Kunimaipa language

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Kunimaipa
RegionPapua New Guinea
Native speakers
(14,000 cited 1978–2000)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3Variously:
kup – Kunimaipa
wer – Weri + Amam
big – Biangai
Glottologkuni1267  Kunimaipa[2]
weri1254  Weric[3]
bian1252  Biangai[4]

Kunimaipa is a Papuan language of New Guinea. The varieties are divergent, on the verge of being distinct languages, and have separate literary traditions.

Phonemes [5][edit]

Consonants[edit]

Below is a chart of Kunimaipa consonants.

Table of consonant phonemes of Kunimaipa
Labial Coronal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p b t d k g
Fricative v s h
Lateral approximant l
Trill r

Vowels[edit]

  • “ i, e, a, o, and u”

Morphophonemics [6][edit]

Each stem that ends with a has three kinds of allomorphs: a, o, and e. Allomorphs end with a in a word finally or before a syllable with a. It is the most common ending. O ending appears before syllables with o, u, or ai. E ending appears before syllable with e or i. All of above holds true, except the ending syllable before -ma. In the general morphophonemic rule, ending a appears before syllable with a. In the case of -ma, o appears before the syllable with a. For example, the sentence so-ma, meaning ‘I will go.’

Words [7][edit]

Non-suffixed[edit]

Word classes that are usually not suffixed are responses, exclamations, attention particles, vocative particles, conjunctions, names, and particles. Responses are short replies on a conversation; such as, kara 'okay', ee 'yes', gu 'yes', ev 'no'. Exclamations is usually occurs on sentence boundary; such as, auma 'surprise', au 'mistake', maize 'regret', and aip 'dislike'. Attention particles are only used on reported speech; such as, gui 'call to come', ae 'attention getter', and siu 'attention getter -close'. Vocative particles are beginning of addresses in sentence boundary; such as, engarim 'hey, woman', erom 'hey, man', engarohol 'hey, children', and guai 'uncle'. Conjunctions are links in "phrases, clauses, and sentences"; such as, mete 'and, but, then', ma 'or, and', povoza 'therefore', and ong 'but, then'. Names label person, place, days, and months; such as, made-ta-ka, 'on Monday', and pode-ta-ka, 'on Thursday'. Lastly, one particles that is used in introducing a quote is never suffixed, pata meaning 'reply'.

Suffixed or non-suffixed[edit]

Word classes including adjectives, pronouns, interrogative words, nouns, and verbs can be suffixed or non-suffixed depending on the meaning and usage. Some example of adjectives in Kunimaipa are tina 'good', goe 'small', and hori 'bad'. The Kunimaipa language has 7 pronouns, including ne, ni, pi, rei, rari, aru, and paru. Example of od interrogative words are taira and tai meaning 'what'. Noun is a large word class including words such as abana 'men', abanaro 'young men', no nai nai 'everything', and mapo 'all'.

Not Classified According to suffixation[edit]

The word classes that cannot be classified by suffixation are locations, temporals, adverbs, and auxiliaries.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kunimaipa at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Weri + Amam at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Biangai at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kunimaipa". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Weric". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  4. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Biangai". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  5. ^ Geary, Elaine (1977). Kunimaipa grammar: morphonemics to discourse. Ukarumpa: Summer Institute of Linguistics.
  6. ^ Geary, Elaine (1977). Kunimaipa grammar: morphonemics to discourse. Ukarumpa: Summer Institute of Linguistics.
  7. ^ Geary, Elaine (1977). Kunimaipa grammar: morphonemics to discourse. Ukarumpa: Summer Institute of Linguistics.

Further reading[edit]