Bible John

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Bible John
Composite drawing of Bible John, created with the assistance of the sister of his last known victim, Helen Puttock
1969 composite drawing of Bible John
Details
Victims 3
Span of crimes
22 February 1968–31 October 1969
Location(s) Glasgow, Scotland, UK
Date apprehended
Unapprehended

Bible John is an unidentified serial killer who is believed to have murdered three young women between 1968 and 1969 in Glasgow, Scotland.

Each of the victims of Bible John were young brunette women between the ages of 25 and 32, and all had met their murderer at the Barrowland Ballroom: a popular dance hall and music venue in the city. Their killer has never been identified, although the known movements and modus operandi of convicted serial killer and rapist Peter Tobin has led to suggestions he may have been the perpetrator. Nonetheless, the case remains both unsolved, and one of the most extensive manhunts in Scottish criminal history.[1]

The murders committed by Bible John would prove to be the first time in Scotland in which the Crown Office authorised the publication of a composite drawing of an individual suspected of murder for public viewing.[2]

This unidentified serial killer became known as "Bible John" due to his having repeatedly quoted from the Bible and to have condemned any form of adultery while in the company of his final victim.[3]

First murders[edit]

Patricia Docker[edit]

On 23 February 1968, the naked body of a 25-year-old auxiliary nurse named Patricia Docker was found in the doorway of a lock-up garage by a man on his way to work in Battlefield, South Glasgow.[4] The location of her body was only yards from her home in Langside Place. Her body bore evidence of extensive blunt force trauma—particularly to the face and head,[5] and she had been strangled to death with a strong ligature, possibly a belt.[6] Patricia's handbag, watch, and clothes were missing from the crime scene; her clothing was never found,[7] although her handbag was later recovered from the River Cart by an underwater search unit,[8] whereas her watch was recovered from a pool of water close to the scene of her murder.[9]

Extensive door-to-door inquiries in the area produced a woman who recalled hearing a female scream, "Leave me alone!" the previous evening, although little hard evidence was discovered at the crime scene. Nonetheless, an ambulanceman who retrieved the body from the crime scene informed investigators the victim had been a nurse who worked at Mearnskirk Hospital. Consequently, the victim was formally identified by her father the following day.[10]

The night prior to her murder, Patricia—a married mother of one estranged from her husband[11]—had informed her parents of her intentions to spend the evening dancing at the Majestic Ballroom in nearby Hope Street, although for unknown reasons, she had spent the majority of the evening at the Barrowland Ballroom, likely to attend the over-25s night.[12][n 1] Police inquiries would only determine several days later[14] that in the late evening, Patricia had left the Majestic Ballroom to attend the Barrowland,[15] where she had likely encountered her killer,[4] whom they would conclude had likely grabbed her before repeatedly punching her and kicking her in the face as Patricia had twice screamed "Leave me alone!"[16] He had then proceeded to rape Patricia before strangling her to death, before leaving her body—naked save for her shoes—close to the doorway of a lock-up garage at Carmichael Place.[17]

An autopsy conducted by Dr. Gilbert Forbes at the University of Glasgow Medical School would confirm the cause of death of the decedent had been strangulation, and that Docker's body bore no clear evidence of sexual assault.[18][19] Furthermore, the stage of rigor mortis upon her body at the time of discovery indicated she had likely died shortly after she had left the Barrowland Ballroom.[20]

Jemima McDonald[edit]

On Saturday, 16 August 1969, a 32-year-old mother of three named Jemima McDonald also opted to attend the Barrowland Ballroom to spend the evening dancing. Jemima was a regular attendee of the Barrowland, and as per family custom, her sister, Margaret O' Brien, took care of her three children as Jemima attended the Barrowland to spend the evening dancing.[21] As midnight approached, Jemima was seen by several individuals to be in the company of a young and well-spoken man of slim build aged between 25 and 35 and between 6 ft 0 in and 6 ft 2 in (180 and 190 cm) in height.[22] This individual had short, dark brown hair with fair streaks[23] and likely spoke with a distinct Glaswegian accent.[24]

Jemima was seen leaving the Barrowland shortly after midnight on 17 August in the company of this individual, and was last seen walking in the direction of her home at approximately 12:40 a.m.[25] The following day, Jemima's sister, Margaret, became concerned when her sister failed to return home. Later the same day, she began hearing local rumours that young children had been seen leaving a derelict tenement building in MacKeith Street discussing a body in the premises.[4] By the Monday morning, Margaret was so concerned that she herself, fearing the worst, walked into the old building, where she discovered her own sister's extensively battered body lying face down, with her shoes and stockings lying beside her.

An autopsy would conclude Jemima had been raped and extensively beaten—particularly about the face[26]—before she had been strangled to death with one of her own stockings. Her murder had occurred approximately 30 hours before her body had been discovered.[27] Unlike Patricia Docker, the body of Jemima McDonald was fully clothed.[4]

Police inquiries into McDonald's movements on the night of her murder produced several eyewitnesses who were able to accurately describe the man with whom Jemima had been in the company of at the Barrowland. Door-to-door inquiries on MacKieth Street also produced a woman who remembered hearing female screams on the evening of Jemima's murder, although this individual could not recall the precise time. Consequently, police considered this information of little use to their inquiry.

Although the City of Glasgow Police noted striking similarities between the murders of Docker and McDonald, including the fact both women had attended the Barrowland Ballroom on the evening of their murder, that both had been beaten before being strangled to death with a ligature, that the handbag of both women had been taken from the crime scene, and that both women had been menstruating at the time of their deaths, initially, both murders were not considered to be the work of the same perpetrator.[28]

Initial investigation[edit]

Despite extensive public appeals, the investigation into the murder of Patricia Docker in 1968 had quickly become a cold case as police had little information, owing to both a lack of witnesses and hard evidence,[29] and the fact the investigation had been hindered by the fact investigators would only discover the fact Docker had attended the Barrowland Ballroom on the evening of her murder three days after her death.[30][31] Eighteen months later, following the discovery of the body of Jemima McDonald, police became aware of remarkable similarities to the murder of Patricia Docker. Although police did not conclusively link both murders to the same perpetrator, they could not completely discount this theory. In addition, police were certain the perpetrator or perpetrators held a high degree of local geographical knowledge.[32]

The Barrowland Ballroom, seen here in 2011. Each of the women murdered are believed to have encountered Bible John at this dance hall

For the first time in a Scottish murder hunt, a composite drawing of the man with whom McDonald had last been seen alive was given to the press, being widely distributed via both newspapers and upon television throughout Scotland in efforts to identify the suspect.[4] Moreover, both male and female undercover police officers performed discreet surveillance at the Barrowland Ballroom in efforts to identify the suspect.[33][n 2]

Helen Puttock[edit]

On 31 October 1969, a man walking his dog discovered the body of 29-year-old Helen Puttock behind a tenement in the Scotstoun district of Glasgow. The evening prior to her murder, Helen and her sister, Jean Langford, had been to the Barrowland Ballroom, where both had become acquainted with men named John. One of these individuals had said he resided in Castlemilk, while the other individual had been a well-spoken individual who did not disclose where he had lived. After being in the company of these two individuals for in excess of an hour, all four left the Barrowland to head home. The individual named John who had been Jean's dance partner walked to George Square to board a bus, while Jean, Helen, and the individual who had been her dance partner hailed a taxi.[35] The trio set off from Glasgow Cross, making a westward journey heading toward Jean's Knightswood residence, where she alighted the taxi, which then continued to Helen's Scotstoun residence. During conversations between the trio upon this journey, most of the crucial information pertaining to the killer's psychological profile became apparent.[4]

Jean—who had enjoyed a Chapel upbringing[36]—would later inform detectives that her sister's companion had repeatedly quoted from Old Testament stories of Moses during the time she and her sister had conversed with him in the taxi; having previously referred to the Barrowland as an "adulterous den of iniquity", and of his disapproval of married women visiting the premises as the quartet had retrieved their coats at the end of the evening.[37] She had herself alighted the taxi at Kelso Street, before viewing the taxi turn towards Earl Street.[38] [n 3]

The following morning, Helen's body was found beside a drainpipe in the back garden of her Earl Street flat. She had been stripped partially naked and extensively beaten about the face before being raped, then strangled to death with one of her own stockings.[40] The contents of her handbag had been scattered close to her body, although the handbag itself was missing. Grass and weed stains upon the soles of Helen's feet and shoes indicated that Helen had engaged in a ferocious struggle with her killer, and she had evidently at one point attempted to scale a railway embankment.[n 4] Her body also bore a deep bite mark on her leg,[42] and her murderer had placed her sanitary towel beneath her left arm. As had been the case with the two previous victims, Puttock had been menstruating at the time of her murder.[43]

Link to series[edit]

The murder of Helen Puttock had remarkable similarities to the two previous murders, arising suspicions that all three murders had likely been committed by the same individual. All of the victims had been mothers of at least one child who had met their killer at the Barrowland Ballroom; the handbag of each woman was missing; each victim had been strangled to death; and two of these women had been raped prior to her murder.[44] Furthermore, the three women had been escorted home by her killer and murdered within yards of their doorstep; all had been menstruating at the time of their deaths;[45] and had had their sanitary towel or tampons placed upon, beneath, or near their bodies,[42][46] leading to speculation the women had been murdered due to their refusing to engage in intercourse with their murderer due to their experiencing their period.[47]

Suspect[edit]

The suspect was described by Helen's sister Jean as being a tall, slim and well-dressed young man with reddish or fair hair rounded neatly at the back,[48] aged between 25 and 30, and approximately 5 feet 10 inches (1.78 m) in height. This individual had given his name as either "John Templeton", "John Sempleson", or "John Emerson", and he had been a polite and well-spoken individual,[49] having frequently quoted from the Old Testament during the trio's taxi ride home,[50][50] although he had indicated he was neither Catholic nor Protestant.[51] Jean would also state to investigators it had become increasingly clear to her as the trio had ridden in the taxi that this individual had considered her presence in the vehicle to be an inconvenience.[52] At one point during this ride, his individual had explained to the women the reason he refrained from consuming alcohol was due to his being conditioned so by a strict parental attitude, before adding: "I don't drink at Hogmanay; I pray." He had also alluded to his father's belief that dance halls were "dens of iniquity", with any married woman who frequented these premises being "adulterous" by nature.[35][n 5]

Although Jean Langford had informed detectives that the man accompanying Helen had been a "slim, tall" individual who had been dressed in a well-cut brown Reid and Taylor brand suit[54] and who smoked Embassy cigarettes,[55] she also recalled this individual mentioning that he had been familiar with several drinking premises in the Yoker district of Glasgow, and that he had at one stage worked in a laboratory.[56] Furthermore, she would recall distinct facial features of this individual, such as his having overlapping front teeth. (Bouncers at the Barrowland Ballroom dismissed much of this description, claiming that the man in Helen's company had been a short and well-spoken individual with black hair.)[57][n 6]

The last possible sighting of this individual was made by both the driver and conductor upon a night service bus, who noticed young man matching Jean's description alighting a bus at the junction of Dumbarton Road and Gray Street at approximately 2:00 a.m. on 31 October.[58] The man had been in a notably dishevelled state, with mud stains on his jacket and a livid red mark on his cheek just beneath the eye, and both witnesses also recalled him repeatedly tucking a short cuff into his jacket sleeve (a man's cuff link had been found alongside the body of Helen Puttock).[59] This individual was last seen walking towards the public ferry to cross the River Clyde to the south side of the city.[60]

Ongoing investigation[edit]

More than 100 detectives were assigned to work full-time on the case, and 50,000 witness statements would be taken in subsequent door-to-door inquiries.[42][61] Ultimately, more than 5,000 potential suspects would be quizzed in relation to the murders in the first year of the inquiry alone, and Jean Langford would be required to attend over 300 identity parades,[62] although she was adamant none of the individuals required to participate in these identity parades had been the individual with whom she had last seen her sister, and all would be cleared of any involvement.[42] Fearing that the perpetrator would strike again, a team of 16 detectives were instructed to mingle with dancers at all dance halls in Glasgow. In particular, these detectives frequented the Barrowland on Thursday and Saturday nights at the over-25s events, where each victim was believed to have met her murderer.[63]

Within hours of the discovery of the body of Helen Puttock, an additional composite drawing of the suspect was created using the detailed description provided by her sister;[64] this composite drawing would rapidly become one of the most famous facial composites in Scotland.[65][n 7] Detective Superintendent Joe Beattie asked the public to closely study this composite drawing, should it resemble anyone they knew. Due to the suspect's hair being unfashionably short for the era, over 450 hairdressers in and around Glasgow were shown the updated composite drawing of the suspect, and all dentists in and around Glasgow were asked to examine their records to determine whether they held records of a male patient with overlapping incisors and a missing tooth in the upper right jaw. Both lines of inquiry would prove fruitless.[67]

Despite the extensive manhunt, no further developments would arise and the investigation into the three murders gradually became cold, with many individuals assigned to the case opining the belief that the perpetrator had either died, been jailed for an unrelated offense, had been incarcerated at a mental hospital, or that senior police officers had known his actual identity, but had been unable to prove he had committed the murders.[7] Others speculated that he may have simply moved away from the Glasgow district.[68]

Potential suspects[edit]

John Irvine McInnes[edit]

In 1996, the City of Glasgow Police exhumed the body of John Irvine McInnes from a graveyard in Stonehouse, South Lanarkshire. McInnes, who had served in the Scots Guards, had committed suicide in 1980 at the age of 41, having severed the brachial artery in his upper arm. He had been the cousin of one of the original suspects series of murders.[69] A DNA sample was taken from McInnes's body for comparison with semen samples discovered upon the stockings with which victim Helen Puttock had been strangled.[70][n 8]

The results of the testing conducted proved inconclusive, with then-Lord Advocate Lord Mackay stating insufficient evidence[72] existed to link McInnes with the murder of Helen Puttock.[73]

Peter Tobin[edit]

Several criminologists and investigators have opined their belief that convicted serial killer Peter Tobin may have been Bible John.[n 9] Tobin had been convicted in May 2007 conviction of the 2006 murder of a Polish student named Angelikę Kluk;[75] he had relocated from Shettleston, Glasgow[76] to England in 1969 after marrying his first wife (whom he had met at the Barrowland Ballroom the same year as the murders attributed to Bible John had ended).[60] He would subsequently live in Brighton for 20 years from 1969.[77] From the late 1980s, Tobin would regularly relocate between Scotland and the South of England.[78][79]

Tobin had been in his mid-40s when he committed the murder of two teenage girls whose skeletalised bodies would subsequently be unearthed from the garden of his home in Margate, Kent in 2007. He would be convicted of these murders—alongside that of Kluk—between 2007 and 2009. Commencing serial murderous offences of such a calculated nature at such an age is unusual—though not unique—for a male. Furthermore, the fact that Tobin had attacked Kluk with such violence, then hidden her body before eloping to London prior to his subsequent arrest in addition to the abduction, restraining and concealment known to have been exhibited upon the two 1991 murder victims unearthed from the garden of his Margate home did not suggest the work of an amateur in any of these three cases.[80]

Professor David Wilson actively investigated Tobin's case for three years and strongly believes the available evidence supports his theory that Peter Tobin is Bible John.[81] He has stated that the moment he believed Tobin was Bible John occurred during Tobin's trial for the 1991 murder of 18-year-old Dinah McNicol; one of the women whose body had been unearthed from his Margate garden. The circumstantial evidence which has lead Wilson to opine his belief with such certainty includes his having compared the trial testimony taken from an acquaintance of McNicol's who had been in her company on the evening of her abduction with the conversation verbatim Jean Langford had stated to investigators Bible John had spoken on the evening of her sister's murder, which had included the fact that he did not drink at Hogmanay, and that a cousin of his had once scored a hole-in-one in a golf match (a further piece of information Langford had informed Glasgow investigators in 1969).[81] This information—alongside other circumstantial evidence—has lead Professor Wilson to state: "I didn't set out to prove Tobin was Bible John, but I would stake my professional reputation on it."[81]

Striking contemporary visual similarities exist between Peter Tobin when aged in his 20s and the 1969 composite drawing of Bible John. In addition, all three of Tobin's former wives have given accounts of being repeatedly imprisoned, throttled, beaten and raped at his hands, and each has stated he had been driven to extreme physical violence by the female menstrual cycle (a factor long suspected by investigators as being the perpetrator's actual motive behind the murders).[35] In addition, Tobin is known to have been a staunch Roman Catholic with strong religious views,[81] and the alias Bible John had given to Jean Langford and Helen Puttock in 1969 is uncannily coincidental to one of the pseudonyms known to have been regularly used by Tobin: John Semple.[78]

Although DNA testing has been used to rule out previous suspects, detectives believe obtaining a forensic link between Peter Tobin and any of the murder victims linked to Bible John is unlikely due to the deterioration of the physical samples via poor storage.[82]

Operation Anagram

As a result of a police investigation named Operation Anagram; initiated in 2006 to trace the movements of Tobin throughout the decades and to determine his potential culpability in any other crimes, a woman informed investigators she had been raped by Tobin after she had met him at the Barrowland Ballroom in Glasgow in 1968, shortly after the first of the murders known to have been committed by Bible John.[83] Another woman would also inform investigators in 2010 that she had endured a threatening experience with Tobin at the Barrowland Ballroom. She said that Tobin introduced himself as Peter, before pestering her to attend a party in his company at the city's Castlemilk area. When this woman viewed pictures of Tobin dating from the late 1960s and early 1970s, she stated: "[He] was the man who came up to me so many years ago in [the] Barrowlands. I am 100 per cent certain [that] Tobin is Bible John."[84]

No uniform consensus that the three killings were actually the work of the same person exists.[85] It has been claimed that the gap of 18 months between the first two killings is unusual for a serial killer, and that the later two murders may have either been copycat killings, or the sole two committed by the same perpetrator. Criticism has also been levelled against the police for potentially hampering their own investigation by prematurely jumping to the conclusion that all three murders were the work of the same person.[86][n 10]

Aftermath[edit]

No further murder victims killed in Scotland or elsewhere in the United Kingdom have ever been conclusively attributed to Bible John,[88] and the manhunt for this murderer would prove to be one of the most extensive manhunts in Scottish criminal history.[57][89] The murders of the three women remain unsolved, although this remains an open case, with many investigators remaining certain that the perpetrator(s)[90] of these crimes had highly likely been shielded by one or more individuals whom he had known.[91]

In 1983, an anonymous individual contacted the City of Glasgow Police. This individual claimed to have frequented the Barrowland Ballroom with the suspect in the 1960s, and further claimed that he conclusively knew this individual had been the perpetrator of the three murders. This individual also claimed that he and the killer had both been raised in the Cranhill district of Glasgow. Allegedly, this individual had read an article in the Evening Times five years previously and suddenly realised that his friend had been Bible John. The alleged suspect was traced living in the Netherlands, married to a Dutch woman.[92] Nothing more was ever heard from the man or the reputed suspect.

In 2004, police announced their intentions to genetically test a number of men in a further attempt to identify the perpetrator, with all individuals concerned being requested to submit blood samples.[93] This endeavour followed the previous discovery of an 80% genetic match from the semen samples retrieved from the final crime scene attributed to Bible John with a DNA sample retrieved at the site of a minor crime committed two years earlier. The sample was enough of a match to lead officers to believe that the person who committed the offence was related to the killer.[94]

The sole witness ever to have engaged in a lengthy conversation with Bible John, Jean Langford, died in September 2010 at the age of 74.[50] Langford had given police the description used in the second composite drawing created of the suspect, which continues to remain the biggest clue as to his physical appearance. Despite Professor Wilson's assertion that Peter Tobin mat have been Bible John, when Jean Langford discussed her sister's murderer many decades later, she dismissed this theory, stating emphatically that Tobin had not been the man with whom she had shared a taxi on the night of her sister's murder[95]

Media[edit]

Books[edit]

  • Harrison, Paul (2013). Dancing with the Devil: The Bible John Murders. Skipton: Vertical Editions. ISBN 978-1-904-09173-8. .
  • Malloy, Andrew D. (2011). Bible John - Closure. Kent: Pneuma Springs Publishing. ISBN 978-1-907-72816-7. .
  • Stoddart, Charles (1980). Bible John: Search for a Sadist. Edinburgh: Paul Harris Publishing. ISBN 978-0-904-50589-4. .
  • Wilson, David; Harrison, Paul (2010). The Lost British Serial Killer. London: Brown Book Group Limited. ISBN 978-0-751-54232-5. 

Television[edit]

  • The BBC has broadcast a 30-minute documentary focusing upon the murders committed by Bible John. Presented by Hugh Cochrane, this episode was screened on 18 September 1970, and concluded with a direct quote from Jeremiah, Chapter 23, Verse 24, appealing to the perpetrator to hand himself in to the police: 'Can any hide himself in secret places, that I shall not see him? saith the Lord?[96]
  • STV have broadcast a 45-minute documentary focusing upon the murders committed by Bible John. This documentary, titled In Search of Bible John, was initially broadcast in 2011, and explores the possibility Peter Tobin may have been the perpetrator of the three murders.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In the late 1960s, the Barrowland Ballroom hosted an 'over-25s' night each Thursday. Two of the three victims murdered by Bible John were killed on a Thursday.[13]
  2. ^ Police surveillance at the Barrowland Ballroom would be terminated in late October 1969 due to the initiative both failing to produce any suspects, and being blamed by proprietors for a sharp decrease in attendance figures.[34]
  3. ^ Helen Puttock had been married at the time of her murder, although she did not disclose this fact to her murderer.[39]
  4. ^ The suspect's repeatedly referencing quotes from the Old Testament led to Evening Times journalist John Quinn naming the unknown murderer "Bible John".[41]
  5. ^ The suspect's repeatedly referencing quotes from the Old Testament led to Evening Times journalist John Quinn naming the unknown murderer "Bible John".[53]
  6. ^ Police initially considered the description provided by the bouncers to be a more reliable description, as Jean had allegedly been intoxicated at the time she and her sister had left the Barrowland Ballroom on the night of her sister's murder. Furthermore, police had reason to believe that the killer had not been quoting directly from the Bible, but had simply been referring to it. However, Jean strongly attested to her having been sober at the time she had left the Barrowland, and a bouncer at these premises would later state that staff who worked at these premises were not "good with faces".
  7. ^ At the headquarters of the City of Glasgow Police, Jean Langford happened to view an earlier composite drawing created relating to the chief suspect in the murder of Jemima McDonald. Upon viewing this Identikit, Langford exclaimed, "That man looks just like him!"[66]
  8. ^ According to a contemporary psychiatrist's report, the unusual method of suicide chosen by McInnes was akin to psychopathy, leading to suggestions McInnes may have opted to take his own life in search of the "ultimate thrill".[71]
  9. ^ A former detective named Joe Jackson, who had investigated the murders in the 1960s, said he suspected Tobin the moment he was arrested for Kluk's murder in 2006. He said: "When I saw his photograph, I thought, 'This is as near to Bible John as you are going to get. This looks a winner.' He fitted the bill in every way and he had connections with religion."[74]
  10. ^ Professor David Wilson has stated that the 18-month gap is not unusual following a serial killer's first murder;[81][87]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Glasgow Almanac: An A-Z of the City and its People ISBN 978-1-906-47625-0 p. 112
  2. ^ The Murder Almanac ISBN 978-1-897-78404-4 p. 18
  3. ^ The Encyclopedia of Serial Killers ISBN 978-1-856-48328-5 p. 21
  4. ^ a b c d e f Skelton, Douglas (10 February 1989). "20 years on, the mystery of Bible John still haunts a city". Evening Times. Retrieved 22 May 2013. 
  5. ^ The Murder Almanac ISBN 978-1-897-78404-4 p. 17
  6. ^ Encyclopedia of Serial Killers ISBN 978-0-747-23731-0 p. 52
  7. ^ a b MacDougall, Carl (9 October 1987). "Dark world of a dance hall killer". Evening Times. Retrieved 24 May 2013. 
  8. ^ Encyclopedia of Serial Killers ISBN 978-0-747-23731-0 p. 53
  9. ^ The Hunt Goes On for Bible John. Ultimate Crimes. July 1995 issue. p. 34. ISSN 977-135-85100-2
  10. ^ One Was Not Enough ISBN 978-0-553-17605-6 p. 191
  11. ^ "Fifty Years On, Britain's Top Serial Killer Expert Re-examines the Bible John Murders". Herald Scotland. 18 February 2018. Retrieved 16 July 2018. 
  12. ^ "Fifty Years On, Britain's Top Serial Killer Expert Re-examines the Bible John Murders". Herald Scotland. 18 February 2018. Retrieved 10 July 2018. 
  13. ^ One Was Not Enough ISBN 978-0-553-17605-6 p. 190
  14. ^ "Fifty Years On, Britain's Top Serial Killer Expert Re-examines the Bible John Murders". Herald Scotland. 18 February 2018. Retrieved 12 July 2018. 
  15. ^ Jackson, Joe (1 October 2008). "Dancing With Death; Chasing Killers". Daily Record. The Free Library. Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  16. ^ The Hunt Goes On for Bible John. Ultimate Crimes. July 1995 issue. p. 34. ISSN 977-135-85100-2
  17. ^ The Hunt Goes On for Bible John. Ultimate Crimes. July 1995 issue. p. 34. ISSN 977-135-85100-2
  18. ^ One Was Not Enough ISBN 978-0-553-17605-6 p. 192
  19. ^ "Fifty Years On, Britain's Top Serial Killer Expert Re-examines the Bible John Murders". Herald Scotland. 18 February 2018. Retrieved 10 July 2018. 
  20. ^ Encyclopedia of Serial Killers ISBN 978-0-747-23731-0 p. 52
  21. ^ The Hunt Goes On for Bible John. Ultimate Crimes. July 1995 issue. p. 35. ISSN 977-135-85100-2
  22. ^ One Was Not Enough ISBN 978-0-553-17605-6 p. 195
  23. ^ The Encyclopedia of Serial Killers ISBN 978-0-747-23731-0 p. 53
  24. ^ Maule, Henry (27 February 1972). "Bible John, the Dancing Strangler". Reading Eagle. Retrieved 10 July 2018. 
  25. ^ One Was Not Enough ISBN 978-0-553-17605-6 p. 195
  26. ^ The Hunt Goes On for Bible John. Ultimate Crimes. July 1995 issue. p. 34. ISSN 977-135-85100-2
  27. ^ "Bible John Killer may be Unmasked After 30 Years". The Telegraph. 15 October 2000. Retrieved 19 June 2018. 
  28. ^ One Was Not Enough ISBN 978-0-553-17605-6 p. 194
  29. ^ One Was Not Enough ISBN 978-0-553-17605-6 p. 193
  30. ^ Silvester, Norman (28 January 2018). "False Information Doomed Bible John Probe from the Start". The Daily Record. Retrieved 27 June 2018. 
  31. ^ Jackson, Joe (1 October 2008). "Dancing With Death: Chasing Killers". Daily Record. The Free Library. Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  32. ^ "Fifty Years On, Britain's Top Serial Killer Expert Re-examines the Bible John Murders". Herald Scotland. 18 February 2018. Retrieved 16 July 2018. 
  33. ^ One Was Not Enough ISBN 978-0-553-17605-6 p. 196
  34. ^ One Was Not Enough ISBN 978-0-553-17605-6 pp. 196-197
  35. ^ a b c Hamilton, Tom (5 March 2010). "Legendary Glasgow detective tells why he believes serial killer Peter Tobin was notorious murderer Bible John". Daily Record. Retrieved 22 May 2013. 
  36. ^ Encyclopedia of Serial Killers ISBN 978-0-747-23731-0 p. 53
  37. ^ "Former Detective Still Convinced Bible John is Behind Bars". STV News. 23 February 2018. Retrieved 13 June 2018. 
  38. ^ The Hunt Goes On for Bible John. Ultimate Crimes. July 1995 issue. p. 36. ISSN 977-135-85100-2
  39. ^ Encyclopedia of Serial Killers ISBN 978-0-747-23731-0 p. 53
  40. ^ One Was Not Enough ISBN 978-0-553-17605-6 p. 201
  41. ^ Scottish Murder Stories ISBN 978-1-906-47647-2 ch. 15
  42. ^ a b c d Skelton, Douglas (18 February 1989). "Bible John: Final Part of a Harrowing Tale of Terror". Evening Times. Retrieved 24 May 2013. 
  43. ^ The Murder Almanac ISBN 978-1-897-78404-4 p. 17
  44. ^ The Encyclopedia of Serial Killers ISBN 978-1-856-48328-5 p. 21
  45. ^ "Bible John Killer may be Unmasked After 30 Years". The Telegraph. 15 October 2000. Retrieved 19 June 2018. 
  46. ^ Reid, Melanie (8 May 2007). "Was Angelika's murderer the infamous Bible John?". Times Online. Retrieved 26 April 2010. 
  47. ^ "Was Peter Tobin Bible John?". The Scotsman. 6 December 2008. Retrieved 22 June 2018. 
  48. ^ One Was Not Enough ISBN 978-0-553-17605-6 p. 199
  49. ^ "Dark days and dreadful deeds that haunt our city". Evening Times. 7 June 2005. Archived from the original on 8 February 2013. Retrieved 26 May 2013. 
  50. ^ a b c Hunt for Bible John comes to an end after only witness in case dies Daily Record, 26 September 2010
  51. ^ The Hunt Goes On for Bible John. Ultimate Crimes. July 1995 issue. p. 36. ISSN 977-135-85100-2
  52. ^ One Was Not Enough ISBN 978-0-553-17605-6 p. 200
  53. ^ Stirling, David (24 June 2011). "Universally Respected, John was a Gentleman". Evening Times. Retrieved 24 May 2013. 
  54. ^ Encyclopedia of Serial Killers ISBN 978-0-747-23731-0 p. 54
  55. ^ The Hunt Goes On for Bible John. Ultimate Crimes. July 1995 issue. p. 36. ISSN 977-135-85100-2
  56. ^ One Was Not Enough ISBN 978-0-553-17605-6 p. 204
  57. ^ a b "Crime professor quizzes detective at centre of search for Bible John". Daily Record. 28 November 2010. Retrieved 24 May 2013. 
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Cited works and further reading[edit]

  • Harrison, Paul (2013). Dancing with the Devil: The Bible John Murders. Skipton: Vertical Editions. ISBN 978-1-904-09173-8. 
  • Lane, Brian; Gregg, Wilfred (1995) [1992]. The Encyclopedia Of Serial Killers. New York City: Berkley Books. pp. 52–54. ISBN 0-425-15213-8. 
  • Lloyd, Georgina (1986). One Was Not Enough: True Stories of Multiple Murderers. London: Bantam Books. pp. 189–208. ISBN 978-0-553-17605-6. 
  • Malloy, Andrew D. (2011). Bible John - Closure. Kent: Pneuma Springs Publishing. ISBN 978-1-907-72816-7. 
  • Newton, Michael (2004). The Encyclopedia of Unsolved Crimes. New York: Facts on File. ISBN 978-0-816-07818-9. 
  • Stoddart, Charles (1980). Bible John: Search for a Sadist. Edinburgh: Paul Harris Publishing. ISBN 978-0-904-50589-4. 
  • Whittington-Egan, Molly (1998). Scottish Murder Stories. Glasgow: Neil Wilson Publishing Ltd. ISBN 978-1-906-47647-2. 
  • Whittington-Egan, Richard; Whittington-Egan, Molly (1992). The Murder Almanac. Glasgow: Neil Wilson Publishing Ltd. p. 17. ISBN 978-1-897-78404-4. 

External links[edit]