Biao language

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Biao
Native toChina
RegionHuaiji County and Fengkai County, Guangdong
Native speakers
80,000 (2002)[1]
Kra–Dai
Latin script
Language codes
ISO 639-3byk
Glottologbiao1257[2]

The Biao language (Chinese: 标话; also known as Kang Bau or Kang Beu) is a Kra–Dai language (or perhaps three languages)[2] spoken in southwestern Huaiji County and Fengkai County, Zhaoqing, Guangdong. Autonyms are kaːŋ˩ peu̯˥ and {{IPA|kaːŋ˩ paːu̯˥}.

Speakers of this language are classified as part of Han Chinese ethnic groups.

Classification[edit]

Like Lakkia, the genetic affiliation of the Biao language within the Kra–Dai family is uncertain, although it could be a sister of the Kam–Sui languages.[3][4] Hsiu (2014)[5] suggests that Biao could either subgroup with Lakkia, or form an independent branch of Kra–Dai on its own.

Phonology[edit]

The tone categories and contour-tone values for three dialects of Biao are (Liang 2002: 53):

Tone category Shidong Yonggu Dagang
1 ˥ 55 ˥ 55 ˥˦ 54
2 ˨˩˦ 214 ˧˩ 31 ˧˩ 31
3 ˥˦ 54 ˥˦ 54 ˧˥ 35
4 ˩˧˨ 132 ˨˩˧ 213 ˩˧˨ 132
5 ˧˥ 35 ˨ 22 ˧˦ 34
6 ˨ 22 ˦˨ 42 ˨ 22
7 (voiceless checked) ˥ 55 ˥ 55 ˥ 55
9 (voiceless checked) ˧˥ 35 ˧ 33 ˧˦ 34
8 (voiced checked) ˩˨ 12 ˨˩ 21 ˨ 22
10 (voiced checked) ˨ 22 ˦˨ 42 ˦˨ 42

Dialects[edit]

There are three dialects of Biao (Hsiu 2014).[5] The Shidong dialect is documented in detail by Liang (2002). Additional data from the Yonggu and Dagang dialects are documented by Hsiu (2014). A sketch of Yonggu Biao phonology is also documented in Lin (2009).[6]

  • Shidong 诗洞
  • Yonggu 永固
  • Dagang 大岗

Yang (2012:73)[7] provides the following lexical comparisons for five dialects of Biao.

English gloss Chinese gloss Shidong 诗洞 Hezhou 贺州 Yonggu 永固 Dagang 大岗 Liangcun 梁村
bone 骨头 iɐk8 iɐk8 iɐk8 iɐk8 iɐk8
earth, soil pʰiɐn1 pʰɛn1 pøn3 piɛn1 piɛn1
body hair, feather iɐŋ1 iɐŋ6 iaŋ2 iɛŋ6 iɛŋ6
table 桌子 tsøŋ4 tsøŋ4 tsoŋ2 pɐt7tsoŋ6; tøy6 pɐt7tsoŋ6
vegetable 蔬(菜种得蔬) lɛu5; liau5 liau5 lɛu5 ly5 ly5
long (time) 久(很久不见) si2 si6 tsi2 tsɐi6 tsɐi6
dog mu3 mu3 mɔ1 mɔ1 mɔ1
weave (basket) 编(编簸箕) hɔo1 hɔo1 hɔ1 hɔ1 hɔ1

Liang (2002: 53-55, 61-62) lists the following comparative data for three dialects of Biao.

English gloss Chinese gloss Shidong 诗洞 Yonggu 永固 Dagang 大岗 Page number
shoe haːi4 aːi2 aːi2 53
hand hy2 iə2 iə2 53
enter hɔ2 ɔ4 ɔ4 53
stand up 站立 ɲyn1 ɲyn1 nyn1 53
earring 耳环 ɲɛŋ6 ɲɛŋ6 53
water naːm4 ɲaːm4 nia4 54
urine 尿 ɲu6 ɲiu6 nɛu6 54
rain tsʰan1 tsʰɛn1 san1 54
year pɛ1 pʰui1 pʰui1 54
bow kʰuŋ3 kuŋ1 kuŋ1 54
grapefruit 柚子 lak8pʰɔ3 lak8pø1 54
scold ly5 liə5 54
cross over ty6 tiə6 liə6 54
thorn, spur 刺儿 ky3 kiə3 kiə3 54
leaf 树叶 my1 miə1 miə1 54
li (distance) 一“里”路 ly1 liə4 liə4 54
chopsticks tsy6 tsy6 tsy6 54
book sy3 sy1 sy1 54
moon 月亮 pʰyn1 pʰyn1 pun1 54
release (bird) 放(鸟) pyŋ5 puŋ5 54
garlic θyn5 θun5 54
stand ɲyn1 ɲyn1 nyn1 54
red lyŋ5 luŋ5 luŋ5 54
sky, day 天、日 jan2 wɛn2 man2 55
snake tsʰy1 tʰo1 tsʰo1 55
day man1 man1 61
wind lam2 lam2 61
frost mai1 mui1 61
pond 池塘 tsam2 tɛm2 61
paddy field 水田 jo6 jo6 61
fire pai1 pai1 61
day jan2 wɛn2 61
foot puk7 puk7 61
child liak8 lɛk8 61
grandchild lɔn1 lɔn1 61
sell pʰa1 pʰa1 61
come naŋ1 nuŋ1 61
black muk7 muk7 61
cattle 黄牛 mɔ2 ŋau2 61
dragonfly 蜻蜓 tam1ɲɛu3 kam5tsʰe3 61
grasshopper 蚱蜢 ha1ɲak7 maːŋ3 61
tree muk8 mi4 61
banana 芭蕉 muk8juk8 wai2θiəu1 61
sprout miu4 ŋa2 61
tongue 舌头 tsʰu1 pʰyə1 62
sit naŋ6 pʰɔ3 62
will, future tense suk8 ui6 62
blood jan2 lyt10 62
throw (away) 扔(丢) san5 fak7 62
use sai1 yuŋ6 62

Distribution[edit]

Variaties of Biao include the Shidong 诗洞, Yonggu 永固, Qiaotou 桥头, and Dagang 大岗 dialects (Liang 2002:3). In Fengkai County, it is spoken in Chang'an 长安, Jinzhuang 金装, and Qixing 七星. The Fengshan County Almanac (1998) reports that in Fengkai County, (piau42) is spoken by 7,217 people in 48 natural villages in Chang'an 长安, Baoshan 宝山, and Dongshan 东山 townships. Fengkai Biao is reported by the Fengshan County Almanac (1998) to be a distinct dialect from Biao of Huaiji County. Yang (2011) reports that Biao is also spoken in Liandu 莲都 and He'erkou 河儿口镇 in Fengkai County, and Shatian 沙田镇, Hezhou, Guangxi. Comparative lexical data for 4 varieties of Biao spoken in Shatian Town, Hezhou (namely Fanglin 芳林, Dapan 大盘, Qiaotou 桥头, and Guishan 桂山) are provided in Chen & Yang (2011: 99-100).

Yang (2010)[edit]

According to Yang Biwan (2010), there are more than 160,000 speakers of Biao.[8]

  • Huaiji County
    • Shidong Township 诗洞镇 (16 villages): 55,000 speakers. Baiya 白崖话 is spoken in Jianfeng 健丰, Jinsha 金沙, and Feng'an 丰安.
    • Yonggu Township 永固镇 (all 12 villages in the township): 40,000 speakers
    • Qiaotou Township 桥头镇 (3 villages): 10,000 speakers
      • Xinning 新宁: Tansi 潭泗, Rongling 榕岭
      • Xinping 新平: Jinji 金鸡, Gongxian 公弦, Dahekou 大和口, Songgenling 松根岭, Doushui 斗水
      • Hongguang 红光: Guihua 桂花, Zhiwu 植屋, Wanghaotang 旺豪塘, Tanxing 谭杏
      • Small numbers scattered in Jiuxu of Jinxing 金星旧墟, Anshe of Baofeng 保丰安社, Liuhua of Fengzhen 凤真六化
    • Dagang Township 大岗镇 (12 villages): 30,000 speakers. Xiafang 下坊话 is spoken in Shiqun 石群 and Sibao 四保.
      • Dihou 地厚 (all villages)
      • Liangshui 梁水 (all villages)
      • Fulou 富楼: Laochen 老陈, Laoxuan 老禤, Jian'gang 坚岗, Linwu 林屋, Shangcaitang 上彩塘, Xiacaitang 下彩塘
      • Tanzhu 谭珠: Dongxiang 东向, Taiping 太平, Liwu 李屋, Tangmei 塘美, Liuwu 刘屋, Tansha 谭沙, Sanwu 三屋
      • Xiulin 秀林: Baiwu 白屋, Linghui 岭惠, Langwei 浪尾, Bitang 碧塘, Hanggen 杭根, Shankou 山口, Zhuyuan 竹园, Rongshu 榕树, Fenglin 枫林, Xiulin 秀林, Pangmei 庞眉, Xiaguo 下郭
      • Shangting 上亭: Guowu 郭屋, Benji 本吉, Sanzhong 三中, Shegang 社岗, Zhuwu 朱屋, Hongshu 红树
      • Shitian 石田: Niewu 聂屋, Liancun 连村, Qidou 七斗
      • Linggang 岭岗: Shangzhai 上寨, Zhiling 知岭, Fenshui 坟水
      • Dazhong 大钟: Qilong 奇龙, Lianhui 连会, Baishi 白石, Miaozhong 庙中, Ejing 鹅劲, Miaoshang 庙上
      • Shangshi 上石: Fujing 富井, Zhongxinwu 中心屋, Shenshui 深水, Zhongxindong 中心洞, Yangshu 杨树, Shanggaowu 上高屋, Lezhai 勒寨
      • Jiyi 集义: Shuangxi 双溪, Tanbian 谭变, Shuangshimiao 双狮庙
      • Tanying 谭英: Muyuan 木园, Xiazhai 下寨, Guantang 关塘, Kangen 榄根, Liangwu 梁屋
    • Liangcun Township 梁村镇 (7 villages): 18,000 speakers. Xiafang 下坊话 is spoken in Liyang 李样 and Linwu 林屋.
      • Zhenwu 镇武 (all villages)
      • Xiangtian 湘田 (all villages)
      • Shatian 沙田: Matou 码头, Xinlou 新楼, Bailong 白龙, Dacheng 大成, Huangtang 黄塘, Tanle 谭了
      • Guangming 光明: Tanpin 谭聘, Mumian 木棉, Luokong 罗孔, Datian 大田, Nan'an 南安, Beixiang 北向, Dongxiang 东向, Nanxiang 南向
      • Liangcun 梁村: Huilonggang 回龙岗, Tanyuan 谭园
      • Yongyou 永攸: Xiayou 下攸, Xixiang 西向
      • Lanma 栏马: Lanzhong 栏中, Baiwu 白屋, Sanzhe 三折, Nansheao 南蛇凹, Dasonggen 大松根, Taiping 太平
  • Fengkai County
    • Chang'an Township 长安镇 (3 villages): 7,000 speakers
      • Chang'an 长安 (80% of villages)
      • Dongshan 东山 (all villages)
      • Baoshan 宝山: Xialuochai 下罗柴, Wenlin 文林, Shandong 上东 (Dongdui 东队), Shangxi 上西 (Xidui 西队), Qiaotou 桥头, Jiongzhou 迥週, Sushui 宿水, Fankou 范口, Dakou 大口
    • Liandu Township 莲都镇 (4 villages): 1,300 speakers; ancestors from Shidong.
      • Sicun 四村: Shuilai 水来
      • Qingshui 清水: Yangmei 杨梅, Zhongxin 中心, Yonggu 涌谷, Pangu 盘古, Datang 大塘, Tongyou 桐油, Luoya 罗雅, Dajiang 大降
      • Shendi 深底: Yingxiong 英雄, Kengjiao 坑脚, Heliping 合理坪
      • Yuntang 云塘: Dalang 大浪
    • He'erkou Township 河儿口镇 (4 villages): 1,750 speakers; ancestors from Shidong.
      • Dongguan 东光 (3 natural villages)
      • Xiangyang 向阳 (all villages)
      • Sandong 三洞 (20% of villages)
      • Pingdong 平洞 (all villages)
  • Hezhou
    • Shatian Township 沙田镇 (4 villages): 20 elderly speakers; ancestors from Shidong.
      • Cluster 9 of Qiaotou 桥头第9组
      • Sanzhen of Dapan 大盘三圳
      • Clusters 3 and 4 of Guishan 桂山第3、4组
      • Cluster 11 of Fanglin 芳林第11组

Yang (2012)[7] notes that toponyms in Yonggu 永固 Township with the name “Luo 罗”, and toponyms in Shidong 诗洞 Township with “Liu 六”, “Feng 凤”, and “Nan 南” are of Biao origin.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Liang Min (2002)
  2. ^ a b Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Biaoic". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Edmondson, Jerold A. and David B. Solnit, editors. 1988. Comparative Kadai: Linguistic studies beyond Tai. Summer Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas at Arlington Publications in Linguistics, 86. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas at Arlington. vii, 374 p.
  4. ^ Edmondson, Jerold A. and David B. Solnit, editors. 1997. Comparative Kadai: the Tai branch. Summer Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas at Arlington Publications in Linguistics, 124. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas at Arlington. vi, 382 p.
  5. ^ a b Hsiu, Andrew. 2014. The Biao languages of northwestern Guangdong, China. Presented at SEALS 24, Yangon University, Yangon, Myanmar. (PPT slides) doi:10.5281/zenodo.1127818
  6. ^ Lin, Lunlun 林伦伦. 2009. Guangdong Huaiji Yonggu Biaohua yinxi ji qi zhuyao tedian 广东怀集永固标话音系及其主要特点. Nanfang Yuyanxue 南方语言学 (1), 143-151.
  7. ^ a b Yang Biwan 杨璧菀. 2012. On Preservation and Protection of Biaohua 论标话的保存和保护. Journal of Nanning Polytechnic 南宁职业技术学院学报 17(3).
  8. ^ Yang Biwan [杨璧菀] (2010). Biaohua de mingcheng youlai ji dili fenbu 标话的名称由来及地理分布.