|Time of day||Early night, 9–12|
|Arohana||S R G P D S'|
|Avarohana||S' D P G R S|
|Hindustani classical music|
Bhoopali, also known as Bhoop, Bhopali or Bhupali, (Hin: भूपाली / भोपाली) is a Hindustani classical raga. It is a pentatonic scale (uses 5 notes in ascending and descending scale). Most of the songs in this raga are based on Bhakti rasa. Since it uses 5 notes, belongs to the "Audav jaati" of ragas.
Karhade (2011) explains that raga Bhopali consists of just 5 notes - स रे ग प ध (sa, re, ga, pa and dha). It does not use Ma (also called Madhyam) and Ni (also called Nishadh). It is said that the absence of Ni (representative of physical pleasure) and Ma (representative of loving) means this raga is about non-attachment.
The Introduction consists of two parts - Aroh आरोह (where the notes are simply recited on an ascending scale) and avaroha (where the noles are simply recited on a descending order)
Thereafter, with these same five notes, different combinations are made by the singer, similar to short phrases, also called "chalan".
Aroha & Avaroha
The scale of Bhopali uses only Shuddh swaras.
Vadi & Samavadi
Gandhar - ga
Dhaivat - Dha
- S, D1 D1...S, R - - S...D1 S..., D1 - - - P1, S - - - D1 S - - D1 P1, P1 D1, D1 D1 S
Pakad & Chalan
The Pakad (catchphrase that often helps in identifying a raga) is:
S R G R S D1 S R G
S R G R S D1 S R G P G D P G R S
G R P G G R S R D1 S
G R S D1 S R G R P G D P G R S
Some chalans (elaborations of the pakad) are:
- S R G R S D1 S R G
- S R G R S D1 P1
- P1 D1 S R G R G
- S R P G
- G R S R G P
- G P D P D D S’
- P G P D P D S’ R’ G’ R’ G’
- G’ R’ S’ D P G R S
Note: Normally written swaras (individual notes) indicate the middle octave. A swara immediately followed by 1 indicates the mandra saptak (lower octave) and ' indicates the taar saptak (higher octave
A few movements in Bhopali are important to note. There is typically a slide when descending between Sa and Dha, as well as between Pa and Ga. These slides parallel each other and can be used to create a symmetry about how the Swaras are developed. Also, many performers will bring out the Kalyan flavor of Bhopali by using abhasi of the notes Shuddha Ni and Tivra Ma. That is to say, these notes are only vaguely suggested in passing ornaments, not actually sung for long enough for the Swara to become a clear part of the Raga. Some examples would be:
P(m)P(m) D P
where the notes in parenthesis are connected by slides or sung as meend.
1 2 3 4 | 5 6 7 8 | 9 10 11 12 | 13 14 15 16 |
D S D2 P | G2 R2 S R2 |
G2 _ G2 P | G2 R2 S _ |
S R2 G2 P | R2 G2 P D2 |
G2 P D2 P | G2 R2 S _ |
G2 _ G2 G2 |P _ D2 P |
S' _ S' S' |D3 R3 S' _|
G3 G3 R3 S'|R3 R3 S' D3|
S' _ D2 P |G2 R2 S _|
The Asthayi starts with the 9th beat.
Organisation & relationships
Raga Bhoopali belongs to the Kalyan Thaat.
Related ragas: Deshkar (a pentatonic raga belonging to the Bilawal Thaat with the same scale as Bhoopali). Shuddha Kalyan is another similar raga.
First part of night.(9pm to 12pm)
Bhakti Rasa (Devotional)
Film Songs based on Bhoopali
- Pankh Hote To Udd Aati Re (Sehra) (1963)
- Main Jahaan Rahoon (Namastey London) (2007)
- Dil Hoom Hoom Kare (Rudaali) (1993)
- Sayonara Sayonara (Love In Tokyo) (1966)
- Dekha ek khwaab to yeh silsile hue (Silsila) (1981)
- Aayat (Bajirao Mastani) (2015)
- Ghanashyam Sundara (Amar Bhoopali(1951))
- Pathak Yajurvedi, Dr. Sarita. "Lecture - Raag Bhopali (Edusat)". www.youtube.com. Bharti College, University of Delhi. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
- Karhade, Aradhana. "Raag Bhopali (Uploaded 20 January 2011)". www.youtube.com. Karhade, A. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
- Alain, Daniélou (2014). The Rāgas of Northern Indian music. Daniélou, Alain. (2014 ed.). New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal. ISBN 812150225X. OCLC 39028809.
- Yagnik, Hasu (2013). Shastriya Raag Darshan. Gurjar Granthratna Karyalay. ISBN 978-81-8480-826-1.
- "Songs based on Raaga Bhopali". www.soundofindia.com. Sound of India. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
- Bor, Joep (ed). Rao, Suvarnalata; der Meer, Wim van; Harvey, Jane (co-authors) The Raga Guide: A Survey of 74 Hindustani Ragas. Zenith Media, London: 1999.
- Parrikar, Rajan. "Short Takes: Bhoopali and Deshkar." Rajan Parrikar Music Archive Short Takes Bhoopali and Deshkar Comments. SAWF Magazine, 5 Aug. 2002. Web. 2 Oct. 2015. <http://www.parrikar.org/hindustani/bhoopali/>.