Bhojpuri cinema refers to films produced in the Bhojpuri language in the eastern Uttar Pradesh, western Bihar and Terai in southern Nepal. The first Bhojpuri talkie film, Ganga Maiyya Tohe Piyari Chadhaibo, was released in 1961 by Vishwanath Shahabadi. The 80's saw the release of many notable as well as run-of-the-mill Bhojpuri films like Bitia Bhail Sayan, Chandwa ke take Chakor, Hamar Bhauji, Ganga Kinare Mora Gaon and Sampoorna Tirth Yatra. Bhojpuri cinema has grown in recent years. Bhojpuri movies are seen across various parts of Europe and Asia where second and third generation migrants still speak the language; as well as in Suriname, which has a large Bhojpuri-speaking population. The industry is based in Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh.
Bhojpuri, often considered a dialect of Hindi, originates in western Bihar and eastern Uttar Pradesh in northern India. Speakers of it and its creoles are found in many parts of the world, including Brazil, Fiji, Guyana, Mauritius, South Africa, Suriname, and Trinidad and Tobago and The Netherlands. During the late 1800s and early 1900s, many colonizers faced labor shortages due to the abolition of slavery; thus, they imported many Indians, many from Bhojpuri-speaking regions, as indentured servants to labor on plantations. Today, some 200 million people in the West Indies, Oceania, and South America speak Bhojpuri as a native or second language.
In 1960s, The first president of India, Rajendra Prasad, who hailed from Bihar, met Bollywood Actor Nazir Hussain and asked him to make a movie in Bhojpuri, which eventually led to first Bhojpuri film's release in 1963. Bhojpuri cinema history begins with the well-received film Ganga Maiyya Tohe Piyari Chadhaibo ("Mother Ganges, I will offer you a yellow sari"), which was produced by Biswanath Prasad Shahabadi under the banner of Nirmal Pictures and directed by Kundan Kumar. Throughout the following decades, films were produced in fits and starts. Bidesiya ("Foreigner", 1963, directed by S. N. Tripathi) and Ganga ("Ganges", 1965, directed by Kundan Kumar) were profitable and popular, but in general Bhojpuri films were not commonly produced in the 1960s and 1970s.
In the 1980s, enough Bhojpuri films were produced to tentatively make up an industry. Films such as Mai ("Mom", 1989, directed by Rajkumar Sharma) and Hamar Bhauji ("My Brother's Wife", 1983, directed by Kalpataru) continued to have at least sporadic success at the box office. Nadiya Ke Paar is a 1982 Hindi-Bhojpuri blockbuster directed by Govind Moonis and starring Sachin, Sadhana Singh, Inder Thakur, Mitali, Savita Bajaj, Sheela David, Leela Mishra and Soni Rathod. However, this trend faded out by the end of the decade. By 1990, the nascent industry seemed to be completely finished.
The industry took off again in 2001 with the Silver Jubilee hit Saiyyan Hamar ("My Sweetheart", directed by Mohan Prasad), which shot its hero, Ravi Kissan, to superstardom. This was quickly followed by several other remarkably successful films, including Panditji Batai Na Biyah Kab Hoi ("Priest, tell me when I will marry", 2005, directed by Mohan Prasad) and Sasura Bada Paisa Wala ("My father-in-law, the rich guy", 2005). In a measure of the Bhojpuri film industry's rise, both of these did much better business in the states of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh than mainstream Bollywood hits at the time. Both films, made on extremely tight budgets, earned back more than ten times their production costs. Sasura Bada Paisa Wala introduced Manoj Tiwari, formerly a well-loved folk singer, to the wider audiences of Bhojpuri cinema. In 2008, he and Ravi Kissan were the leading actors of Bhojpuri films, and their fees increase with their fame. The extremely rapid success of their films has led to dramatic increases in Bhojpuri cinema's visibility, and the industry now supports an awards show and a trade magazine, Bhojpuri City, which chronicles the production and release of what are now over 100 films per year.
Many of the major stars of mainstream Bollywood cinema, including Amitabh Bachchan, have recently worked in Bhojpuri films. Mithun Chakraborty's Bhojpuri debut Bhole Shankar, released in 2008, is considered the biggest Bhojpuri hit of all time. Also in 2008, a 21-minute diploma Bhojpuri film by Siddharth Sinha, Udedh Bun (Unravel) was selected for world premiere at the Berlin International Film Festival. Later it won the National Film Award for Best Short fiction Film.
Bhojpuri poet Manoj Bhawuk has written a history of Bhojpuri cinema.
In February 2011, a three-day film and cultural festival in Patna marking 50 years of Bhojpuri cinema, opened Ganga Maiyya Tohe Piyari Chadhaibo the first Bhojpuri film.The first bhojpuri Reality Film "Dhokha" is under production under banner Om Kaushik Films is about to be nominated and screened in different International Film Festivals under direction Of Rashmi Raj Kaushik Vicky and Renu Chaudhary.
Notable personalities of the Bhojpuri film industry include:
Apart from these regular actors, many bollywood actors like Amitabh Bachchan, Abhishek Bachchan, Ajay Devgan, Dharmendra, Kader Khan, Mithun Chakraborty, Jackie Shroff, Raj Babbar, etc. have acted in Bhojpuri movies.
Apart from these regular actresses, many bollywood actresses like, Aruna Irani, Hema Malini, Jaya Bachchan, Juhi Chawla, Nagma, Rati Agnihotri and Shilpa Shetty are also featured in Bhojpuri movies.
|Ganga Maiyya Tohe Piyari Chadhaibo||Bhojpuri||1962|
|Laagi Nahi Chhute Ram||Bhojpuri||1963|
|Dher Chalaki Jinkara||Bhojpuri||1971|
|Daku Rani Ganga||Bhojpuri||1976|
|Chanwa Ke Take Chakor||Bhojpuri||1981|
|Saiyan Magan Pahelwani Mein||Bhojpuri||1981|
|Saiyan Tore Karan||Bhojpuri||1981|
|Chukti Bhar Senur||Bhojpuri||1983|
|Dulha Ganga Paar Ke||Bhojpuri||1986|
|Roos Gailen Saiyen Hamaar||Bhojpuri||1988|
|Nadiya Ke Paar||Bhojpuri||1982|
|Devra Bada Satawela||Bhojpuri||2010|
|Devra Bhail Deewana||Bhojpuri||2014|
- Cinema of Bihar
- Patna Film Festival
- List of Bhojpuri films
- Magahi language films
- Maithili language films
- Vulgarity in the bhojpuri movies is offen criticized. Many notable personalities including Manoj Tiwari has a clear stand on this issue.
- "Regional pride". Business standard. June 24, 2010. Retrieved 22 February 2014.
- Mesthrie, Rajend (1991). Language in Indenture: A Sociolinguistic History of Bhojpuri-Hindi in South Africa. London: Routledge. pp. 19–32. ISBN 0-415-06404-X.
- "First Bhojpuri Film To Be Screened During Bihar Divas". NDTV Movies. March 17, 2011.
- Tripathy, Ratnakar (2007) 'Bhojpuri Cinema', South Asian Popular Culture, 5:2, 145-165
- Subhash K. Jha (29 March 2006). "Meet the star of Bhojpuri cinema". Rediff. Retrieved 10 December 2009.
- "Move over Bollywood, Here's Bhojpuri," BBC News Online: http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/1/hi/world/south_asia/4512812.stm
- Ashish Mitra (8 December 2006). "Bhojpuri industry On a High". Screen. Retrieved 10 December 2009.
- "Not moving closer to Congress: Shatrughan Sinha". The Hindu. 14 April 2008. Retrieved 10 December 2009.
- "Mithun’s first Bhojpuri film creates record in Bihar". Screen. 3 October 2008. Retrieved 10 December 2009.
- Kapoor, Saurabh (Feb 7, 2008). "Bhojpuri cinema heads to Berlin". The Times of India.
- Discovery of 2008: Siddharth Sinha, Silver Bear Winner at Berlin January 2009.
- "Cut to fame". Indian Express. Sep 8, 2009.
- "Strong at 50, Bhojpuri cinema celebrates". Indian Express. Feb 14, 2011.
- "Bollywood actors in Bhojpuri films. Have a look.". Retrieved 11 January 2014.
- "Abhishek to star in Bhojpuri film". Retrieved 11 January 2014.