Bhubaneswar

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Bhubaneswar
ଭୁବନେଶ୍ୱର
Jaydev vihar.jpg
Rajpath.JPG IITBBS.jpg
ORISSA SECRETARIAT.jpg Dhauilgiri Stupa top.jpg
Rama Mandira Bhubaneswar Odisha1.JPG Lingaraj Temple bbsr8.jpg
From Top left to right: Jaydev vihar, Rajpath, IIT Bhubaneswar, Odisha Secretariat, Dhauli, Ram Mandir, Bhubaneswar, Lingaraja Temple
Nickname(s): Temple City of India
Bhubaneswar is located in Odisha
Bhubaneswar
Bhubaneswar
Coordinates: 20°16′N 85°50′E / 20.27°N 85.84°E / 20.27; 85.84Coordinates: 20°16′N 85°50′E / 20.27°N 85.84°E / 20.27; 85.84
Country  India
State Odisha
District Khordha
Named for Lord Shiva's name: Bhubaneswar
Government
 • Type Mayor–Council
 • Body Bhubaneswar Municipal Corporation (BMC)
 • Mayor Anant Narayan Jena (BJD)
 • Municipal Commissioner Krishan Kumar (IAS)
 • Police commissioner Shri Yogesh Bahadur Khurania (IPS)
Area
 • City 422 km2 (163 sq mi)
Elevation 45 m (148 ft)
Population (2011)[1]
 • City 837,456
 • Rank 60
 • Density 2,131.37/km2 (5,520.2/sq mi)
 • Metro 881,988
Demonym(s) Bhubaneswariya
Languages
 • Official Odia
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 751xxx
Telephone code 0674
Vehicle registration OD-02 & OD-33 (OR-02 before 2012)
UN/LOCODE IN BBI
Website www.bmc.gov.in

Bhubaneswar, also spelt as Bhubaneshwar Listeni/ˌbʊbəˈnʃwər/ (Odia: ଭୁବନେଶ୍ୱର), is the capital of the Indian state of Odisha. It is the largest city in Odisha and is a centre of economic and religious importance in Eastern India.

Although the modern city of Bhubaneswar was formally established only in 1948, the history of the areas in and around the present-day city can be traced to 1st century BCE and earlier. With many 8th-12th century CE Hindu temples, which span the entire spectrum of Kalinga architecture, Bhubaneswar is often referred to as a "Temple City of India". With Puri and Konark it forms the Swarna Tribhuja ("Golden Triangle"), one of eastern India's most visited destinations.[2]

Bhubaneswar replaced Cuttack as the capital on 19 August 1949, the year after India gained its independence from Britain. The modern city was designed by the German architect Otto Königsberger in 1946. Along with Jamshedpur and Chandigarh, it was one of modern India's first planned cities. Bhubaneswar and Cuttack are often referred to as the 'twin cities of Odisha'. The metropolitan area formed by the two cities had a population of 1.7 million in 2011.[3] Bhubaneswar is categorised as a Tier-2 city. An emerging information technology (IT) and education hub, Bhubaneswar is one of the country's fastest-developing cities.

History[edit]

 Ancient remains of stone walls with a grassy path in the middle
Remains of the ancient city of Sisupalgarh, on the outskirts of Bhubaneswar, dated between 3rd century BCE
Inscription on rock in Brahmi language
Hathigumpha inscriptions at the Udayagiri and Khandagiri caves near Bhubaneswar
and 4th century CE

The foundation of the modern Bhubaneswar city was laid in 1948, although the areas in and around the city have a history going back to 1st century BCE or earlier.[4]

Dhauli, near Bhubaneswar is the site of the Kalinga War (c. 262-261 BCE), in which the Mauryan emperor Ashoka invaded and annexed Kalinga.[4] One of the most complete edicts of the Mauryan Emperor, Ashoka, dating from between 272–236 BCE, remains carved in rock 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) to the southwest of the modern city.[5] After the decline of the Mauryan empire, the area came under the rule of Mahameghavahana dynasty, whose most well-known rule is Kharavela. His Hathigumpha inscription is located at the Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves near Bhubaneswar. The area was subsequently ruled by several dynasties, including Satavahanas, Guptas, Matharas, and Shailobhavas.[4]

In 7th century, Somavamshi or Keshari dynasty established their kingdom in the area, and constructed a number of temples. After the Kesharis, the Eastern Gangas ruled Kalinga area until 14th century CE. Their capital Kalinganagar was located in present-day Bhubaneswar district. After them, Mukunda Deva of the Bhoi dynasty – the last Hindu ruler of the area until the Marathas – developed several religious buildings in the area.[4] Most of the older temples in Bhubaneswar were built between 8th and 12th centuries, under Shaiva influence. The Ananta Vasudeva Temple is the only old temple of Vishnu in the city.[6] In 1568, the Karrani dynasty of Afghan origin gained control of the area. During their reign, most of the temples and other structures were destroyed or disfigured.[4]

In the 16th century, the area came under Mughal control. The Marathas, who succeeded the Mughals in mid-18th century, encouraged pilgrimage in the region. In 1803, the area came under British colonial rule, and was part of the Bengal Presidency (until 1912), Bihar and Orissa Province (1912-1936) and Orissa Province (1936-1947).[4] The capital of the British-ruled Orissa Province was Cuttack, which was vulnerabile to floods and suffered from space constraints. Because of this, on 30 September 1946, a proposal to move the capital to a new capital was introduced in the Legislative Assembly of the Orissa Province. After independence of India, the foundation of the new capital was laid by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru on 13 April 1948.[4]

The name of the new capital came from "Tribhubaneswar" or "Bhubaneswar" (literally "Lord of the Earth"), a name of Shiva, the deity of the Lingaraja temple.[7] The Legislative Assembly of Orissa was shifted from Cuttack to Bhubaneswar in 1949.[4] Bhubaneswar was built as a modern city, designed by German architect Otto Königsberger with wide roads, gardens and parks.[8] Though part of the city followed the plan, it grew rapidly over the next few decades, outstripping the planning process.[9] According the first census of independent India, taken in 1951, the city's population was just 16,512. From 1952 to 1979, it was administered by a Notified Area Council or a nagar panchayat; a municipality was established only on 12 March 1979. By the 1991 census, the population of Bhubaneswar had increased to 411,542. Accordingly, on 14 August 1994, the Bhubaneswar Municipal Corporation was established.[4]

Geography[edit]

Skyline of Bhubaneswar from Khandagiri hill

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Daya River at the foothills of Dhauli

Bhubaneswar is in Khordha district of Odisha. It is in the eastern coastal plains, along the axis of the Eastern Ghats mountains.[10] The city has an average altitude of 45 m (148 ft) above sea level.[10] It lies southwest of the Mahanadi River that forms the northern boundary of Bhubaneswar metropolitan area, within its delta.

The city is bounded by the Daya River to the south and the Kuakhai River to the east;[10] the Chandaka Wildlife Sanctuary and Nandankanan Zoo lie in the western and northern parts of Bhubaneswar, respectively.[8]

Bhubaneswar is topographically divided into western uplands and eastern lowlands, with hillocks in the western and northern parts.[10] Kanjia lake on the northern outskirts, affords rich biodiversity and is a wetland of national importance.[11] Bhubaneswar's soils are 65 per cent laterite, 25 per cent alluvial and 10 per cent sandstone.[12] The Bureau of Indian Standards places the city inside seismic zone III on a scale ranging from I to V in order of increasing susceptibility to earthquakes.[13] The United Nations Development Programme reports that there is "very high damage risk" from winds and cyclones.[13] The 1999 Odisha cyclone caused major damage to buildings, the city's infrastructure and cost many human lives.[14][15] Floods and waterlogging in the low-lying areas have become common due to unplanned growth.[12][16]

Urban structure[edit]

Bhubaneswar City at Night
Rajpath, Bhubaneswar

The Bhubaneswar urban development area consists of the Bhubaneswar Municipal Corporation area, 173 revenue villages and two other municipalities spread over 393.57 square kilometres (151.96 sq mi).[17] The area under the jurisdiction of the Bhubaneswar Municipal Corporation covers 135 square kilometres (52 sq mi).[18] The city is somewhat dumbbell-shaped with most of the growth taking place to the north, northeast and southwest.[19] The north–south axis of the city is widest, at roughly 22.5 kilometres (14.0 mi). Growth in the east is restricted due to the presence of Kuakhai River and by the wildlife sanctuary in the northwestern part.[19] The city can be broadly divided into the old town, planned city (or state capital), added areas and outer peripheral areas. It is subdivided into Units and Colonies.

The old town or "Temple Town", the oldest part of the city, is characterised by many temples, including the Lingaraj, Rajarani, and Muktesvara temples, standing alongside residential areas. This area is congested, with narrow roads and poor infrastructure.[19] Among neighbourhoods in the old town are Rajarani Colony, Pandav Nagar, Brahmeswar Bagh, Lingaraj Nagar, Gouri Nagar, Bhimatanki and Kapileswar.

The planned city was designed in 1948 to house the capital. It is subdivided into units, each with a high school, shopping centres, dispensaries and play areas. While most of the units house government employees, Unit V houses the administrative buildings, including the State Secretariat, State Assembly, and the Raj Bhavan. Private residential areas were later built in other areas of the planned city, including Saheed Nagar and Satya Nagar. Unit I, popularly known as the Market Building, was formed to cater to the shopping needs of the new capital's residents. Later, markets and commercial establishments developed along the Janpath and Cuttack-Puri Road at Saheed Nagar, Satya Nagar, Bapuji Nagar and Ashok Nagar. A dedicated institutional area houses educational and research institutes, including Utkal University, the Institute of Physics, the Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology and Sainik School. Indira Gandhi Park, Gandhi Park and the Biju Patnaik Park are located in the unit.[19]

The added areas are mostly areas lying north of National Highway 5, including Nayapalli, Jayadev Vihar, Chandrasekharpur and Sailashree Vihar, which were developed by Bhubaneswar Development Authority to house the growing population.[19]

The peripheral areas are outside the municipal boundary or have subsequently been included within the extended boundary, including Tomando, Patia and Raghunathpur. Most of these areas were developed in a haphazard manner, without proper planning.[20]

Bhubaneswar secured the top rank in the Smart city list in India.[21]

Climate[edit]

A one storied building with decorative plants and landscaping around it
Meteorological Centre, Bhubaneswar

Bhubaneswar has a tropical savanna climate, designated Aw under the Köppen climate classification. The annual mean temperature is 27.4 °C (81.3 °F); monthly mean temperatures are 22–32 °C (72–90 °F).[22] Summers (March to June) are hot and humid, with temperatures in the low 30s C; during dry spells, maximum temperatures often exceed 40 °C (104 °F) in May and June.[22] Winter lasts for only about ten weeks, with seasonal lows dipping to 15–18 °C (59–64 °F) in December and January. May is the hottest month, when daily temperatures range from 32–42 °C (90–108 °F). January, the coldest month, has temperatures varying from 15–28 °C (59–82 °F). The highest recorded temperature is 45 °C (113.0 °F), and the lowest is 12 °C (54 °F).[22]

Rains brought by the Bay of Bengal branch of the south west summer monsoon[23] lash Bhubaneswar between June and September, supplying it with most of its annual rainfall of 1,542 mm (61 in). The highest monthly rainfall total, 330 mm (13 in), occurs in August.[22]

Climate data for Bhubaneswar
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 35.8
(96.4)
42.7
(108.9)
42.0
(107.6)
45.0
(113)
46.5
(115.7)
46.3
(115.3)
41.3
(106.3)
37.4
(99.3)
37.9
(100.2)
36.6
(97.9)
37.6
(99.7)
33.6
(92.5)
46.5
(115.7)
Average high °C (°F) 28.7
(83.7)
31.4
(88.5)
34.9
(94.8)
36.9
(98.4)
37.2
(99)
35.3
(95.5)
32.2
(90)
31.6
(88.9)
32.1
(89.8)
32.2
(90)
30.4
(86.7)
28.4
(83.1)
32.6
(90.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 22.2
(72)
25.1
(77.2)
28.6
(83.5)
30.9
(87.6)
31.7
(89.1)
30.7
(87.3)
28.7
(83.7)
28.4
(83.1)
28.5
(83.3)
27.6
(81.7)
24.9
(76.8)
22.0
(71.6)
27.4
(81.3)
Average low °C (°F) 15.6
(60.1)
18.7
(65.7)
22.2
(72)
25.0
(77)
26.2
(79.2)
26.1
(79)
25.2
(77.4)
25.1
(77.2)
24.8
(76.6)
23.0
(73.4)
19.4
(66.9)
15.6
(60.1)
22.2
(72)
Record low °C (°F) 8.6
(47.5)
9.6
(49.3)
14.6
(58.3)
17.0
(62.6)
15.0
(59)
16.8
(62.2)
20.0
(68)
18.4
(65.1)
18.5
(65.3)
16.1
(61)
9.7
(49.5)
9.1
(48.4)
8.6
(47.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 4
(0.16)
27
(1.06)
28
(1.1)
26
(1.02)
67
(2.64)
209
(8.23)
317
(12.48)
389
(15.31)
241
(9.49)
127
(5)
48
(1.89)
9
(0.35)
1,492
(58.73)
Average rainy days 0.4 2.3 2.8 3.1 5.1 12.0 18.0 19.1 14.6 8.8 2.1 0.7 89
Average relative humidity (%) 60 61 63 66 66 74 83 85 83 76 66 60 70.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 253.4 234.0 237.8 238.8 242.9 140.7 107.2 128.6 150.8 221.8 217.5 255.0 2,428.5
Source #1: NOAA (1971–1990)[24]
Source #2: IMD[25]

Economy[edit]

Panoramic view of Jaydev Vihar interchange at night

Bhubaneswar is an administrative, information technology, education and tourism city .[10] Bhubaneswar was ranked as the best place to do business in India by the World Bank in 2014.[26] Bhubaneswar has emerged as one of the fast-growing, important trading and commercial hub in the state and eastern India. Tourism is a major industry, attracting about 1.5 million tourists in 2011.[10][27] Bhubaneswar was designed to be a largely residential city with outlying industrial areas. The economy had few major players until the 1990s and was dominated by retail and small-scale manufacturing. With the economic liberalisation policy adopted by the Government of India in the 1990s, Bhubaneswar received investment in telecommunications, information technology (IT) and higher education.[10]

As of 2001, around 2.15% of the city's workforce was employed in the primary sector (agriculture, forestry, mining, etc.); 2.18% worked in the secondary sector (industrial and manufacturing); and 95.67% worked in the tertiary sector (service industries).[10]

In 2011, according to a study by Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India, Bhubaneswar had the highest rate of employment growth among 17 Tier-2 cities in India.[28] It has been listed among the top ten emerging cities in India by Cushman and Wakefield, taking into consideration factors like demographics, physical, social and real estate infrastructure, current level and scope of economic activities and government support.[29] In 2012, Bhubaneswar was ranked third among Indian cities, in starting and operating a business by the World Bank.[30]

Bhubaneswar has been traditionally home to handicrafts industry, including silver filigree work, appliqué work, stone and wood carvings and patta painting, which significantly contributes to the city's economy.[10] The late 2000s saw a surge of investments in the real estate, infrastructure, retail and hospitality sectors; several shopping malls and organised retails opened outlets in Bhubaneswar.[31][32][33][34]

The Department of Industries established four industrial areas in and around Bhubaneswar, in the Rasulgarh, Mancheswar, Chandaka, and Bhagabanpur areas.[10] In the informal sector, 22,000 vendors operate in regulated or unregulated vending zones.[35][36]

In 2009, Odisha was ranked ninth among Indian states in terms of software export by NASSCOM, with most IT/ITES companies established in Bhubaneswar.[37] In 2011–12, Odisha had a growth rate of 17% for software exports.[38] According to a 2012 survey, among the tier-2 cities in India, Bhubaneswar has been chosen as the best for conducting IT/ITES business.[39] The government fostered growth by developing of IT parks such as Infocity-1, Infovalley, STPI-Bhubaneswar and JSS STP.[40][41] Infocity was conceived as a five-star park, under the Export Promotion Industrial Parks (EPIP) Scheme to create infrastructure facilities for setting up information technology related industries. Infosys and Tech Mahindra have been present in Bhubaneswar since 1996. Other software companies include TCS, Mindfire Solutions, Wipro, IBM, Genpact, Firstsource, Mindtree and MphasiS. Apart from the big multinationals, some 300 small and mid-size IT companies and business start ups have offices in Bhubaneswar like Tatwa Technologies, Divensi Inc. Pvt Ltd.[41]

Demographics[edit]

Bhubaneshwar population 
Census Pop.
1951 16,512
1961 38,211 131.4%
1971 105,491 176.1%
1981 227,525 115.7%
1991 423,465 86.1%
2001 647,302 52.9%
2011 837,737 29.4%
Sources:[42][43][44]

As per the 2011 census of India, Bhubaneswar had a population of 837,737, while the metropolitan area had a population of 881,988.[1][45] As per the estimate of IIT Kharagpur, which made a development plan, the Bhubaneswar-Cuttack Urban complex, consisting of 721.9 square kilometres (278.7 sq mi), has a population of 1.9 million (as of 2008).[46] As of 2011, the number of males was 445,233, while the number of females were 392,504. The decadal growth rate was 45.90 per cent. Effective male literacy was 95.69 per cent, while female literacy was 90.26 per cent. About 75,237 were under six. Bhubaneswar's literacy rate is 93.15 per cent[1]—significantly higher than the national average of 74.04 per cent.[47]

According to the 2001 census, 11 per cent lived in 99 unauthorised and 47 authorised slums.[10] In 2009, the number of slums in Bhubaneswar increased to 377, mostly unauthorised.[48] Migration from rural areas and neighbouring states drove the growth of the slums.[49][50] According to the Bhubaneswar-Cuttack Police Commissionerate, the number of crime incidents reported in Bhubaneswar during 2011 was 3,350, decreasing from 4,417 incidents in 2010.[51][52]

The residents are known as Bhubaneswarites.[53] The main language spoken in the city is Odia, however, Hindi and English are understood by most residents. Although Odias comprise the vast majority, migrants from other states also live there. Growth in the information technology industry and education sector in Bhubaneswar changed the city's demographic profile; likely infrastructure strains and haphazard growth from demographic changes have been a cause of concern.

Others include Buddhists,Jains and Sikhs
Religions in Bhubaneswar
Religion Percent
Hinduism
  
95.20%
Islam
  
3.28%
Christianity
  
0.92%
Others
  
0.6%

Civic administration and utilities[edit]

The Bhubaneswar Municipal Corporation (BMC) oversees and manages civic infrastructure for the city's 67 wards.[54] Residents of each ward elect a corporator to the BMC for a five-year term. Standing committees handle urban planning and maintain roads, government-aided schools, hospitals and municipal markets.[55] As Bhubaneswar's apex body, the corporation discharges its functions through the mayor-in-council, which comprises a mayor, a deputy mayor and other elected members. The executive wing is headed by a Commissioner. BMC responsibilities include drainage and sewerage, sanitation, solid waste management and street lighting.[10] As of 2014, the Biju Janata Dal party controlled the BMC; the mayor was Ananta Narayan Jena and deputy mayor was K. Shanti.[56] The Bhubaneswar Development Authority is responsible for statutory planning and development and building regulation.[10]

As the seat of the Government of Odisha, Bhubaneswar is home to the Odisha Legislative Assembly and the state secretariat. Bhubaneswar has lower courts: the Court of Small Causes and the District Civil Court decide civil matters; the Sessions Court rules in criminal cases.[57] The Bhubaneswar–Cuttack Police Commissionerate, established in 2008, is a city police force with primary responsibilities in law enforcement and investigation in the Bhubaneswar-Cuttack area.[58][59] Shri Yogesh Bahadur Khurania is the police commissioner.[60]

Citizens of Bhubaneswar elect one representative to India's lower house, the Lok Sabha, and three representatives to the state legislative assembly, through the constituencies of Bhubaneswar North, Ekamra-Bhubaneswar and Bhubaneswar Central.[61][62]

A wide four storied building with landscaped lawn and garden in the foreground
Odisha State Secretariat building

Utilities[edit]

Electricity is supplied by the state-operated Central Electricity Supply Utility of Odisha, or CESU.[12] Fire services are handled by the state agency Odisha Fire Service. Drinking water is sourced from the Mahanadi, Kuakhai and Daya rivers. Water supply and sewerage are handled by the Public Health Engineering Organisation.[10] State-owned Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited, or BSNL, as well as private enterprises, among them Vodafone, Bharti Airtel, Reliance, Idea Cellular, Aircel, and Tata DoCoMo, are the leading telephone, cell phone and internet service providers in the city.[63][64]

Education[edit]

Academic Block of Xavier Institute of Management; a prestigious management school in India

Colleges are affiliated with a university or institution based in Bhubaneswar or elsewhere in India. Bhubaneswar has emerged as an education hub in eastern India, with several private and government colleges geared towards engineering, management, and other courses.[65][66][67] Utkal University, established in 1939, is the oldest, with 267 affiliated general colleges, 15 law colleges, six medical and pharmacy colleges. Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology established in 1962, is the second oldest agricultural university in the country. Utkal University of Culture is dedicated for research, teaching and education.

Bhubaneswar has a large number of institutes for high education. Bhubaneswar is one of the few cities in India which houses IIT, NISER, and many other premier Government institutes. Premier educational institutions include the IIT Bhubaneswar, National Institute of Science Education and Research, International Institute of Information Technology, Bhubaneswar (IIIT-Bh), Xavier Institute of Management (XIMB), Institute of Mathematics and Applications (IOMA), National Institute of Fashion Technology, Institute of Physics, Institute of Life Sciences, Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Regional Medical Research Center and Regional Institute of Education.[68] The premiere Engineering college owned by the state Government of Odisha, College of Engineering and Technology, Bhubaneswar, is the most comprehensive engineering Institute in the capital having a set of specialisation which include, electrical engineering, architecture, textile, and fashion technology, etc. The Central Institute of Plastics Engineering and Technology located in Bhubaneswar is a unique Institute owned by Government of India. Rama Devi Women's University is a University located in Bhubaneswar which is specifically dedicated for imparting education to women.

Bhubaneswar has two private deemed universities: KIIT University and Siksha O Anusandhan University. KIIT University as well as Siksha O Anusandhan University has wide range of programs.

There are four medical colleges such as All India Institute of Medical Sciences Bhubaneswar, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences, Hi-Tech Medical College & Hospital and Institute of Medical Sciences and Sum Hospital. All India Institute of Medical Sciences Bhubaneswar is considered as a finest medical college owned by the Government of India. The other 3 medical colleges are privately owned.

Oriya and English are the primary languages of instruction. Schools in Bhubaneswar follow the "10+2+3" plan. After completing secondary education, students typically enroll in schools that are affiliated with the Council of Higher Secondary Education, the ICSE, or the CBSE. The regional CBSE board office for Odisha is in Bhubaneswar. D.A.V. Public School, Chandrasekharpur, one of the top CBSE schools in the country, is located in Bhubaneswar. Liberal arts, business, science and vocational programs are available. Two colleges located in Bhubaneswar and owned by Government of Odisha are mainly dedicated for higher secondary education. Buxi Jagabandhu Bidyadhar College is an autonomous government college. Rajdhani College, Bhubaneswar, established in 1973, is also government owned. Schools in Bhubaneswar are run by the state government or private organisations. The important established Government schools of located in Bhubaneswar includes: SAI International school, Badagada Government High School, Bhubaneswar, Capital High School, Bhubaneswar, Kendriya Vidyalaya No.1 Bhubaneswar, and Sainik School, Bhubaneshwar.

Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar: Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar is an "engineering and technology" higher education institute, located at Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. It is one of the eight new Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) established by the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India under The Institutes of Technology (Amendment) Act, 2011 which establishes the eight new IITs as well as declares IT-BHU as Indian Institute of Technology.The Act was passed in the Lok Sabha on 24 March 2011 and by the Rajya Sabha on 30 April 2012. It started functioning from the campus of IIT Kharagpur on 23 July 2008 and shifted its operation to the city of Bhubaneswar on 22 July 2009. The institute admits students into B. Tech, M. Tech and Ph.D. programs. Institute has started operating from permanent campus at Arugul from academic session 2015-16. The classes are held in the permanent campus at argul. The academic session begins in July each year. Currently, Prof. R.V. Rajakumar is the director of the institute. The Government of Odisha has allotted about 936 acres of Government land for permanent campus of the institute. In addition, the State Government is acquiring about 16 acres of private land at its own cost to make the land contiguous. The Foundation Stone of the permanent campus at Arugul, on the outskirts of Bhubaneswar was laid on 12 February 2009. Construction of 4-lane access road from the National Highway 5 and provision of water and electric supply to the campus by the State Government have made considerable progress. The Government of Odisha has also agreed to provide 75 acres of land along the Puri-Konark coastline to set up an Innovation Centre for Climate Change.Permanent Campus. The Government of Odisha has allotted about 936 acres of Government land for permanent campus of the institute. In addition, the State Government is acquiring about 16 acres of private land at its own cost to make the land contiguous. The Foundation Stone of the permanent campus at Arugul, on the outskirts of Bhubaneswar was laid on 12 February 2009. Construction of 4-lane access road from the National Highway 5 and provision of water and electric supply to the campus by the State Government have made considerable progress. The Government of Odisha has also agreed to provide 75 acres of land along the Puri-Konark coastline to set up an Innovation Centre for Climate Change. Permanent Campus View of IIT Bhubaneswar The site near Jatni Railway Station on the East Coast Railway is 25 kilometres from Biju Patnaik Airport Bhubaneswar. The land is picturesque with Barunai Hill on one side and a reserve forest nearby. The ste is at 20° 10' N and 85° 42' E. A total of 936 acres (3.79 km2) of land has been allocated towards the self-contained campus for nearly 10,000 students and 1,100 faculty. A science park is being set up as a part of this institution to support industry oriented research activities.[56] The institute has started operating in its new campus at Arugul from academic year 2015-16. The classrooms and the laboratory facilites of 1st and 2nd year students are fully functional in new campus while the laboratory facilities of 3rd and 4th year students will be shifted nearly around December, 2016. The campus construction began on 14 August 2011, Chief minister Naveen Patnaik inaugurated the IIT campus construction at Aragul village near Jatni. Marine campus. IIT Bhubaneswar is the first IIT to set up a separate marine campus in 2011 for conducting research in rising sea levels, ecology, disaster management, marine ecosystems, fishery development, and other areas. This campus, which will be a part of the School of Earth, Ocean and Environment Sciences, will be set up near Chilka lake. It will have educational facilities for undergraduate and postgraduate students.[69]

All India Institute of Medical Sciences Bhubaneswar: All India Institute of Medical Sciences Bhubaneswar (AIIMS Bhubaneswar) is a medical college and medical research public university located in Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. The Institute operates autonomously under the aegis of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (India).Previously, AIIMS Bhubaneswar was known as the Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose All India Institute of Medical Sciences, later it became AIIMS Bhubaneswar. AIIMS Bhubaneswar is situated in the center of the city of Bhubaneswar. It was built on about 100 acres of land in the Sijua neighborhood of Bhubaneswar. The AIIMS – Bhubaneswar is divided into three sections: a Hospital, a Medical college, and Student Housing which is under construction. The hospital was built by AIIMS at a cost of ₹2.64 billion (US$39 million). Approximately ₹1 billion (US$15 million) was projected to be spent for the construction of the medical college and ₹500 million (US$7.4 million) for the construction of the student housing. There will also be a 350-bed satellite location in Kalama village, Jaleswar block, Balasor district. 978 bedded AIIMS Bhubaneswar was inaugurated by Union Health and Family Welfare Minister Gulam Nabi Azad on 26 February 2014. The first academic year was 2010–11 and it began on 21 October. First batch of MBBS with 50 students was started on 21 September 2012. The Second batch of students for Undergraduate courses for the academic year 2013-14 joined in August 2013. The new batch consists of 100 students selected from all over India. Also the 1st Nursing batch of 60 students were admitted in September 2013. The students are represented by the Students' Union AIIMS Bhubaneswar, headed by an executive body that is elected every year from students of 6th semester voted by all the students from 2nd semester. The first Students' Union got elected on 27 February 2015 after the first batch attended 6th semester and is headed by founder president Shri Sambit Sagar and vice president Shri Avnish Kumar Singh. The Students' Union is credited with organising the first ever Inter AIIMS Inter Medics fest named CHIASMA 2K16 from February 4 to 7 acknowledging AIIMS Bhubaneswar as the first institution amongst its siblings to take such an initiative. The medi fest registered participation from medical students of different AIIMS along with medical students from state government and private medical colleges who showcased their talents from plethora of different events. The All-India Institute of Medical Sciences (Amendment) Bill, 2012, was introduced in the Lok Sabha on 27 August 2012. This bill will also replace a recent ordinance which allowed the six AIIMS—like institutes to become operational from September 2012. Lok Sabha passed the AIIMS (Amendment) Bill, 2012 on 30 August 2012. The proposed measure will help the Centre to change the status of the six new AIIMS registered under the Indian Societies Registration Act to be an Autonomous Body Corporate on the lines of the existing AIIMS in Delhi. AIIMS(Amendment) Bill, 2012 was introduced in Rajya Sabha on 3 September 2012 and passed on 4 September 2012.[70]

College of Engineering and Technology, Bhubaneswar.: The College of Engineering and Technology, Bhubaneswar (CETB) is a government engineering institution in Odisha, India. Established in 1981, by the Government of Odisha (then Orissa) it became a constituent college of the Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology. Since 2002, CET Bhubaneswar is a constituent college of Biju Patnaik University of Technology (BPUT). The college campus covers 107.8 acres (0.436 km2). Students are admitted into the college through a Joint Entrance Examination conducted by the government of India. Its intake capacity is 957. The CETB is located in the capital city of Bhubaneswar. College of Engineering & Technology Bhubaneswar (CETB) has received the National Board of Accreditation (NBA). The Government of Odisha has considered to grant Unitary University status to CETB.

Hi-Tech Medical College & Hospital, Bhubaneswar: Hi-Tech Medical College & Hospital (HMCH) is a private, nonprofit, self-financing medical institution based in Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. Hi-Tech Medical College & Hospital is functioning from 2005 under Utkal University affiliation and recognized by Medical Council Of India. It is Odisha's first private medical college. It has 400 Teaching beds with state of the art operation theatres along with 20 intensive care beds with 24hrs with high-tech trauma care facility. College offers MBBS course for duration 5 years.

Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences: The Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences ("KIMS") is the medical school of the KIIT University situated in Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. This institute began offering MBBS courses in medical stream courses in 2007. Its sister institute offering dental courses is the Kalinga Institute of Dental Sciences ("KIDS").

The idea of a medical college was conceived by Achyuta Samanta.[citation needed] Construction of the college building was completed in 2004, the faculties were appointed. Initially, the hospital was a makeshift facility in the Godown area of the former MAGNETIC company. This hospital was extended to take up more indoor patients and service was improved.

In June 2005 the new hospital building was complete. The hospital acquired new equipment like a CT scan.

2006 saw the beginning of the inspection processes by the MCI and in June 2007 KIMS was formally given permission to start MBBS course.

The institute was earlier affiliated to Utkal University, however in 2009 in came under the ambit of KIIT University. In 2013, KIMS got permanent affiliation from Medical Council of India (MCI).

Institute of Medical Sciences and Sum Hospital: The Institute of Medical Sciences (IMS) and Sum Hospital is the medical school of the Siksha O Anusandhan University situated in Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. This institute gained permission in 2007 from Medical Council of India to start the MBBS courses in medical stream.

It provides undergraduate courses in medicine and dentistry, and postgraduate courses in non-clinical departments. It has begun providing post graduation in clinical subjects like surgery and anesthesia.

It is equipped with modern facilities and equipment, and provides speciality services including cardiology, neurology, nephrology, plastic surgery and neo-natalogy.Source: Akhil Kumar Nayak.

Transport[edit]

The headquarters of the Odisha State Road Transport Corporation (OSRTC) is in Bhubaneswar. The main Bhubaneswar inter-state bus terminus is at Barmunda, 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) from the city centre, from where OSRTC and private operators run buses connecting Bhubaneswar to cities in Odisha and with the neighbouring states of Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand, West Bengal and Chhattisgarh.[71] Bhubaneswar is connected to the rest of Odisha and India by National Highways-NH 5, which is a part of the Kolkata-Chennai prong of the Golden Quadrilateral, NH 203, State Highway 13 (Odisha) and State Highway 27 (Odisha). Asian Highway- AH45 passes through the city.[17] Nowadays popular online cab or auto transport system provided by Jugnoo,Ola,uber are widely used.

Road[edit]

Bhubaneswar has wide roads in grid form in the central city. Bhubaneswar has approximately 1,600 kilometres (990 mi) of roads, with average road density of 11.82 square kilometres (4.56 sq mi).[10] Baramunda bus stand is the major bus terminus in the city from where buses ply to all the districts in Odisha as well as to neighbouring state's cities like Hyderabad, Kolkata, Visakhapatnam, Raipur and Ranchi. City bus service runs in public-private partnership between Bhubaneswar-Puri Transport Service Limited (BPTSL) and Dream Team Sahara (DTS) under JNNURM scheme.[72] A fleet of 185 buses cover all major destinations including Cuttack, Puri and Khordha.[72] Auto rickshaws are available for hire and on a share basis throughout the city.[73][74] In parts of the city, cycle rickshaws offer short trips.[75] To ease traffic jams, over-bridges at major road junctions and expansion of roads are under construction.[76][77] In a study of six cities in India, Bhubaneswar was ranked third concerning pedestrian infrastructure. The city scored 50 points out of maximum 100. The government of Odisha introduced the much-awaited Bhubaneswar BRTS (bus rapid transit) in Bhubaneswar.[78]

Rail[edit]

Bhubaneswar railway station
East Coast Railway Headquarters in Bhubaneswar

The East Coast Railway has its headquarters in Bhubaneswar. Bhubaneswar railway station is one of the main stations of the Indian railway network. It is connected to major cities by daily express and passenger trains, but daily service to all metro cities is not available from here. For this the government is asking new trains for last consecutive years which is not getting sanctioned from the central government. However, the station is overloaded by existing traffic. Currently, the station has six platforms. There are plans to add two more platforms.

A satellite station (named New Bhubaneswar railway station) is under construction near Barang to decongest the existing one.[79][80][81]

Bhubaneswar has five railway stations within its city limits (from north to south):

Air[edit]

Biju Patnaik International Airport, also known as Bhubaneswar Airport, 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) south of the city centre, is the major and sole international airport in Odisha. There are daily flights from Bhubaneswar to Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Hyderabad and Bangalore. In March 2013, a new domestic terminal with a capacity of handling 30 million passengers per year was inaugurated to handle increased air traffic.[82] On 10 July 2015, the first international flight took off from terminal 2 of Biju Patnaik International Airport.

Culture[edit]

Muktesvara deula, covered with erotic ancient carvings, known for its quality of sculptures
Ravindra Mandap, an auditorium in Bhubaneswar

Bhubaneswar is supposed to have had over one thousand temples, earning the tag of the 'Temple City of India'. Temples are made in the Kalinga architectural style with a pine spire that curves up to a point over the sanctum housing the presiding deity and a pyramid-covered hall where people sit and pray.

Famous temples include Lingaraj Temple, Muktesvara Temple, Rajarani Temple, Ananta Vasudeva Temple.[83]

The twin hills of Khandagiri & Udayagiri, served as the site of an ancient Jain monastery which was carved into cave-like chambers in the face of the hill. These caves, with artistic carvings, date back to the 2nd century BCE. Dhauli hills has major edicts of Ashoka engraved on a mass of rock and a white Peace Pagoda was built by the Japan Buddha Sangha and the Kalinga Nippon Buddha Sangha in the 1970s. Apart from the ancient temples, other important temples were built in recent times include Ram Mandir and ISKCON.

Bhubaneswar along with Cuttack is the home of the Oriya cinema industry, dubbed "Ollywood", where most of the state's film studios are. Odia culture survives in the form of Classical Odissi dance, handicrafts, sand artistry and sculpturing as well as theatre and music. Boundary walls and gardens are increasingly being redone to depict the folk art of the state.[84][85] Odissi, the oldest of the eight surviving classical dance forms of India can be traced from archaeological evidence from the temples in Bhubaneswar.[86][87][88]

Odissi dance is generally accompanied by Odissi music. Srjan, the Odissi dance academy founded by Guru Kelucharan Mohapatra, the legendary Odissi dancer is found here.[89][90] The Rabindra Mandap in central Bhubaneswar plays host to cultural engagements, theatre and private functions.[91] As a part of the Ekamra Festival, many cultural sub-festivals takes place in January in Bhubaneswar which includes Kalinga Mahotsav (for traditional martial arts), Dhauli-Kalinga Mahotsav (for classical dance forms), Rajarani Music Festival (for classical music) and Mukteswar Dance Festival (for Odishi dance).[92] Residents engage in khattis, or leisurely chats, that often take the form of freestyle intellectual conversation.[93]

Though Oriya women traditionally wear the sari and the shalwar kameez, Western attire is gaining acceptance among younger women.[94] Western-style dress has greater acceptance among men, although the traditional dhoti and kurta are seen during festivals.[95]

The Odisha State Museum offers archaeological artefacts, weapons, local arts and crafts as well as insights into Odisha's natural and indigenous history.[96] The Tribal Research Institute Museum hosts authentic tribal dwellings created by tribal craftsmen.[97] Nandankanan Zoological Park, located on the northern outskirt of the city, is India's first zoo to join World Association of Zoos and Aquariums.[98][99] The State Botanical Garden (Odisha) and Regional Plant Resource Center, popularly known as Ekamra Kanan, a park and botanical garden, has a large collection of exotic and regional fauna. The Ekamra Haat is a hand-loom and handicrafts market. Nicco Park and Ocean World are amusement parks. Other museums include Pathani Samanta Planetarium, Regional Museum of Natural History, Regional Science Center and State Handicrafts Museum.

Festivals[edit]

On the day of Ashokashtami in the month of March or April, the image of Lingaraja (Shiva) and other deities are taken in a procession from Lingaraja Temple to the Mausima Temple, where the deities remain for four days.[100] Hundreds of devotees participate in pulling the temple car that carries the deities, known as Rukuna Rath.[101] Ratha-Yatra, "Temple Car Festival," is the most important festival in Odisha and Bhubaneswar.[102] The festival commemorates Jagannath, who is said to have been the incarnation of India's revered deities, Vishnu and Krishna. Durga Puja, held in September–October, is an occasion for glamorous celebrations.[103][104]

Other festivals celebrated include Shivaratri, Diwali, Ganesh Puja, Nuakhai and Saraswati Puja. Eid and Christmas are celebrated by the religious minorities in the city.[105][106][107]

Adivasi Mela is a fair that displays art, artefacts, tradition, culture, and music of the tribal inhabitants of Odisha is held in January.[108] Toshali National Crafts Mela, held in December, showcases handicrafts from all over India and from foreign countries.[109] Other important fairs in the city include the Rajdhani Book Fair and Khandagiri Utsav.[110][111]

Cuisine[edit]

Key elements of the city's cuisine include rice and a fish curry known as machha jholo, which can be accompanied by desserts such as Rasagola, Rasabali, Chhena Gaja and Chhena Poda.[112] Odisha's large repertoire of seafood dishes includes various preparations of lobsters and crabs brought in from Chilika Lake.[113] Street foods such as Gupchup (a deep-fried crêpe with tamarind sauce), Cuttack-chaat, Dahi bara-Aloo dum and Bara-ghuguni are sold all over the city.[114] Traditional Oriya food such as Dahi-Pakhal (rice soaked in water with yogurt and seasonings) is considered as a body coolant, accompanied by Badi chura or saga are consumed during months of April–June.[115]

The Abadha of Lingaraj Temple and Ananta Vasudeva Temple served for devotees is considered a vegetarian culinary delight. Other vegetarian dishes are Dalma (made of lentils and vegetables boiled together and then fried with other spices) and Santula (lightly spiced steamed vegetables).[113] Sweets play a large part in the diet of Bhubaneswarites—especially at their social ceremonies. Bhubaneswar is known for its kora-khhaii which are made up of paddy, jaggery and coconut pieces. Pitha, a kind of sweet cake, bread or dim sum are winter specialties.

Chhena Gaja, famous sweet of Odisha from Pahala, Bhubaneswar

Sports[edit]

Bhubaneswar Golf Club

Bhubaneswar's major sporting arena is the Kalinga Stadium, having facilities for athletics, football, hockey, basketball, tennis, table tennis and swimming.[116][117][118] Kalinga Lancers, the sixth franchise of Hockey India League and Samaleswari S.C., a franchise of I-League 2nd Division, are based in Bhubaneswar with Kalinga Stadium as their home ground. East Coast Railway Stadium, a prominent cricket stadium hosts Ranji Trophy and other matches.[119]

Construction of galleries and stadium renovation is in process. An air-conditioned indoor stadium with a capacity of 2000 spectators for badminton, volleyball, basketball and table tennis games is under construction.[116] Barabati Stadium in Cuttack, Odisha's only venue for international cricket matches, is located around 25 kilometres (16 mi) away.[120] Bhubaneswar has a franchise of Odisha Premier League, Bhubaneswar Jaguars, which started in 2010. Bhubaneswar Golf Club, a nine-hole golf course is situated in Infocity.[121]

Media[edit]

The city's widely circulated Odia-language newspapers are Sambad, Dharitri, Pragatibadi, Samaja, Khabar, Orissa Bhaskara, Prameya and Samaya.[122] Odia Post and Odia Age are the English-language newspaper that is produced and published from Bhubaneswar. Other popular English-language newspapers published and sold in Bhubaneswar include The Times of India, The Telegraph, The Statesman, Hindustan Times, The Hindu, The Indian Express, and the Asian Age.[122] Bhubaneswar has substantial circulation of financial dailies, including The Economic Times, The Financial Express, Business Line, and Business Standard.[122] Vernacular newspapers, such as those in the Hindi, Bengali and Telugu, are read by minorities.[122] Major periodicals based in Bhubaneswar include Saptahik Samaya, Saptahik Samaja, and Kadambini.

All India Radio, the national state-owned radio broadcaster, airs several AM channels from the radio station located in Cuttack.[123] Bhubaneswar has five local radio stations broadcasting on FM, including two from AIR.[123][124] India's state-owned television broadcaster Doordarshan Odia provides two free-to-air terrestrial channels,[125] while a mix of Oriya, Hindi, English, and other regional channels are accessible via cable subscription and direct-broadcast satellite services. Some of the Odia language television channels are Colors Odia, Sarthak TV and Tarang TV. Oriya-language 24-hour television news channels include Odisha TV, Kanak TV, ETV News Odia, MBC TV and Naxatra News.[126]

Notable People[edit]

The following are selected notable people of Bhubaneswar (i.e. notable people live in Bhubaneswar) or from Bhubaneswar (i.e. notable people who have significant portion of their life in Bhubaneswar).

Sister cities[edit]

Bhubaneswar was declared a sister city by the city council of Cupertino, California on August 16, 2011.[127][128]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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