Bhinmal Railway Station
|• Mayor/Chairman||Vimla Suresh Bohra|
|• MP (Member of Parliament)||Devji M Patel|
|• MLA (Member of Legislative Assembly)||Pura Ram Choudhary|
|Elevation||155.33 m (509.61 ft)|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
|Vehicle registration||RJ-46 (New)|
Bhinmal (old names:Srimala) is an ancient town in the Jalore District of Rajasthan, India. It is 72 kilometres (45 mi) south of Jalore town. Bhinmal was the capital of Gurjaradesa, comprising southern Rajasthan and northern Gujarat of modern times.
The original name of Bhinmal was bhillamala, the plateau of Bhils. It was the early capital of the kingdom of Gurjaradesa. The kingdom is first attested in Bana's Harshacharita (7th century AD). Its king is said to have been subdued by Harsha's father Prabhakaravardhana (died c. 605 AD). The surrounding kingdoms were mentioned as Sindha (Sindh), Lāta (southern Gujarat) and Malava (western Malwa), indicating that the region included northern Gujarat and southern Rajasthan.
Xuanzang, the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim who visited India between 631-645 AD during Harsha's reign, mentioned the Gurjara country (Kiu-che-lo) with its capital at Bhillamala (Pi-lo-mo-lo) as the second largest kingdom of Western India. He distinguished it from the neighbouring kingdoms of Bharukaccha (Bharuch), Ujjayini (Ujjain), Malava (Malwa), Valabhi and Surashtra. The Gurjara kingdom was said to have measured 833 miles in circuit and its ruler was a 20-year old kshatriya, who was distinguished for his wisdom and courage. It is believed that the king must have been the immediate successor of the Chavda dynasty ruler Vyāgrahamukha, under whose reign the mathematician-astronomer Brahmagupta wrote his famous treatise in 628 AD.
The Arab chroniclers of Sindh (an Arab province from 712 CE onward), narrated the campaigns of Arab governors on Jurz, the Arabic term for Gurjara. They mentioned it jointly with Mermad (Marumāda, in Western Rajasthan) and Al Baylaman (Bhinmal). The country was first conquered by Mohammad bin Qasim (712-715) and, for a second time, by Junayd (723-726). Upon bin Qasim's victory, Al-Baladhuri mentioned that the Indian rulers, including that of Bhinmal, accepted Islam and paid tribute. They presumably recanted after bin Qasim's departure, which made Junayd's attack necessary. After Junayd's reconquest, the kingdom at Bhinmal appears to have been annexed by the Arabs.
a new dynasty was founded by Nagabhata I at Jalore, in the vicinity of Bhinmal, in about 730 CE, soon after Junayd's end of term in Sindh. Nagabhata is said to have defeated the "invincible Gurjaras," presumably those of Bhinmal. Another account credits him for having defeated a "Muslim ruler." Nagabhata is also known to have repelled the Arabs during a later raid.
The Gwalior Inscription of mihir bhoj praises Nagabhata for destroying mlecchas ( Arabs)
"स्तस्यानुजोसौ मघवमदमुषो मेघनादस्य संख्ये सौमित्त्रिस्तीव्रदण्डः प्रतिहरणविधेयः प्रतीहार आमोत् तहन्शे प्रतिहारकेतनभृति त्रैलोक्यरक्षास्पदे देवो नागभट : पुरातनमुनर्मूतिर्बभूवाद्भुतं । येनासौ सुक्कतप्रमाथिबलनम्लेच्छा।।
In that family, which extended shelter to the triple world and bore the emblem of Pratihāra, the king Nāgabhața appeared as an incarnation' of the Old Sage in a strange way.Wherefore he seemed to break up the complete army of the kings of Mlecchas the destroyers of virtue,with four arms lustrous because of the glittering and terrible weapons.
His dynasty later expanded to Ujjain, Nagabhata's successor Vatsaraja lost Ujjain to the Rashtrakuta prince Dhruva, who claimed to have driven him into "trackless desert", which might mean that Vatsaraja withdrew to Bhinmal. An inscription in Daulatpura from 843 AD mentions Vatsaraja having made grants near Didwana. In due course, the Pratiharas became the dominant force of the entire Rajasthan and Gujarat regions, establishing a powerful empire centered at Kannauj, the former capital of Harshavardhana. Raja Man Pratihar was ruling Bhinmal in jalore when Parmara Emperor Vakpati Munja(972-990 CE) invaded the region — after this conquest he divided these conquered territories among his Parmara princes - his son Aranyaraj Parmar was granted Abu region, his son, Chandan Parmar and his nephew, Dharnivarah Parmar was given Jalore region. This ended almost 250 years Pratihar rule over Bhinmal. Raja Man Pratihar's son Dewalsimha Pratihar was a contemporary of Abu’s Raja Mahipal Parmar (1000-1014 CE). Raja Devalsimha made many attempts to free his country or to re-establish Pratihar hold onto Bhinmal but in vain .Finally he settled for the territories in Southwest of Bhinmal, comprising four hills - Dodasa, Nadwana,Kala-Pahad and Sundha. He made Lohiyana (present Jaswantpura) his capital. Hence this subclan became Dewal Pratihars. Gradually their jagir included 52 villages in and around modern Jalore district. The Dewals participated in Jalore’s Chauhan Kanhaddeo’s resistance against Allauddin Khilji . Thakur Dhawalsimha Dewal of Lohiyana supplied manpower to Maharana Pratap and married his daughter to the Maharana, in return Maharana gave him the title of “Rana” which has stayed with them till this day Ala ud din Khilji as the second ruler of the Khilji dynasty also destroyed and looted Srimala (ancient Bhinmal) when he conquered Jalore in 1310 AD. Prior to that, Srimala was a premier city of northwestern India. The city was laid out in the shape of a square. It has 84 gates. The mid-15th-century chronicle Kanhadade Prabandha provides descriptions of indiscriminate attacks by Muslims on Bhinmal.[non-primary source needed]
The city of Bhinmal had four gates. At a distance of 8 kilometres in the north there was the Jalori gate, in the south Laxmi gate, in the east the Sun gate and in the west Sanchori gate.
Hinduism and Jainism
According to the Chinese traveller Xuanzang, the King of Bhinmal was a believer in Buddhism and Jainism and a man of exceptional abilities. Brahmanism and Jainism dominated the city. There was only one Buddhist monastery with 100 monks in 'Buddha Vaas' neighbourhood.
There were several temples of Jain Tirthankar and Hindu gods such as Ganapati, Kshetrapala, Chandikadevi, and Shiva. The Sun temple of Bhinmal known as Jagatsvami was one of the earliest and most famous temples of Rajasthan. The temple had beautiful torana (archway). The temple was perhaps built during the reign of Gurjara Pratiharas who were sun worshippers. In ancient time, the festival was held at temple in the Hindu calendar month of Asvin.
There were also a number of Jain temples, the one of Mahavira (Mhaveerji) being the most famous. This temple was built by king Kumarapala and established by Acharya Hemachandra, dedicated to 1st Jain Tirthankar Rishabha. Currently, the temple is dedicated to the 24th Jain Tirthankar Mahavira, re-established by Vidhyachandra Suri of Tapagachha, belonging to the Tristutik sect.
Stone inscriptions of the year 1333 of the Vikrama Samvat (1277 AD) are found among ruins of some ancient temples across the town. There are signs that Lord Mahavira Swami, the 24th Jain Tirthankar, wandered here, known as 'jeevit swami'.
This city has witnessed many rises and falls. Stone inscriptions of the year 1333 of the Vikrama Samvat (1277 AD) are found among ruins of temples. There are signs here and there showing that Lord Mahavira Swami, the 24th Jain Tirthankar wandered about here. They can provide historical evidence to researchers.
There was a time when this city had a circumference of 64 kilometres and the fort had 84 gates. This city looked beautiful with hundreds of pinnacled temples. From the 7th to the 10th century, talented Jain monk/writer Acharya Haribhadra, Mundas Gani, Udayprabhsuri, Mahnedrsuri, Rajendrasuri and many more created here valuable Jain literature and sanctified and beautified this place. The temple of the 23rd Jain Tirthankar Parshvanatha in Hathi pole area is regarded to be very ancient. This temple has great archaeological importance. A golden idol of Shri Parshvanatha in Padmasana posture is the presiding deity.
Apart from the many ancient Jain temples across the town, there is a temple of Jains called 72 Jinalayas - the 72 temple complex with the 72 Tirthakar (24 past + 24 future + 24 current) as per Jainism. It is the largest Jain temple which conclude 19 years of its making. It was made by a family of builders loonkars the owners of a modern leading company Sumer. Another significant temple complex dedicated to Mahavir Swami and Osia Mataji called as Bafna Waddi Tirth is there just outside the town.
Out of 108 Parshvanatha, "Shri Bhaya-Bhanjan Parshvanatha" is also located in the town where thousands of Jain and other pilgrims come to the town and offer their prayer here.
Culture and science
Bhinmal was a great centre of learning. Brahmagupta, the well-known mathematicians astronomer, born in 598 AD is often referred to as Bhillamalacharya, the teacher from Bhillamala. He may have been born in this city, or may have taught there. He is known for the composition of two texts on mathematics and astronomy: The Brahmasphutasiddhanta in 628, and the Khandakhadyaka in 665. The Sanskrit poet Magha, the author of Sisupalavadha, lived here in 680 AD. The Jain scholar Siddharshi Gani, a resident of Bhinmal wrote Upmitibahava prapancha katha in 905 AD. The Jain Ramayana was written by Jain monk Vijayagani in 1595 AD. Jain scholar Udyotan Suri wrote kuvalayamala here.
Bhinmala was also called Shrimala, recorded in a thirteenth century text Shramali Purana. The Brahmins and merchants originating from Bhinmal were called Shrimali Brahmanas and Shrimali Vaniyas respectively. After Vanaraja Chavda established a new capital at Patan, the symbolic centre of these communities shifted to Patan. The main image of Mahalakshmi was shifted from Bhinmal to Patan in 1147 AD.
Bhinmal is located at  It has an average elevation of 155.33 metres (479 feet)..
The economy of the town and surrounding area is mainly based on agriculture and animal husbandry. Oilseeds (especially mustard oilseeds) are the predominant crop. Jeera, wheat, bajra, kharif pulses, barley, jowar and sesamum are also produced.
Bhinmal is the main mandi (market) for agricultural produce of the area. The town has the Krishi Upaj Mandi Samiti (Agricultural Produce Market Committee). Food Corporation of India has its warehouses here. The town is the main supply point for various agricultural inputs like fertilisers, seeds and pesticides and for agricultural implements, motors, tractors and spare parts.
Bhinmal is known for fine quality of mojari (embroidered leather shoes). The small towns nearby also had fine workers of mojari. There are many types of mojari like badagaun, panjabi, tarawali, jariwali, left-right and goal ru jodu are made by the workers called jeenagar.
There are no large- or medium-size industries in the Bhinmal RICO industrial area. The predominant small scale industries are granite slabs and tiles, marble cutting and polishing, mustard seed crushing, skimmed milk powder, butter and ghee, handloom cloth, and leather shoes.
Bhinmal is connected to all major cities by all weather roads.
There is one sub grid station of 400/220 KV at Bhinmal. The town receives power from Power Grid Corporation of India limited's grid station in bhinmal [Jalore District]. Almost all villages of the Bhinmal subdivision are electrified.
The city electricity board is operated by Jodhpur Vidhut Vitran Nigam Limited and its office is located at Station Road Bhinmal for O&M and its transmission system is operated from Raniwara road, through 220 kv GSS under RVPNL
The town gets drinking water from nimbawas, and Rajpura. The drinking water supply is managed by PHED (water dept. of Govt. of Rajasthan), while the main source of irrigation for farmers continues to be from wells.
There are many hotels in the town. Some well known hotels are Hotel Samarat, Hotel Gokul Palace, Hotel Gurudev, Hotel Neelkamal, Hotel Rajdeep and Hotel Sagar. The heritage hotel known as Castle Durjan Niwas is at village Daspan 25 km from Bhinmal. There is a Government rest house run by the Public Works Department (PWD).
The town has a graduate/degree college called G K Gowani Govt. College affiliated to Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur and accredited by the National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC). On 23 August 2013 Bhinmal College was upgraded to post-graduate by the Department of College Education, Govt of Rajasthan. Now GK Gowani Govt College, Bhinmal will act as the post-graduate extension centre (Hindi) to cater to the higher educational needs of rural and semi urban students of town and this region.
There are three higher secondary and about 45 primary and middle schools in Bhinmal. This city also has a Govt. Girls School (Govt.G.Sec.Sr.Sch.) up to senior secondary level.
Bhinmal has more than 160 primary and middle schools run by the education department of Rajasthan government as well as the private sector. Adrash Vidhya Mandir Sr. Sec., Madhav International School English and Hindi medium, Vidya Bhawan English Medium School, and New Sacred Heart English School are private schools in Bhinmal.
- Telecommunications: All the basic phone and cellphone service provider companies have their network in Bhinmal. Broadband and dial-up Internet and fax services are available at the main tel.exchange building of BSNL. Apart from BSNL, all private mobile service operators like airtel, Idea Cellular, MTS, Vodafone, Reliance, aircel and Tata Indicom provide cellphone services.
- Post: The Bhinmal Post Office has broadband and leased line connectivity to provide web-enabled services like e-post, instant money order, electronic money order, Internet-based customer care services and cyber cafe.
Bhinmal town has good medical facilities. The town has a government referral hospital near Gandhi Maidaan and many private hospitals. There is an Aryuvedic hospital as well. In the government hospital there are good facilities. There are about 13 private hospitals in Bhinmal city.
Shivaraj Stadium was inaugurated by staging the Ranji trophy match in December 1985 between Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. It has indoor and outdoor games facilities. The yearly state level badminton tournament is held here.
Some co-operative and local banks also have their branches in the town. They are Jalore Nagrik Sahakari Bank ltd., Adrash cooperative bank, Madhav Nagrik Sahakari Bank Ltd., Marwar Gramin Bank, Jalore Central Cooperative Bank, Bhumi Vikas Bank and N.P credit co-op society ltd.
The town has two public libraries; one is managed by the municipality and the other by Saraswati Temple Trust.
- The town is one of two sub -divisions in Jalore district.
- The Bhinmal sub division covers three tehsils: Bhinmal, Sanchore and Raniwara and four panchayat samitis namely Bhinmal, Sanchore, Raniwara and Jaswantpura.
- Civic affairs are administered by the Bhinmal Municipal Council (BMC) (Nagarpalika Mandal Bhinmal), with executive power vested in the Municipal executive officer. The Council comprises 25 directly elected councillors representing the twenty five municipal wards. Three nominated Councillors and a local MLA also have a rights of councillor.
- The Bhinmal sub-division area is under the jurisdiction of a Deputy District Collector/Sub divisional Officer (SDO). Current SDO/SDM - Shri Om Prakash .
- The Bhinmal got septate District Transport Office (DTO) including Vehicle Registration Code RJ-46 allotted by Transport Department of Govt of Rajasthan on 19 July 2013.
- Bhinmal Tehsildar is in charge of property records and revenue collection of Bhinmal tehsil
- The Bhinmal Police is headed by a Deputy Superintendent of Police who is an IPS officer.
- Bhinmal also has a Lower court, the Small Causes Court for civil matters and the Sessions Court for criminal cases.
- Bhinmal constituency elects one member to the Vidhan Sabha (Rajasthan State Assembly)
- Sanwalaram Dewasi  is selected as Mayor(chairman) of Municipality Bhinmal
- Pooraram Choudhary is elected as MLA of Bhinmal in State Legislative Assembly.
- Channi Deram Bishnoi is elected as pradhan of p.s. Bhinmal.
As of 2011[update] India census, Bhinmal had a population of 3,02,553. Rural population was 2,54,621, urban population was 47,932, Males constituted 50.6% of the population and females 49.4%. Bhinmal had an average literacy rate of 53.6%, lower than the national average of 74%, with male literacy of 70.2% and female literacy of 36.8%. 17% of the population were under 6 years of age.
Temples in Bhinmal
- Mahavira Swami Jain temple
- Parshvanatha Jain temple (Hathi pole)
- Shantinath Jain temple (Ganesh chowk)
- Gandhi Mehta Ka Vaas (4 Jain temple complex dedicated to VasuPujya, Shantinath, Parshvanatha and Mahavira)
- Nakoda Parshvanatha Jain temple
- Riddhi-Siddhi Parshvanatha Jain Temple
- Chomukhji Jain temple
- Manmohan Parshvanatha Jain temple
- Jagawallabh Parshvanatha Jain temple (famous as Pratap Sarai Jain Temple)
- Padmaprabhu Jain temple (Magh colony)
- Jeerawalla Parshvanatha Jain temple
- Seemandhar swami Jain temple (Rath Mandir)
- Shankheshwar Parshvanatha Jain temple complex
- Gaudi Parshvanatha Jain temple
- Kirti Stambh Jain Temple (Tower Temple)
- Bafna Wadi Jain Tirth (Lord Mahavira)
- Shankheshwar Parshvanatha Temple, Dhora-Dhal
- Kunthunathji Jain Temple, Hundia Street
- Laxmi vallabha Parshvanatha (72 jeenalay or Bahattar Jinalaya - complex of 72 temples dedicated to 72 Jain Tirthankar), Jalore Road
- Khimat (SEMOJ )Mataji / Kshemekari Mataji Temple (Mataji ki Bhakri temple)- Kul Devi of Shandilya Gotra in Rabari khatana Shrimali Brahmins, Doshi's, Vanigota's, Solanki's, Morakhiya's and in all 84 total kul (sect)
- Nagdevta Temple (Gogaji) at Mataji Road - Kuldevta of Jogani's
- Varaha Shyam temple
- Chandinath temple, Kuldevata of Gautam Gotra in Shrimali Brahmins
- Neel Kantha Mahadev temple
- Mahalaxmi temple, Mahalaxmi road, Kuldevi of Chandras Gotra in Shrimali Brahmins
- Mahalakshmi Kamaleshwari temple, Dhora-dhal, First built in 10th century BCE, later rebuilt in 1st century, renovated in 13th century, Kuldevi of Kaushik Gotra in Shrimali Brahmins
- Baba Ramdevji temple, mataji ki bhakri, meghwal samaj
- Gayatri temple
- Fafariya Hanuman temple
- Baba Ramdevji temple Jeengar bazar
- Vishwakarma temple
- Kashi Vishwanath mandir Jeengar Bazar
- Saraswati temple
- Lord Shanidev Temple, near old police station
- Hanuman Mandir Lakharo ka chohata
- Charbhuja temple (main market)
- Ardhnareshwar Mahadev mandir
- Varunachi yogeshwari mandir
- Priyuteshwar mahadev mandir
- Siddhivinayak mandir
- Guru Jambheshwar mandir Char Rasta Bhinmal
- Dhundhleshwar Mahadev Temple, Gajipura, Bhinmal
- Boteshwar mahadev Temple, Karlu
- Sundha mataji temple [sundhaparvat]
- Hanumanji mandir sawidhar
- Vatyakshni mataji mandir
- Bindukshini Mataji Mandir
- Lord Rajeshwar mandir bhinmal (Choudhary)
- Varahashayamji mandir bhinmal
- Kalka Maa Mandir (Balotiya Kuldevi) (17th century)
- Ganga mata mandir, Jatiya Mohalla, Bhinmal
- Raneshwar Mahadev Mandir, Jakob Talab (Mali malaram chothaji gehlot)
- Gajanan Saidham, Bhinmal near Shivraj Stadium, Jalore
- Pragteshwar Mahadev Temple, near Yagyi's Niwas
- Ambe Mata Mandir, Kshemakari road near dhora dhal, Bhinmal
- Tryambakeshvar Mahadev Mandir
- Chandinath Baori (Bavadi) (9th century)
- Jeevdaya Gaushala
- Jakoba Talab (8th century)
- Bal samundra pond
- Trayamkeshwer pond
- Jodhpur :200 km; Jalore:72 km; Sirohi:73 km; Mount Abu:170 km; Palanpur:120 km
- Ranakpur:140 km; Jaisalmer:335 km; Ahmedabad: 315 km; Abu Road:125 km
Bhinmal in the news
- A 450-year-old Jain temple was unearthed in 2002 during construction work at the premises of Shri Parshwa Nath temple at Bhinmal. The temple has five images of Jain Tirthankars made in white marble.
- A docudrama (documentary) made on Bhinmal village, My Beautiful Village Bhinmal, by Azad Jain, won "Best Documentary-Writing" Award in Rolling Frames Short Film Summit, Bangalore, in 2014. It was also screened at the Ekotop Junior Film Festival, Slovak Republic, Europe, Pink City Short Film Festival, Jaipur, and Wanderlust Film Festival, Jaisalmer. Leading newspapers from Rajasthan mentioned it as it was the only film in the festival about Rajasthani village and its people.
- Gopal, Lallanji (1989), The Economic Life of Northern India, C. A.D. 700-1200, Motilal Banarsidass, pp. 199–, ISBN 978-81-208-0302-2
- Sircar, Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Medieval India 1990, p. 240.
- Puri, The History of the Gurjara-Pratiharas 1986, p. 9.
- Goyal, Shankar (1991), "Recent Historiography of the Age of Harṣa", Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, 72/73 (1/4): 331–361, JSTOR 41694902
- Puri, The History of the Gurjara-Pratiharas 1986, p. 35.
- Smith, Vincent A. (October 1907). "'White Hun' Coin of Vyagrahamukha of the Chapa (Gurjara) Dynasty of Bhinmal". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland: 923–928. doi:10.1017/S0035869X00036868. JSTOR 25210490.
- Bhandarkar 1929, pp. 29–30; Wink, Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World 2002, p. 208; Blankinship, The End of the Jihad State 1994, pp. 132–133
- Blankinship, The End of the Jihad State 1994, p. 133.
- Blankinship, The End of the Jihad State 1994, p. 319.
- Shanta Rani Sharma 2012, p. 8.
- Sanjay Sharma 2006, p. 204.
- Blankinship, The End of the Jihad State 1994, p. 188.
- Puri, The History of the Gurjara-Pratiharas 1986, chapters 3–4.
- Sircar, Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Medieval India 1990, pp. 240–242.
- Rao Ganpatsimha Chitalwana, Bhinmal ka Sanskritik Vaibhav, p. 46- 49
- Rao Ganpatsimha Chitalwana, Bhinmal ka Sanskritik Vaibhav, p. 49
- Rao Ganpatsimha Chitalwana, Bhinmal ka Sanskritik Vaibhav, p. 50- 53
- Kanhadade Prabandha. New Delhi. 1991. p. 49.
A farman (firman) was now given to Gori Malik (to sack Bhinmal)… The Turkish [Muslim] invaders entered the town making dreadful din and clamor. Orders were issued clear and terrible: ‘The soldiers shall march into the town spreading terror everywhere! Cut down the Brahmanas [Brahman priests], wherever they may be- performing homa or milking cows! Kill the cows- even those which are pregnant or with newly born calves!’ The Turks ransacked Bhinmal and captured everybody in the sleepy town. Thereafter, Gori Malik gleefully set fire to the town in a wanton display of force and meanness.
- Cort, Jains in the World 2001, p. 35, 37.
- Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Bhinmal
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 August 2013. Retrieved 10 August 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- http://www.eci.gov.in/election-analysis/AE/S20/partycomp172.htm[permanent dead link]
- "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 16 June 2004. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
- http://epaperbeta.timesofindia.com/Article.aspx?eid=31810&articlexml=WANDERLUST-FESTIVAL-Three-day-travel-film-fest-concludes-04112014004041 Dainik Bhaskar- http://epaper.bhaskar.com/detail/?id=631489&boxid=113045115&ch=0&map=map¤tTab=tabs-1&pagedate=11%2F03%2F2014&editioncode=147&pageno=13&view=image Archived 23 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine
- Bhandarkar, D. R. (1929), "Indian Studies No. I: Slow Progress of Islam Power in Ancient India", Annals of the Bhandarkar Orienteal Research Institute, 10 (1/2): 25–44, JSTOR 41682407
- Blankinship, Khalid Yahya (1994), The End of the Jihad State: The Reign of Hisham Ibn 'Abd al-Malik and the Collapse of the Umayyads, SUNY Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-1827-7
- Campbell, James MacNabb; Reginald Edward Enthoven (1901). Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency. Govt. Central Press, 2. ISBN 81-206-0651-5.
- Cort, John E. (2001), Jains in the World: Religious Values and Ideology in India, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-803037-9
- Malabari, Behramji Merwanji; Krishnalal M. Jhaveri (1998). Gujarat and the Gujaratis: Pictures of Men and Manners Taken from Life. Asian Educational Services, ISBN 81-206-0651-5.
- Puri, Baij Nath (1986). The History of the Gurjara-Pratiharas. Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal.
- Sharma, Sanjay (2006), "Negotiating Identity and Status Legitimation and Patronage under the Gurjara-Pratīhāras of Kanauj", Studies in History, 22 (22): 181–220, doi:10.1177/025764300602200202, S2CID 144128358
- Sharma, Shanta Rani (2012), "Exploding the Myth of the Gūjara Identity of the Imperial Pratihāras", Indian Historical Review, 39 (1): 1–10, doi:10.1177/0376983612449525, S2CID 145175448
- Sircar, D.C. (1990), Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Medieval India, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0690-0
- Wink, André (2002) [first published 1990], Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World (Third ed.), Brill, ISBN 0391041738