Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia

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Biblia Hebraica series
Torahneviimuketuvim-logo.svg

BHS-cover.jpg
BHK Biblia Hebraica Kittel (1. - 3.)
BHS Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (4.)
BHQ Biblia Hebraica Quinta (5.)
Edited by Karl Elliger, Wilhelm Rudolph et al.
Language Biblical Hebrew, Biblical Aramaic
(with prolegomena in German, English, French, Spanish, Latin)
Publisher Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, Stuttgart
Published 1968–1976; 1997;
August 26, 1998
Media type see bhs editions
OCLC 148815162
Preceded by Biblia Hebraica Kittel
Followed by Biblia Hebraica Quinta
Website https://www.academic-bible.com/en/home/scholarly-editions/hebrew-bible/bhs/
A sample page from Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (Genesis 1,1-16a).

The Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia, or bhs, is an edition of the Masoretic Text of the Hebrew Bible as preserved in the Leningrad Codex, and supplemented by masoretic and text-critical notes. It is published by the Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft (German Bible Society) in Stuttgart.

Publishing history[edit]

bhs is a revision of the third edition of the Biblia Hebraica, edited by Paul Kahle, the first printed Bible based on the Leningrad Codex. The footnotes are completely revised. It originally appeared in installments, from 1968 to 1976, with the first one-volume edition in 1977; it has been reprinted many times since.

The fifth reprint of the bhs was revised and redistributed in 1997. Work is currently under way at the Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft to produce a completely reworked and expanded edition in 20 volumes, known as the Biblia Hebraica Quinta or Fifth Hebrew Bible, which also includes references to and comparisons with recently released material from Qumran texts. Initial volumes of the Bible Hebraica Quinta have been available for sale since 2004. Completion of the project is intended by 2020.

Contents[edit]

The text of bhs is an "exact" (see below) copy of the Masoretic Text as recorded in the Leningrad Codex. However, Chronicles has been moved to the end as it appears in common Hebrew bibles, even though it precedes Psalms in the codex.

The bhs is composed of the three traditional divisions of the Hebrew Scriptures: the Torah (תורה "instruction"), Neviim (נבאים "prophets"), and the Ketuvim (כתבים "writings").

In the margins are Masoretic notes. These are based on the codex, but have been heavily edited to make them more consistent and easier to understand. Even so, whole books have been written to explain these notes themselves. Some of the notes are marked sub loco ("in this place"), meaning that there appears to be some problem, often that they contradict the text. The editors never published any explanation of what the problems were, or how they might be resolved.

The sub loco notes do not necessarily explain interesting text variants; they are, in the vast majority, only notes on inaccurate word countings/frequencies. See Mynatt, Daniel S: The Sub Loco Notes in the Torah of Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia: Bibal Press, 1994

Footnotes record possible corrections to the Hebrew text. Many are based on the Samaritan Pentateuch, the Dead Sea Scrolls and on early Bible translations ("versions") such as the Septuagint, Vulgate and Peshitta. Others are conjectural emendations.

BHS Fascicles and Editors[edit]

The work has been published in 15 fascicles from 1968 to 1976 according to this release schedule taken from the Latin prolegomena in the book.

Fascicle Editor Publication
01 Librum Geneseos Otto Eißfeldt 1969 (Fascicle 1)
02f Libros Exodi et Levitici Gottfried Quell 1973 (Fascicle 2)
04 Librum Numerorum Wilhelm Rudolph 1972 (Fascicle 3a)
05 Librum Deuteronomii J. Hempel 1972 (Fascicle 3b)
06f Libros Josuae et Judicum Rudolf Meyer 1972 (Fascicle 4)
08 Librum Samuelis Pieter Arie Hendrik de Boer 1976 (Fascicle 5)
09 Librum Regum Alfred Jepsen 1974 (Fascicle 6)
10 Librum Jesaiae David Winton Thomas 1968 (Fascicle 7)
11 Librum Jeremiae Wilhelm Rudolph 1970 (Fascicle 8)
12 Librum Ezechielis Karl Elliger 1971 (Fascicle 9)
13 Librum XII Prophetarum Karl Elliger 1970 (Fascicle 10)
14 Librum Psalmorum H. Bardtke 1969 (Fascicle 11)
15 Librum Iob Gillis Gerlemann 1974 (Fascicle 12a)
16 Librum Proverbiorum F. Fichtner 1974 (Fascicle 12b)
17 Librum Ruth Theodore Henry Robinson 1975 (Fascicle 13a)
18f Libros Cantici Canticorum et Ecclesiastes F. Horst 1975 (Fascicle 13b)
20 Librum Threnorum Theodore Henry Robinson 1975 (Fascicle 13c)
21 Librum Esther F. Maass 1975 (Fascicle 13d)
22 Librum Danielis Walter Baumgartner 1976 (Fascicle 14a)
23 Libros Esrae et Nehemiae Wilhelm Rudolph 1976 (Fascicle 14b)
24 Libros Chronicorum Wilhelm Rudolph 1975 (Fascicle 15)

Book order[edit]

The order of the biblical books generally follows the codex, even for the Ketuvim, where that order differs from most common printed Hebrew bibles. Thus the Book of Job comes after Psalms and before Proverbs, and the Megillot are in the order Ruth, Song of Songs, Ecclesiastes, Lamentations and Esther. The only difference is with Chronicles.

The Torah:

1. Genesis [בראשית / Bere’shit] (English rendering: "In beginning")
2. Exodus [שמות / Shemot] (English rendering: "Names")
3. Leviticus [ויקרא / Vayikera’] (English rendering: "And he called")
4. Numbers [במדבר / Bamidebar] (English rendering: "In the wilderness")
5. Deuteronomy [דברים / Devarim] (English rendering: "The words")

The Nevi'im:

6. Joshua [יהושע / Yehoshua‛]
7. Judges [שופטים / Shophetim]
8. Samuel (I & II) [שמואל / Shemuel]
9. Kings (I & II) [מלכים / Melakhim]
10. Isaiah [ישעיה / Yesha‛yahu]
11. Jeremiah [ירמיה / Yiremiyahu]
12. Ezekiel [יחזקאל / Yekhezq’el]
13. The Twelve Prophets [תרי עשר]
a. Hosea [הושע / Hoshea‛]
b. Joel [יואל / Yo’el]
c. Amos [עמוס / Amos]
d. Obadiah [עובדיה / ‛Ovadyah]
e. Jonah [יונה / Yonah]
f. Micah [מיכה / Mikhah]
g. Nahum [נחום / Nakhum]
h. Habakkuk [חבקוק /Havaquq]
i. Zephaniah [צפניה / Tsephanyah]
j. Haggai [חגי / Khagai]
k. Zechariah [זכריה / Zekharyah]
l. Malachi [מלאכי / Mal’akhi]

The Ketuvim

The Sifrei Emet, the poetic books:
14. Psalms [תהלים / Tehilim]
15. Job [איוב / ’Iyov]
16. Proverbs [משלי / Mishlei]
The Five Megillot or "Five Scrolls":
17. Ruth [רות / Ruth]
18. Song of Songs [שיר השירים / Shir Hashirim]
19. Ecclesiastes [קהלת / Qoheleth]
20. Lamentations [איכה / Eikhah]
21. Esther [אסתר / Esther]
The rest of the "Writings":
22. Daniel [דניאל / Dani’el]
23. Ezra-Nehemiah [עזרא ונחמיה / ‛Ezra’ veNekhemiah]
24. Chronicles (I & II) [דברי הימים / Diverei Hayamim]

Criticism[edit]

The bible scholar Emanuel Tov has criticised BHS somewhat for having errors.[1]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ He states: "The edition of Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (BHS) originally appeared in fascicles which were corrected in the final printing, which carried the date 1967-1977. It was corrected again in the 1984 printing, yet even this printing contains mistakes". Textual criticism of the Hebrew Bible, Emanuel Tov, page 3. at Google books

Literature[edit]

bhs editions

About the bhs

  • Kelley, Page H, Mynatt, Daniel S and Crawford, Timothy G: The Masorah of Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia: Eerdmans, 1998
  • Mynatt, Daniel S: The Sub Loco Notes in the Torah of Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia: Bibal Press, 1994
  • Wonneberger, R: Understanding bhs: Biblical Institute Press, 1984
  • Würthwein, Ernst: The Text of the Old Testament, an Introduction to the Biblia Hebraica (2nd edition): SCM Press, 1995
  • Introduction to the Massoretico-Critical Edition of the Hebrew Bible by C.D. Ginsburg