's sojourn.
One route to Bhīmāshankar from Pune is via Manchar. Another route is from Rajgurunagar (alias Khed) via Wada.
Bhīmāshankar is 74 miles or 127 km from Pune by road. Private vehicles and cabs travel from Pune to Khed (Rajguru Nagar) to Manchar to Taaleghar and finally to the Bheemāshankar temple. State buses go there from Pune daily and take more than five hours. During the Mahashivaratri festival, when there is a great fair at the temple, buses ply to and fro daily. It is accessible from Karjat on the Pune — Mumbai section of the Central railway. There is no proper road from Karjat to Bhīmāshankar and only the devotees who wish to go to the temple on foot during festivals use this road.
If coming from Aurangabad or Ahmednagar, move towards Alephata which is 30 km from Ahmednagar (alias Nagar). Then go to Manchar which is 60 km from Alephata. Take right from Manchar and after 59 km to reach Bhīmāshankar (Aurangabad to Ahmednagar is 112 km).
Another route is via Sangamner, which lies on Nashik-Pune Road; from Sangamner go to Manchar and then follow the same route towards Bhīmāshankar, which is 59 km.
From Pune ST buses are available from Shivaji Nagar Pune to Bhīmāshankar at 5:30 in the morning to 2:00 pm and a ticket is approximately 132/-. From Pune -> Rajguru Nagar -> Chas Kaman Dam -> Wada -> Bhīmāshankar; from Pune -> Rajguru Nagar -> Manchar -> Ghodegoan -> Bhīmāshankar; from Mumbai ->Chakan [i.e., exterior part of Pune] -> Rajguru Nagar (Khed) -> Manchar -> Ghodegoan -> Bhīmāshankar. But these buses are highly unreliable. Sometime the buses do not turn up at Bhīmāshankar at all in afternoon and visitors have to wait for hours for buses. There is no one at Bhīmāshankar Bus Stand to confirm about the buses. Many times, people have to go by private vehicles which are extremely unsafe. But as there is no option available, people choose this and return. Hence, if you are starting from Pune by MSRTC bus, Start early and you can return early.
If coming from Mumbai, take Pune road. About 31.02 km from Deonar traffic junction lies the Mumbai Pune Expressway (NH-4) after crossing Navi Mumbai and Panvel. After 52 km from Panvel is Lonavala and 50 km from there is on NH-4 is Wadgaon. At Wadgaon, turn left on the State Highway towards Chakan which is about 12 km. At Chakan, take NH 50 towards Manchar which is around 65 km to Bhīmāshankar. From Mumbai direct State Transport buses are available from Kurla Nehrunagar and Kalyan. you can go by changing buses. ST buses are available for Ghodegaon and Manchar from Mumbai central, Parel and Kurla Nehrunagar. after reaching Ghodegaon or Manchar next journey is easy due to more frequency of buses. Traveling from Mumbai to Bhīmāshankar takes 6 hours by private car and state transport vehicles takes 8 hours. Alternatively u can go via Kalyan also. Go to Kalyan from Mumbai via thane. From kalyan take Mumbai-Ahmednagar (alias Nagar) highway. It is via Murbad. After reaching Bankarphata which is 2 hours from kalyan, turn right for Junnar. From Junnar Go to Ghodegaon which 40 minutes journey. From Ghodegaon, Bhīmāshankar is about 47 km away. This way is through Malshej ghat which is often closed in heavy rains, so avoid this route in monsoon. you can visit fort Shivneri while going through this route near Junnar. On this way u can go in Malshej ghat. one of the Ashtavinaayak Lenyaadri is also en route.
If starting from Pune, drive along the Pune-Nasik highway and turn off at the road leading to Bhīmāshankar. The mountain road is quite a steep climb. The distance is about 120 km from Pune.
Government MSRTC buses (non luxury) run from Pune to Bhīmāshankar every 30 minutes from 5:30 am till 4:00 pm. You can get State Transport buses from Shivajinagar, Pune. The fare is Rs. 155 and it takes around 3–4 hours to reach there from Pune.
Pilgrims usually stay here for three days. The local upajjhayas (priests) make arrangements for the lodging and boarding of pilgrims at a small cost. Visitors are accommodated in either temporary hutments or in dharamshalas near the village. Natraj Holiday Resort located less than 8 km from the temple, has 23 rooms. A new dharamshala is under construction. There are several hotels near Bhīmāshankar. Places like Shinoli and Ghodegaon are good for staying near Bhīmāshankar. Accommodation at Bhīmāshankar mainly comprises two bungalows (with a capacity of 8 beds) and tents.
The best time to visit is between August and February. Though any time of the year is good to visit Bhīmāshankar, it is better to avoid visiting it during summer. Similarly during monsoon, unless one likes trekking, it is better to avoid a visit. That leaves the best period to seven months between August and February.
The Khed/Rajgurunagar is the administrative taluka in Pune district, comprising the upper reaches of the Ghod and Bhīmā rivers. Bhīmāshankar Temple is located in the village of Bhorgiri 50 km in the north west of Khed. It is located 127 km away from Pune in the Ghat region of the Sahyādrī hills. It is also the location of the Bhīmāshankar Wildlife Sanctuary. It is about 130 km from Pune by Road and 62 km away from Manchar. Bhīmāshankar is in Pune District.
Although the present structure of the temple appears to be of comparatively recent origin, the shrine Bhīmāshankaram (and the Bhīmārathi river) have been referred to in literature dating back to the 13th century. Built in the Nagara style of architecture, this temple is a modest yet graceful temple and dates back to the 18th century. One can also find borrowed influences from the Indo Aryan style of architecture.
It is believed that the ancient shrine was erected over a Swayambhu Lingam (that is the self emanated Shiva Lingam). It can be observed that the Lingam is exactly at the centre of the floor of the Garbagriham (the Sanctum Sanctorum) of the temple. Intricate carvings of divine beings, interspersed with human figurines adorn the pillars and the doorframes of the temple. Scenes from mythology find themselves captured in these magnificent carvings.
Within the temple precincts there is also a small shrine dedicated to Lord Shani Mahātma (also called Shanaeshwara). The idol of Nandi, Lord Shiva's vāhan (vehicle) has been installed as is the case with all the Siva Temples, just at the entrance of the temple.
This temple is closely associated with the legend of Shiva slaying the demon Tripurāsura associated with the invincible flying citadels, the "Tripurās". Shiva is said to have taken abode in the 'Bhīmā Shankara' form, upon the request of the Gods, on the crest of the Sahyādrī hills, and the sweat that poured forth from His body after the battle is said to have formed the Bhīmārathi river.
The Gopura-shikharam of the temple was built by Nāna Phadnavis. The great Maratha ruler, Shivāji is also said to have made endowments to this temple to facilitate the carrying out, of worship services. As with other Shiva temples in this area, the sanctum is at a lower level. The 'Shani temple' is located inside the main complex of the temple of Bhīmāshankar.
Between the two pillars outside the 'Shani' temple, one comes across an ancient huge Portuguese bell. Behind the temple, there is a small pathway that leads one to the banks of a river. "Stepping out of the Temple, one is awed with a bewitching view of the virgin wilderness, occasionally interrupted by the glimpses of the majestic forts on the surrounding mountains."
History unveils itself in the peaks of the Sahyādrīs. Bhīmāshankar – a place where spiritual splendour merges with nature's magnificence is definitely a pilgrim's paradise. There are other temples and shrines, near the main temple. There is a shrine to Kamalaja near the Bhīmāshankar temple. Kamalaja is an incarnation of Pārvathi, who aided Shiva in his battle against Tripuraasura. Kamalajaa was worshipped with offerings of lotus flowers by Brahma.
There is a shrine for Siva Ganams, Shaakini and Daakini who assisted Shiva in the battle against the demon, Bhīmā. Kaushika Maha Muni is said to have done 'Tapas' (penance) there. The place where he bathed is called Mokshakund thīrtham, which is located behind the Bhīmāshankar temple. There are also the Sarvathīrtha, the Kushāranya thīrtha - where the Bhīmā river begins to flow eastward, and the Jnyānakund.
Three worship services are offered every day. Mahāshivrātri is a season of great festivity here.
|Mandir opening time||4.30 am|
|Morning Aarti||4:45 am to 5.00 am|
|Nijarup (Original shivlinga)darshan||5:00 am to 5.30 am|
|Normal Darshans and Abhishekam||5:30 am to 2:30 pm|
|No Abhishekam between||12:00 pm to 12:30 pm|
|Maha Puja (Naivedya Pooja)||12.00 pm. to 12.30 pm|
|Afternoon Aarti||3:00 pm to 3:30 pm|
|Shringar Darshans||3:30 am to 9:30 pm|
|Evening Aarti||7:30 pm to 8:00 pm|
(No "Pradosham" is done on Mondays or Amāvasya (new moon day) or Grahan (eclipse) or Mahāshivrātri). (In the Hindu months of Kārthik and Shrāvan, there is no Mukut or Shringār Darshans).
This is not to be confused with the legendary Mruthyunjaya Lingam, where Shiva emerged from a Shivalingam to vanquish Yama the Lord of death. The Shiva Purāna and the Koti Rudra Samhita refer to Bhīmāshankar temple in the Kāmaroopa country. However, there is also a reference to Mount Sahya, where it is stated that Shiva — Bhīmāshankara — appeared on the Sahyādrīs.
- R. 2003, pp. 92-95
- Eck 1999, p. 107
- See: Gwynne 2008, Section on Char Dham
- Lochtefeld 2002, pp. 324-325
- Harding 1998, pp. 158-158
- Vivekananda Vol. 4
- Chaturvedi 2006, pp. 58-72
- Chaturvedi, B. K. (2006), Shiv Purana (First ed.), New Delhi: Diamond Pocket Books (P) Ltd, ISBN 81-7182-721-7
- Eck, Diana L. (1999), Banaras, city of light (First ed.), New York: Columbia University Press, ISBN 0-231-11447-8
- Gwynne, Paul (2009), World Religions in Practice: A Comparative Introduction, Oxford: Blackwell Publication, ISBN 978-1-4051-6702-4.
- Harding, Elizabeth U. (1998). "God, the Father". Kali: The Black Goddess of Dakshineswar. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 156–157. ISBN 978-81-208-1450-9.
- Lochtefeld, James G. (2002), The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: A-M, Rosen Publishing Group, p. 122, ISBN 0-8239-3179-X
- R., Venugopalam (2003), Meditation: Any Time Any Where (First ed.), Delhi: B. Jain Publishers (P) Ltd., ISBN 81-8056-373-1
- Vivekananda, Swami. "The Paris Congress of the History of Religions". The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda. Vol.4.