Biao Min language

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Biao Min
Biao-Jiao Mien
Native toChina
Native speakers
43,000 (1995)[1]
Dialects
  • Biao Min
  • Jiaogong Mian
Language codes
ISO 639-3bje
Glottologbiao1254[2]

Biao Min, or Biao-Jiao Mien, is a Hmong–Mien language of China. The two varieties, Biao Min and Jiaogong Mian, are evidently not mutually intelligible.

Distribution[edit]

Ethnologue reports the Biao Min language to be spoken in the following counties in China.

Dialects[edit]

Dialects of Biao Min are as follows, according to Mao Zongwu (2004). Only the Biao Min varieties of Dongshan Yao Ethnic Township, Quanzhou County (全州县东山瑶族乡) and Sanjiang Township, Gongcheng County (恭城县三江乡) have been described in any detail.

  • Dongshan 东山 dialect: 35,000 speakers in Shuanglong, Huanglong village, Dongshan township, Quanzhou County (全州县东山乡黄龙村双龙屯); autonym: bjau˧˩min˧˩.
  • Shikou 石口 dialect: 8,000 speakers in Shikou village, Sanjiang township, Gongcheng County (恭城县三江乡石口村); autonym: mɔu˧˩jɔu˥. Also known as Chao Kong Meng (Chinese: 交公勉语)[3] or Moruo (Chinese: 莫若) (Mao 2004:306).
  • Niuweizhai 牛尾寨 dialect: 2,000 speakers in Niuwei village, Sanjiang township, Gongcheng County (恭城县三江乡牛尾村); autonym: mɔ˦˧ɕi˥˧. Also known as Moxi (Chinese: 莫西瑶语).[4] Yoshihisa Taguchi (2005)[5] gives the autonym mo2 xi2 mũ2, and points out the contact relationships between it and Jiaogong Mien 交公勉 (Shikou). Taguchi (2005) reports that within Sanjiang Township 三江乡, it is spoken in the villages of Dalitian 大栗田村, Xiaolitian 小栗田村, and Niuwei 牛尾村.[5]

Strecker (1987) uses "Chao Kong Meng" for Shikou, and "Moxi" for Niuweizhai.[6]

Word lists for Biao Min dialects can be found in Mao Zongwu (2004).

Quanzhou County[edit]

Biao Min of Quanzhou County, Guangxi consists of the following five dialect areas (Quanzhou County Almanac 全州县志).[7]

  • Qingshui 清水, Zhuwu 竹坞, Shangtang 上塘, Xiaoheping 小和平, Huangladong 黄腊洞, Huanglong 黄龙, Leigongyan 雷公岩
  • Baizhu 白竹, Jingrong 锦荣, Daping 大坪
  • Bailing 白岭, Liuzijie 六字介, Shijianping 石枧坪
  • Gumu 古木
  • Xieshui 斜水

Xieshui 斜水 is the most divergent dialect, and is unintelligible with the other four dialects. The Xieshui dialect also has more Chinese influence than the other Biao Min dialects do.[7]

Guanyang County[edit]

Biao Min of Guanyang County, Guangxi consists of the following two dialect areas (Guanyang County Almanac 灌阳县志).[8]

  • Dialect area 1
    • Hongqi Township 红旗乡: Wenhua 文化, Xiufeng 秀凤, Shangwang 上王, Helong 鹤龙
    • Xinyu Township 新圩乡: Hongshuiqing 洪水箐, Guiyang 贵阳
    • Shuiche Township 水车乡: Shangpao 上泡, Xiapao 下泡, Dongliu 东流, Hecheng 合成, Sanhuang 三皇, Xiumu 修睦
  • Dialect area 2
    • Jiangtang, Shuiche 水车乡江塘; Baizhuping, Wenshi 文市镇白竹坪

The Jiangtang and Baizhuping dialects of Biao Min are documented in Hsiu (2017).[9][10][11]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Biao Min at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Biao-Jiao Mien". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ http://lingweb.eva.mpg.de/numeral/ChaoKongMeng.htm
  4. ^ http://lingweb.eva.mpg.de/numeral/Moxi.htm
  5. ^ a b Taguchi, Yoshihisa 田口善久. 2005. Sānjiāng shĭmén miăn yŭ de yīnyùn tèdiăn 三江史门勉语的音韵特点 [Phonological characteristics of Sanjiang Shimen Mian language]. Minzu Yuwen 民族语文 2: 7-14.
  6. ^ Strecker, David. 1987. "The Hmong-Mien Languages." In Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area, 10 , no. 2: 1-11.
  7. ^ a b http://www.gxdqw.com/bin/mse.exe?seachword=&K=c&A=45&rec=643&run=13
  8. ^ http://www.gxdqw.com/bin/mse.exe?seachword=&K=c&A=80&rec=326&run=13
  9. ^ Hsiu, Andrew. 2017. Biao Min (Baizhuping) audio word list. doi:10.5281/zenodo.1123261
  10. ^ Hsiu, Andrew. 2017. Biao Min (Jiangtang) audio word list. doi:10.5281/zenodo.1123263
  11. ^ Biao Min (Guanyang)
  • Mao Zongwu [毛宗武]. 2004. A study of Mien dialects [Yao zu Mian yu fang yan yan jiu 瑤族勉语方言研究]. Beijing: Ethnic Publishing House [民族出版社].