Bhitarkanika National Park

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Bhitarkanika National Park
IUCN category II (national park)
Sunrise at Bhitarakanika.jpg
Sunrise at Bhitarkanika National Park
Map showing the location of Bhitarkanika National Park
Map showing the location of Bhitarkanika National Park
LocationOdisha, India
Nearest cityKendrapara, Rajkanika Chandbali
Coordinates20°45′N 87°0′E / 20.750°N 87.000°E / 20.750; 87.000Coordinates: 20°45′N 87°0′E / 20.750°N 87.000°E / 20.750; 87.000
Area145 km2 (56 sq mi)
Established16 September 1998
Governing bodyMinistry of Environment and Forests, Government of India

Bhitarkanika National Park is the core area of Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary located in the north-east region of Kendrapara district in the state of Odisha in eastern India. It spreads over 145 km2 (56 sq mi) and is surrounded by the Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary spread over 672 km2 (259 sq mi). It was designated as national park on 16 September 1998 and as a Ramsar site by UNESCO on 19 August 2002. Gahirmatha Beach and Marine Sanctuary lies to the east, and separates swamp region cover with canopy of mangroves from the Bay of Bengal.

The national park is home to Saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus), Indian python, King cobra, black ibis, darters and many other species of flora and fauna.[1] It hosts a large number of mangrove species, and is the second largest mangrove ecosystem in India.

The national park and wildlife sanctuary is inundated by the rivers Brahmani, Baitarani, Dhamra, Pathsala.

Tourism in Bhitarkanika[edit]

Sightseeing is done on boats which have got forest department licenses. Main entrance to the forest is from Khola Gate, even though there is another gate called Gupti gate. Tourism was almost non-existent here till a few years ago. This trend is changing steadily with efforts on the marketing front by one or two resorts. Odisha Government has shown little enthusiasm in promoting this area for tourism. But of late, Odisha Tourism is displaying Bhitarkanika as a destination for eco-friendly and rich nature where tourists can enjoy variety of wildlife and birds..


It is a very good place to sight the giant Salt Water Crocodile, some growing to 23 feet in length, along with other reptiles like the Water Monitor Lizard and the King Cobra. Spotted deers and wild boars are abundant in the park and can be spotted at all the major locations. Eight varieties of Kingfishers are found here and can be spotted along the many creeks and riverines within the park.

The boat ride from Khola to Dangmal or vice versa is highly recommended. Khola is one of the gateways into the park. This is along an artificial creek and it passes through dense mangrove forest providing a glimpse into the estuarine ecosystem and its wealth of fauna. The best time to travel through this creek is early morning or before sunset.

Bhitarkanika has a very rich historical and cultural past. It used to be the hunting grounds of the erstwhile King of Kanika . The hunting towers and artificial watering holes can be seen at many places including Bhitarkanika trail and at Dangmal. It is also the home of medieval Hindu temples which can be found dotted throughout the sanctuary. But the major attraction remains the wildlife wealth.

Mangroves and wildlife[edit]

Salt Water Crocodile.jpg

Mangroves are salt tolerant, complex and dynamic eco-systems that occur in tropical and subtropical inter-tidal regions. Bhitarkanika is one such location of rich, lush green vibrant eco-system lying in the estuarine region of Brahmani- Baitarani in the North-Eastern corner of Kendrapara district of Odisha. The area is intersected by a network of creeks with Bay of Bengal on the East. The alley between the meandering creeks and rivers, houses the second largest viable mangrove eco-system of India. Its 672 km². of mangrove forest & wetland, provides home to well over 215 species of birds including winter migrants from central-Asia and Europe. Giant salt water crocodiles and a variety of other wildlife inhabit this eco-system which is one of Asia's most spectacular wildlife sanctuaries.

Spotted Deer (BNP).jpg

An area of 145 km². have been notified as Bhitarkanika National Park vide Notification No.19686/F & E dated 16.9.1998 of Forests & Environment Department, Government of Odisha. It has much significance with regard to ecological, geomorphological and biological background which includes mangrove forests, rivers, creeks, estuaries, back water, accreted land and mud flats. Bhitarkanika National Park is the core area of Bhitarkanika Sanctuary.

Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary was declared vide notification No.6958/FF AH Dtd. 22.04.1975 over an area of 672 square kilometers. The Sanctuary comprising Mangrove Forests meandering rivers, innumerable criss-crossed tidal inundated creeks provide last refuge to the already endangered salt water Crocodile (Crocodile Porosus). Besides estuarine Crocodile, the Sanctuary is rich in avifauna, mammalian and reptilian population. These Mangrove forests are good habitat for King Cobra, Indian Python and Water Monitor Lizard. A large number of water birds visit Bagagahan heronry which is an area of approximately 4 hectare. within the Bhitarkanika Forest Block near Suajore creek from the month of June to October. Most of the Birds are Asian open bill. Egrets. Black Ibis, Cormorants, Darters & etc.

Water Monitor Lizard.jpg

Flora and fauna[edit]

Bhitarkanika National Park
mangroves of BHITARKANIKA NATIONAL PARK. This is commonly known as HENTAL BANA

Flora: Mangrove species, casuarinas, and grasses like the indigo bush.[citation needed]

Fauna: The park is home to the saltwater crocodile, Indian python, black ibis, wild boar, rhesus monkey, chital, darter, cobra, monitor lizard. Olive ridley turtles nest on Gahirmatha and other nearby beaches. Bhitarkanika has one of the largest populations of endangered saltwater crocodile in India and is globally unique in that, 10% of the adults exceed 6 m length. Nearly 1671 saltwater crocodiles inhabit the rivers and creeks.[2] Around 3,000 saltwater crocodiles were born during 2014 annual breeding and nesting season.[3]

In 2006, Guinness World Records accepted claims of a 7.1 m (23 ft 4 in), 2,000 kg (4,400 lb) male saltwater crocodile living within Bhitarkanika National Park.[4] Due to the difficulty of trapping and measuring a very large living crocodile, the accuracy of these dimensions is yet to be verified. These observations and estimations have been made by park officials over the course of ten years, from 2006 to 2016, however, regardless of the skill of the observers it cannot be compared to a verified tape measurement, especially considering the uncertainty inherent in visual size estimation in the wild.[5] According to the park report in 2006, there were 203 adults, of which 16 measured over 4.9 m (16 ft 1 in); 5 of these 5.5 to 6.1 m (18 ft 1 in to 20 ft 0 in), and 3 over 6.1 m (20 ft 0 in), as well as the preserved skeleton of a 6.0 m (19 ft 8 in) specimen which died one year earlier.[6] A significant figure, since individuals over 5 m (16 ft 5 in) are considered rare,[7] making the Bhitarkanika Park a suitable habitat for large individuals. The most recently published official park report shows an increase of adult crocodiles to 308 individuals, as well as a steady increase over the years.[8][9] In future, if conservation efforts pay off, these large individuals could be more common.[10]

As per the 2014 survey of mammals, first of its kind to be undertaken in the forest and wetland sites of the park; 1,872 spotted deers, 1,213 numbers of wild boars have made the forest areas their home. The census breakup of other mammals is monkeys - 1,522, jackals - 305, common langur - 39, otter - 38, sambar deer - 17, jungle cat - 11, fox - 10, Mongoose - 7, wolf- 7, fishing cats - 3, hyena - 12, according to the survey data.[11]

Spotted deers at Bhitarkanika National Park

Avian-Fauna: 320 species of avianfauna including eight varieties of Kingfishers. Birds such as Asian Open Bill, Cormorants, Darters, Black Ibis, Egrets, are frequently seen in the park. Every year close to 1,20,000 winter visitor from abroad for wintering and 80,000 resident birds from different parts of India arrive for nesting during monsoon season.[12]


Media related to Bhitarkanika National Park at Wikimedia Commons

  1. ^ "Bhitarkanika Wetlands of Odisha, India| Saving Wetlands". Saving Wetlands. 2017. Retrieved 2017-09-13.
  2. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-02-24. Retrieved 2010-04-09.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) Crocodiles in Bhitarakanika]
  3. ^ "Increased number of croc hatchlings in Bhitarkanika". Business Standard. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
  4. ^ Mishra, Braja Kishore (14 June 2006). "World's Largest Reptile Found in India". Archived from the original on 8 January 2008.
  5. ^ Bayliss, P. (1987). Survey methods and monitoring within crocodile management programmes. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton, pages 157–175
  6. ^ "Bhitarkanika is home to the largest Crocodiles in the world". Retrieved 2015-06-03.
  7. ^ Britton, Adam. "Crocodylus porosus (Schneider, 1801)". The Crocodilian Species List. Archived from the original on 8 January 2006.
  8. ^ "Rise in estuarine crocodile populations in Bhitarkanika, Odisha". Retrieved 2015-06-03.
  9. ^ "Crocodile".
  10. ^ Grigg, G., & Kirshner, D. (2015). Biology and Evolution of Crocodylians. CSIRO PUBLISHING.
  11. ^ "3000 spotted deer and wild boars in Bhitarkanika". Zee News. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
  12. ^ "Migratory Birds arrive at Bhitarkanika National Park in Odisha". IANS. Retrieved 20 June 2014.