This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|Republic of Biafra|
"Peace, Unity, and Freedom."
Land of the Rising Sun
Republic of Biafra in May 1967
Efik · Annang · Ibibio · Ijaw
|Historical era||Cold War|
|•||Established||30 May 1967|
|•||Rejoins Federal Nigeria||15 January 1970|
|•||1967||77,306 km² (29,848 sq mi)|
|Density||174.6 /km² (452.3 /sq mi)|
|Minahan, James (2002). Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: S-Z. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 762. ISBN 0-313-32384-4.|
Biafra, officially the Republic of Biafra, was a secessionist state in eastern Nigeria that existed from 30 May 1967 to January 1970. It took its name from the Bight of Biafra, the Atlantic bay to its south. The inhabitants were mostly the Igbo people who led the secession due to economic, ethnic, cultural and religious tensions among the various peoples of Nigeria. Other ethnic groups that constituted the republic were the Efik, Ibibio, Annang, Ejagham, Eket, Ibeno and the Ijaw among others.
The secession of the Biafran region was the primary cause of the Nigerian Civil War, also known as the Biafran War. The state was formally recognised by Gabon, Haiti, Ivory Coast, Tanzania and Zambia. Other nations which did not give official recognition, but provided support and assistance to Biafra included Israel, France, Spain, Portugal, Norway, Rhodesia, South Africa and the Vatican City.[unreliable source?] Biafra also received aid from non-state actors, including Joint Church Aid, Holy Ghost Fathers of Ireland, Caritas International, MarkPress and U.S. Catholic Relief Services.[unreliable source?]
After two-and-a-half years of war, during which over three million Biafran civilians died from starvation occasioned by the total blockade of the region by the Nigerian government, Biafran forces under the motto of "No-victor, No-vanquished" surrendered to the Nigerian Federal Military Government (FMG), and Biafra was reintegrated into Nigeria.
|This section's factual accuracy is disputed. (November 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
In 1960, Nigeria became independent of the United Kingdom. As with many other new African states, the borders of the country did not reflect earlier ethnic boundaries. Thus the northern Sudan and Sahelian Savannah region of the country is made up of Muslim majority, while the southern population was predominantly Christian. Furthermore, Nigeria's oil, its primary source of income, was located in the south of the country. Following independence, Nigeria was divided primarily along ethnic lines with Hausa and Fulani in the north, Yoruba in the south-west, and Igbo and Ijaw in the south-east.
In January 1966, a military coup occurred during which 30 political leaders including Nigeria's Prime Minister, Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, and the Northern premier, Sir Ahmadu Bello, were killed. It was alleged to be an Igbo coup because Nnamdi Azikiwe, the President, of Igbo extraction, and the premier of the southeastern part of the country were not killed. Many others who held the 1966 coup in mind as being master-minded by the "igbo" ethnic group of Nigeria did so because Major Kaduna Nzeogu was perceived to be an "igbo soldier" and he led the coup.
In July 1966 northern officers and army units staged a counter-coup. Muslim officers named a General from a small ethnic group (the Angas) in central Nigeria, General Yakubu "Jack" Gowon, as the head of the Federal Military Government (FMG). The two coups deepened Nigeria's ethnic tensions. In September 1966, approximately 30,000 Igbo were killed in the north, and some Northerners were killed in backlashes in eastern cities.
Biafra as a territory existed long before the amalgamation and independence of Nigeria as a republic. Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu in pursuit of a more agreeable arrangement for peaceful co-existence of all regions in Nigeria proposed for a confederated Nigeria.
In January 1967, the military leaders and senior police officials of each region met in Aburi, Ghana and agreed on a loose confederation of regions. The Northerners were at odds with the Aburi Accord; Obafemi Awolowo, the leader of the Western Region warned that if the Eastern Region seceded, the Western Region would also, which persuaded the northerners.
After the federal and eastern governments failed to reconcile, on 26 May the Eastern region voted to secede from Nigeria. On 30 May, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu, the South Eastern Region's military governor, announced the Republic of Biafra, citing the Easterners killed in the post-coup violence. The large amount of oil in the region created conflict, as oil is a major component of the Nigerian economy. The Eastern region was very ill-equipped for war, out-manned and out-gunned by the military of the remainder of Nigeria. Their advantages included fighting in their homeland and support of most South Easterners.
The FMG launched "police measures" to annex the Eastern Region on 6 July 1967. The FMG's initial efforts were unsuccessful; the Biafrans successfully launched their own offensive, occupying areas in the mid-Western Region in August 1967. By October 1967, the FMG had regained the land after intense fighting. In September 1968, the federal army planned what Gowon described as the "final offensive". Initially the final offensive was neutralised by Biafran troops. In the latter stages, a Southern FMG offensive managed to break through the fierce resistance.
During the war there were great shortages of food and medicine throughout Biafra, due largely to the Nigerian government's blockade of the region as suggested in a number of arguments by leaders of the Nigerian Government.
Anthony Enahoro stated that "there are various ways of fighting a war. You might starve your enemy into submission, or you might kill him on the battlefield." Obafemi Awolowo said, "All is fair in war, and starvation is one of the weapons of war and I don't see why we should feed our enemies in order for them to fight harder."
Many volunteer bodies organised the Biafran airlift which provided blockade-breaking relief flights into Biafra, carrying food and medicines in, and later provided means of evacuation for refugee children. On 30 June 1969, the Nigerian government banned all Red Cross aid to Biafra; two weeks later it allowed medical supplies through the front lines, but restricted food supplies. Later in October 1969, Ojukwu appealed to the United Nations to mediate a cease-fire.
The federal government called for Biafra's surrender. In December, the FMG managed to cut Biafra in half, primarily by the efforts of 3 Marine Commando Division of the Nigerian Army, led by then-Colonel Benjamin Adekunle, popularly called "The Black Scorpion", and later by Olusegun Obasanjo. Ojukwu fled to Ivory Coast, leaving his chief of staff, Philip Effiong, to act as the "officer administering the government". Effiong called for a ceasefire on 12 January and submitted to the FMG. By then, more than one million people had died in battle or from starvation. Biafra was reabsorbed into Nigeria on 15 January.
Biafra comprised over 29,848 square miles (77,310 km2) of land, with terrestrial borders shared with Nigeria to the north and west, and with Cameroon to the east. Its coast was on the Gulf of Guinea in the south.
The former country's northeast bordered the Benue Hills and mountains that lead to Cameroon. Three major rivers flow from Biafra into the Gulf of Guinea: the Imo River, the Cross River and the Niger River.
Whilst it existed, the predominant language of Biafra was Igbo. Along with Igbo, there were a variety of other languages, including Efik, Ijaw, Annang and Ibibio. English was the official language.
An early institution created by the Biafran government was the Bank of Biafra, accomplished under "Decree No. 3 of 1967". The bank carried out all central banking functions including the administration of foreign exchange and the management of the public debt of the Republic. The bank was administered by a governor and four directors; the first governor, who signed on bank notes, was Sylvester Ugoh. A second decree, "Decree No. 4 of 1967", modified the Banking Act of the Federal Republic of Nigeria for the Republic of Biafra.
The bank was first located in Enugu, but due to the ongoing war, the bank was relocated several times. Biafra attempted to finance the war through foreign exchange. After Nigeria announced their currency would no longer be legal tender (to make way for a new currency), this effort increased. After the announcement, tons of Nigerian bank notes were transported in an effort to acquire foreign exchange. The currency of Biafra had been the Nigerian pound, until the Bank of Biafra started printing out its own notes, the Biafran pound. The new currency went public on 28 January 1968, and the Nigerian pound was not accepted as an exchange unit. The first issue of the bank notes included only 5 shillings notes and 1 pound notes. The Bank of Nigeria exchanged only 30 pounds for an individual and 300 pounds for enterprises in the second half of 1968.
It is estimated that a total of £115–140 million Biafran pounds were in circulation by the end of the conflict, with a population of about 14 million, approximately £10 per person. In uncirculated condition these are very inexpensive and readily available for collectors.
At the beginning of the war Biafra had 3,000 soldiers, but at the end of the war the soldiers totalled 30,000. There was no official support for the Biafran army by any other nation throughout the war, although arms were clandestinely acquired. Because of the lack of official support, the Biafrans manufactured many of their weapons locally. Europeans served in the Biafran cause; German born Rolf Steiner was a lieutenant colonel assigned to the 4th Commando Brigade and Welshman Taffy Williams served as a Major until the very end of the conflict.
The Biafrans managed to set up a small yet effective air force. The BAF commanders were Chude Sokey and later Godwin Ezeilo, who had trained with the Royal Canadian Air Force. Early inventory included two B-25 Mitchells, one B-26 Invader (piloted by Polish WWII ace Jan Zumbach, known also as John Brown), a converted DC-3 and one Dove. In 1968 the Swedish pilot Carl Gustaf von Rosen suggested the MiniCOIN project to General Ojukwu. By early 1969, Biafra had assembled five MFI-9Bs in Gabon, calling them "Biafra Babies". They were coloured green, were able to carry six 68 mm anti-armour rockets under each wing and had simple sights. The six aeroplanes were flown by three Swedish pilots and three Biafran pilots. In September 1969, Biafra acquired four ex-Armee de l'Air North American T-6Gs, which were flown to Biafra the following month, with another aircraft lost on the ferry flight. These aircraft flew missions until January 1970 and were flown by Portuguese ex-military pilots.
The international humanitarian organisation Médecins Sans Frontières originated in response to the suffering in Biafra. During the crisis, French medical volunteers, in addition to Biafran health workers and hospitals, were subjected to attacks by the Nigerian army and witnessed civilians being murdered and starved by the blockading forces. French doctor Bernard Kouchner also witnessed these events, particularly the huge number of starving children, and, when he returned to France, he publicly criticised the Nigerian government and the Red Cross for their seemingly complicit behaviour. With the help of other French doctors, Kouchner put Biafra in the media spotlight and called for an international response to the situation. These doctors, led by Kouchner, concluded that a new aid organisation was needed that would ignore political/religious boundaries and prioritise the welfare of victims.
In their study, Smallpox and its Eradication, Fenner and colleagues describe how vaccine supply shortages during the Biafra smallpox campaign led to the development of the focal vaccination technique, later adopted worldwide by the World Health Organization, which led to the early and cost effective interruption of smallpox transmission in west Africa and elsewhere.
On 29 May 2000, the Lagos Guardian newspaper reported that the now ex-president Olusegun Obasanjo commuted to retirement the dismissal of all military persons who fought for the breakaway state of Biafra during Nigeria's 1967–1970 civil war. In a national broadcast, he said the decision was based on the belief that "justice must at all times be tempered with mercy".
In July 2006 the Center for World Indigenous Studies reported that government sanctioned killings were taking place in the southeastern city of Onitsha, because of a shoot-to-kill policy directed toward Biafran loyalists, particularly members of the Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB).
In 2010, researchers from Karolinska Institutet in Sweden and University of Nigeria, Nsukka, showed that Igbos born in Biafra during the years of the famine were of higher risk of suffering from obesity, hypertension and impaired glucose metabolism compared to controls born a short period after the famine had ended. The findings are in line with the developmental origin of health and disease hypothesis suggesting that malnutrition in early life is a predisposing factor for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes later in life.
Movement to re-secede
There is no central authority coordinating the Biafran re-secession campaign. The Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB) is one of the numerous groups advocating for a separate country for the people of south-eastern Nigeria. They accuse the state of marginalising the Igbo people. MASSOB says it is a peaceful group and advertises a 25-stage plan to achieve its goal peacefully. It has two arms of government, the Biafra Government in Exile and Biafra Shadow Government.
The Nigerian government accuses MASSOB of violence; MASSOB's leader, Ralph Uwazuruike, was arrested in 2005 and was detained on treason charges. He has since been released. In 2009, MASSOB launched an unrecognized "Biafran International Passport" in response to persistent demand by some Biafran sympathizers in the diaspora. On 16 June 2015, the Supreme Council of Elders of the Indigenous People of Biafra, another pro-Biafra organization, sued the Federal Republic of Nigeria for the right to self-determination within their region as a sovereign state.
Another group, Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB), led by a United Kingdom-based Biafran, Nnamdi Kanu, reinvigorated the quest for Biafran realisation in 2012. He established an illegal radio station to champion the Biafran cause, Radio Biafra, which has been broadcasting at various frequencies around the world. The Nigerian Government, through its broadcasting regulators, the Broadcasting Organisation of Nigerian (BON) and Nigerian Communications Commission (NCC), has sought to clamp down on the UK-based station with limited success. On 17 November 2015, the Abia state police command seized an IPOB radio transmitter in Umuahia. Mr. Kanu is presently being detained by the federal government.
The various groups clamouring for the restoration of the indepedence of Biafra have often been beset with internal wranglings that have impede its secessionist efforts. On 19 October 2015, Chief Ralph Uwazuruike of the Movement for the Actualization of Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB) disclosed that the director of Radio Biafra and leader of the Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB), Nnamdi Kanu, does not belong to the movement and was sacked for indiscipline and for inciting violence among members.
There has been a renewed, intense agitation for Biafran secession. Since August 2015, protests have erupted in cities across Nigeria's south-east. Though peaceful, the protesters have been routinely attacked by the Nigerian police and army, with scores of people reportedly killed. Many others have been injured and/or arrested. On 23 December 2015, the federal government charged Nnamdi Kanu with treasonable felony in the Federal High Court in Abuja.
According to the South-East Based Coalition of Human Rights Organizations (SBCHROs), security forces under the directive of the federal government has killed 80 members of the Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB) and their supporters between 30 August 2015 and 9 February 2016 in a renewed clampdown on the movement .
A report by Amnesty International also accuses the Nigerian military of killing at least 17 unarmed Biafran separatists in the city of Onitsha prior to a march on 30 May 2016 commemorating the 49th anniversary of the initial secession of Biafra.
Meaning of "Biafra" and location
Little is known about the literal meaning of the word Biafra. The word Biafra most likely derives from the subgroup Biafar or Biafada of the Tenda ethnic group who reside primarily in Guinea-Bissau. Manuel Álvares (1526–1583), a Portuguese Jesuit educator, in his work Ethiopia Minor and a geographical account of the Province of Sierra Leone, writes about the "Biafar heathen" in chapter 13 of the same book. The word Biafar thus appears to have been a common word in the Portuguese language back in the 16th century
- The original word used by the European travellers was not Biafra but Biafara, Biafar and sometimes also Biafares.
- The exact original region of Biafra is not restricted to Eastern Nigeria alone. According to the maps, the European travellers used the word Biafara to describe the entire region east of River Niger going down to the Mount Cameroon region, thus including Cameroon and a large area around Gabon.The Bight of Biafra lies in the present South-South Region of Nigeria and was renamed to Bight of Bonny by the Nigerian Government. The word Biafara also appears on maps from the 18th century in the area around Gambia.
Maps indicating the word Biafara (sometimes also Biafares or Biafar) with corresponding year:
Maps from the 19th century indicating Biafra as the region around today's Cameroon:
Sovereignty over what is referred to as the Biafran region is currently with the Nigerian federal government and the various local governments at the helm of affairs in the states into which the region has been carved up by Nigerian military governments in 1967, 1991 and 1996.
- Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie: Half of a Yellow Sun
- Bruce Mayrock
- 2015-2016 Killing of Biafran Protesters
- Ogbaa, Kalu (1 January 1995). Igbo. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-8239-1977-2. Retrieved 15 January 2014.
- Biafra Free State
- Nowa Omoigui. "Federal Nigerian Army Blunders of the Nigerian Civil War – Part 2". Archived from the original on 19 July 2008. Retrieved 15 August 2008.
- Barnaby Philips (13 January 2000). "Biafra: Thirty years on". BBC News. Retrieved 9 March 2011.
- Barnaby Philips (13 January 2000). "Biafra: Thirty years on". The BBC. Retrieved 1 January 2010.
- Nowa Omoigui. "OPERATION 'AURE': The Northern Military Counter-Rebellion of July 1966". Nigeria/Africa Masterweb.
- Willy Bozimo. "Festus Samuel Okotie Eboh (1912–1966)". Niger Delta Congress. Retrieved 17 August 2008.
- "1966 Coup: The last of the plotters dies". OnlineNigeria.com. 20 March 2007.
- "Biafran Secession: Nigeria 1967–1970". Armed Conflict Events Database. 16 December 2000.
- "Ojukwu's Declaration of Biafra Speech". Citizens for Nigeria. Retrieved 15 August 2008.
- "Biafra Spotlight - Republic of Biafra is Born". Library of Congress Africa Pamphlet Collection - Flickr. Retrieved 11 May 2014.
- "ICE Case Studies". American University. November 1997.
- Nowa Omoigui (3 October 2007). "Nigerian Civil War file". BBC. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 27 October 2007.
- "On This Day (30 June)". BBC. 30 June 1969. Retrieved 1 January 2010.
- James Brooke (14 July 1987). "Few Traces of the Civil War Linger in Biafra". New York Times. Retrieved 15 August 2008.
- Senan Murray (3 May 2007). "Reopening Nigeria's civil war wounds". BBC. Retrieved 15 August 2008.
- Minahan, James (2002). Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: S-Z. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 762. ISBN 0-313-32384-4.
- "Nigeria". Britannica. Archived from the original on 30 June 2008. Retrieved 17 August 2008.
- Ònyémà Nwázùé. "INTRODUCTION TO THE IGBO LANGUAGE". Archived from the original on 18 August 2008. Retrieved 18 August 2008.
- Symes, Peter (1997). "The Bank Notes of Biafra". International Bank Note Society Journal. 36 (4). Archived from the original on 27 August 2008. Retrieved 17 August 2008.
- Ivwurie, Dafe (25 February 2011). "Nigeria: The Men Who May Be President (1)". allAfrica.com. Retrieved 22 May 2012.
- "Operation Biafra Babies". Retrieved 19 August 2008.
- "The Last Adventurer" by Steiner, Rolf (Boston:, Little, Brown 1978)
- Air Enthusiast No. 65 September–October 1996 pp 40–47 article by Vidal, Joao M. Texans in Biafra T-6Gs in use in the Nigerian Civil War
- "Founding of MSF". Doctors without borders. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
- Bortolotti, Dan (2004). Hope in Hell: Inside the World of Doctors Without Borders, Firefly Books. ISBN 1-55297-865-6.
- "Site cidi.org". Iys.cidi.org. Retrieved 22 May 2012.
- "Emerging Genocide in Nigeria". Cwis.org. Retrieved 22 May 2012.
- "Chronicles of brutality in Nigeria 2000–2006". Cwis.org. Retrieved 22 May 2012.
- "Hypertension, Diabetes and Overweight: Looming Legacies of the Biafran Famine, PLoS ONE". Plosone.org. Retrieved 22 May 2012.
- Nigeria: Those Born During Biafra Famine Are Susceptible to Obesity, Study Finds. The New York Times, 2 November 2010
- Estelle Shirbon (12 July 2006). "Dream of free Biafra revives in southeast Nigeria". Reuters.
- "Biafra News – 04.13.2009". Biafra.cwis.org. Retrieved 22 May 2012.
- "MASSOB launches "Biafran Int'l Passport" to celebrate 10th anniversary". Vanguardngr.com. 1 July 2009. Retrieved 22 May 2012.
- "Court determines suit between Nigeria, Biafra on Sept 22". sunnewsonline.com. 18 July 2015. Retrieved 18 August 2015.
- "Radio Biafra Transmitter's Found in Umuahia,Abia State "
- ""Radio Biafra Container With Massive Transmitter Found In Nnamdi Kanu’s Village"
- "Confusion as MASSOB disowns Radio Biafra boss, Nnamdi Kanu"}
- "Arrested Radio Biafra boss is not our member – MASSOB leader, Uwazuruike"
- "Half a century after the war, angry Biafrans are agitating again". The Economist. 28 November 2015. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
- "FG Files Fresh Treason Charges against Nnamdi Kanu"
- Biafra Will Not Stand, Buhari Vows
- Amnesty International Accuses Nigerian Military of Killing Unarmed Biafran Separatists
- "Biafada: A language of Guinea-Bissau".
- "The Joshua Project: Biafada, Biafar of Guinea-Bissau".
- "Manuel Álvares, Chapter 13: The Biafar Heathen".
- "Map of Africa from 1669". USA: Afriterra Foundation, The Cartographic Free Library. Retrieved 14 March 2010.
- "Map of Africa from 1669" (zoom). USA: Afriterra Foundation, The Cartographic Free Library. Retrieved 14 March 2010.
- "Map of West Africa from 1729". USA: University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries. Retrieved 14 March 2010.
- "Map of North-West Africa, 1829". USA: University of Texas Libraries. Retrieved 14 March 2010.
- "Map of Africa from 1707". Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA: James Ford Bell Library. 9 October 2001. Retrieved 14 March 2010.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to
- My Biafran Eyes – Writer Okey Ndibe's memoir of the Biafran War in Guernica
- BiafraNet: the Biafra Actualization Network
- These Women Are Brave – A project on Igbo women's experiences during the Biafran war.
- Remember Biafra – A brief history on the Republic and conflict
- Insight guide into Igboland
- IgboNet: The Igbo Network
- BNW: BiafraNigeriaWorld: The Authority on BiafraNigeria
- Biafra National Transitional Council
- Biafra Free State