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One of the Highest Forms of Mahadevi and Supreme Being in Shaktism
Para Brahman, the Supreme Being
Member of The Ten Mahavidyas
Sanskrit transliterationBhuvaneśvarī
WeaponNoose, goad
TextsDevi Bhagavata Purana
FestivalsBhuvaneshwari Jayanti, Navaratri, Adi-Puram

Bhuvaneshvari (Sanskrit: भुवनेश्वरी, IAST: Bhuvaneśvarī) is a Hindu goddess. She is the fourth amongst the ten Mahavidya goddesses in Shaktism, and one of the highest aspects of Mahadevi. She is identified as Adi Parashakti in the Devi Bhagavatam.


The word Bhuvaneśwari is a compound of the words Bhuvana Iśwari, meaning "Goddess of the world" or "Queen of the universe", where the worlds are the tri-bhuvana or three regions of bhūḥ (Earth), bhuvaḥ (atmosphere) and svaḥ (Heavens).


According to Srimad Devi Bhagavatam during the beginning of time the TridevasBrahma, Vishnu and Shiva did not know who they were and what was their purpose. At this time a flying chariot appeared before them, and a heavenly voice directed them to board the chariot. As the Tridevas boarded the chariot and it started flowing with mind's speed and took them to a mysterious place, which was an island of gems surrounded by ocean of nectar and pristine sylvan forests. As they stepped out of the chariot, the Tridevas were transformed into women, much to their astonishment. As they explored the island they came across an Imperial city protected by nine enclosures and guarded by fierce Bhairavas, Matrikas, Kshetrapalas and Dikpalas. As they entered the city they were amazed by its prosperity and soaring infrastructure and finally reached the Imperial Palace known as Chintamanigriha, guarded by Yoginis. For this was Śrīpūra (alias Devipattana), the capital of Devi Bhuvaneshvari, the Empress of Manidvipa, the abode of Adi Parashakti. When they entered the palace they witnessed Devi Bhuvaneshvari, the queen of all worlds.[1]

Her complexion was red. She had three eyes, four arms, braided hair and was clad in red ornaments. She wore a garland of lotuses and Her body was anointed with red sandalwood paste. She held a goad and a noose with Her left hands, while her right hands displayed abhaya and varada mudras. She was decked with ornaments and wore a crown with a digit of crescent moon as crest jewel.

She was seated on the left lap of Bhuvaneshwara. Before creation while intending to sport, the Devi Bhagavati divided her body into two parts and from the right part created Bhuvaneshwara. He was of white complexion, wore white garments and was decked with ornaments. His hair was matted and was decorated by a crescent moon and Ganga. He had five faces each with three-eyes, and four arms, holding a trident and a battle-axe while displaying varada and abhaya mudras.

The Divine Couple was seated on Panchapretasana, a throne which had Paramashiva as plank while Sadashiva, Ishvara, Rudra, Vishnu and Brahma were five legs. They were being served by many Yoginis, some fanning them, some holding mirror, some offering betel leaves flavoured with camphor, some offering a drink made by mixing honey, ghee, wine and coconut water. Some were ready to dress Bhuvaneshvari's hair, some ready to do makeup, some busy stringing garlands while some singing and dancing to entertain Devi.

The Tridevas witnessed millions of universes each with their own Tridevas, in the sheen of Bhuvaneshvari's toe-nail. Some were getting created by Brahma, some getting sustained by Vishnu while others getting annihilated by Shiva.

Bhuvaneshvari enlightened the Tridevas with Her greatness. Trayambaka is Brahman while Bhuvaneshvari is Brahmashakti. Though they appear distinct, both are of the nature of one another. Trayambaka is Adipurusha while Bhuvaneshvari is Mulaprakriti. To help Trayambaka perform his three-fold Lila, Bhuvaneshvari has created three forms of him- Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva. Thus, Tridevas are forms of Trayambaka. Thereafter Bhuvaneshvari gave her shaktis. First Saraswati to Brahma. Further Devi said "Oh Brahma , take this Saraswati, She will be your consort. Create a new world by Her powers." Then after she gave Lakshmi to Vishnu and said "Lakshmi will be your eternal consort and will accompany you in your earthly incarnations." "Oh Lord Shiva ,take this beautiful mahakali gauri. she will be your consort". Tridev then departed to their respective places.

Brahma with Saraswati created a cosmic egg and Shiva with Uma split it, exposing the Pancha Bhootas. Brahma with Saraswati fashioned the universe from Pancha Bhootas, and Vishnu and Lakshmi sustain it. At the end Shiva with Kali will annihilate the universe so that Brahma and Saraswati can start afresh.


According to the Devi Bhagavata Purana, the goddess offers the five manifestations of the Pancha Prakriti:[2]

  1. Durga
  2. Lakshmi
  3. Saraswati
  4. Gayatri
  5. Radha


Bhuvaneshvari worshipped with other Mahavidyas in a Kali Puja pandal in Kolkata.

There are several temples dedicated to Bhuvaneshvari across India. In South India most of the Srividhya tradition upasaka worship her. In Kerala she is also popular among Shaktas.

  • Sacred Adishakti Bhuvaneswari Devi Shakti Peetha temple in Bilkhet near Satpuli, Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand. This Temple is the most sacred destination of Uttarakhand for the mass of devotees. On the occasion of Navratri, a big fair is organized by the temple authority.
  • Lord Indra worshipped Sri Bhuvaneshvari to atone for his sins, after being cursed with vulvas all over his body. Sri Bhuvaneshvari turned the vulvas into eyes and is called Indrakshi ("Indra-eyed") after this incident. Also her Shakti Peetha is located in Nainativu (Manipallavam) in the Nainai Sri Nagapoosani Ambal Temple– off the shore of the Jaffna Peninsula in Northern Sri Lanka. Shakti's anklets are believed to have fallen here.
  • She is worshipped as the patron goddess of Bhubaneswar and by Utkala Brahmins of Odisha.
  • There is a temple dedicated to Bhuvaneshvari in Coimbatore at Nanvur Piruvu, Vadavalli, Coimbatore
    Annual Bhuvaneshwari Puja at Chandannagar, India (2018)
    A Natmandir dedicated to the goddess can be found in Hatkhola Chandannagar where the goddess is worshipped annually for a month in the month of Sravan. Here the image of the goddess is built in traditional Bengali style flanked by Shiva and other gods.
  • Another temple dedicated to Bhuvaneshvari is located in Pudukkottai, Tamil Nadu.
  • A small shrine is also dedicated to her inside Jagannath Temple, Puri and Devi Subhadra is worshipped as Bhuvaneshvari.
  • The Samaleswari shrine and Cuttack Chandi Temple in Odisha two are dedicated to her.
  • The oldest temple of Bhuvaneshvari devi is located at Gunja, ta: visnagar, dist: mehsana, north Gujarat . Where the function of Mataji's palli held on the auspicious occasion ( Aatham of Navratri).
  • A dedicated temple of Bhuvaneshvari Devi is located at Gondal in Gujarat which was established in 1946.[3]
  • Nochipra Bhagavathy-Kshetram temple located at Westhill, Calicut in Kerala is a 950+ years old temple where the main deity is Bhuvaneshwari Amma, the supreme mother.
  • The Kamakhya Temple houses a Bhuvaneshwari shrine.
  • Bhuvaneshvari is also known to be the goddess of Karnataka or Mother Karnataka (ಕರ್ನಾಟಕ ಮಾತೆ) and the Bhuvaneshvari Temple at the historical city of Badami is one of the oldest temples.
  • There is a temple dedicated to Bhuvaneshvari Devi, situated in the small town of Jamshedpur, at a place called Telco. Locals believe the temple to be quite powerful, and the temple sees devotees making promises of sarees to the Goddess, in return for granting their prayers. A powerful temple of Bhuvaneshvari is situated in choorakkodu, Adoor near Vellakulangara.
  • There is a temple dedicated to Bhuvaneshvari Devi, situated at the bank of the river Krishna at Bhilawadi in Sangli district of Maharashtra.
Bhuvaneshvari riding on a lion, Bekhli. Dec '17
  • In Northern India, Mathura the city of Krishna also has a centuries-old "Bhuvaneshvari Mahavidya" temple just opposite to Krishna Janmbhoomi.
  • One more Temple in Maharashtra, Shri shetra Audumber, Sangli district.
  • In Bekhli village, Kullu district, Himachal Pradesh, there is a dedicated temple to Devi Bhuvneshvari where she is known as Mata Bhuvneshvari Jagannathi. The temple is constructed of wood with carvings on the exterior. Fairs are held there in respect to the deity twice a year.
  • At Lingaraj Temple in Bhubaneswar, Odisha, there is a small temple dedicated to Maa Bhuvaneshvari.
  • In North America, Bhuvaneshvari is worshipped at Parashakthi Temple in Pontiac, Michigan.[4]
  • In Sydney, Australia, Bhuvaneshvari is worshipped at Shri Shiva Mandir in Minto, NSW.[5]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Bhuvaneshwari - Goddess of the Material Existence". 5 February 2014.
  2. ^ Vijnanananda (2007). Simad Devi Bhagavatam. MUNSHIRAM MANOHARLAL PUBLISHERS PVT LTD. p. 797. ISBN 9788121505918.
  3. ^ [1] Archived 2016-04-27 at the Wayback Machine Images of Bhuvaneshwari temple of Gondal
  4. ^ "Welcome to Parashakthi (Eternal Mother) Amman Temple, Pontiac, Michigan, USA". Archived from the original on 2012-03-26. Retrieved 2012-03-03.
  5. ^ "Shri Shiva Temple". Retrieved 2020-06-14.

Further reading[edit]

  • Tantric Yoga and the Wisdom Goddesses by David Frawley
  • Hindu Goddesses: Vision of the Divine Feminine in the Hindu Religious Traditions (ISBN 81-208-0379-5) by David Kinsley