Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia
|Edited by||Karl Elliger, Wilhelm Rudolph et al.|
|Language||Biblical Hebrew, Biblical Aramaic
(with prolegomena in German, English, French, Spanish, Latin)
|Publisher||Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, Stuttgart|
August 26, 1998
|Media type||see bhs editions|
|Preceded by||Biblia Hebraica Kittel|
|Followed by||Biblia Hebraica Quinta|
The Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia, or bhs, is an edition of the Masoretic Text of the Hebrew Bible as preserved in the Leningrad Codex, and supplemented by masoretic and text-critical notes. It is published by the Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft (German Bible Society) in Stuttgart.
bhs is a revision of the third edition of the Biblia Hebraica, edited by Paul Kahle, the first printed Bible based on the Leningrad Codex. The footnotes are completely revised. It originally appeared in installments, from 1968 to 1976, with the first one-volume edition in 1977; it has been reprinted many times since.
The fifth reprint of the bhs was revised and redistributed in 1997. Work is currently under way at the Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft to produce a completely reworked and expanded edition in 20 volumes, known as the Biblia Hebraica Quinta or Fifth Hebrew Bible, which also includes references to and comparisons with recently released material from Qumran texts. Initial volumes of the Bible Hebraica Quinta have been available for sale since 2004. Completion of the project is intended by 2020.
The text of bhs is an "exact" (see below) copy of the Masoretic Text as recorded in the Leningrad Codex. However, Chronicles has been moved to the end as it appears in common Hebrew bibles, even though it precedes Psalms in the codex.
In the margins are Masoretic notes. These are based on the codex, but have been heavily edited to make them more consistent and easier to understand. Even so, whole books have been written to explain these notes themselves. Some of the notes are marked sub loco ("in this place"), meaning that there appears to be some problem, often that they contradict the text. The editors never published any explanation of what the problems were, or how they might be resolved.
The sub loco notes do not necessarily explain interesting text variants; they are, in the vast majority, only notes on inaccurate word countings/frequencies. See Mynatt, Daniel S: The Sub Loco Notes in the Torah of Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia: Bibal Press, 1994
Footnotes record possible corrections to the Hebrew text. Many are based on the Samaritan Pentateuch, the Dead Sea Scrolls and on early Bible translations ("versions") such as the Septuagint, Vulgate and Peshitta. Others are conjectural emendations.
BHS Fascicles and Editors
The work has been published in 15 fascicles from 1968 to 1976 according to this release schedule taken from the Latin prolegomena in the book.
The order of the biblical books generally follows the codex, even for the Ketuvim, where that order differs from most common printed Hebrew bibles. Thus the Book of Job comes after Psalms and before Proverbs, and the Megillot are in the order Ruth, Song of Songs, Ecclesiastes, Lamentations and Esther. The only difference is with Chronicles.
- 1. Genesis [בראשית / Bere’shit] (English rendering: "In beginning")
- 2. Exodus [שמות / Shemot] (English rendering: "Names")
- 3. Leviticus [ויקרא / Vayikera’] (English rendering: "And he called")
- 4. Numbers [במדבר / Bamidebar] (English rendering: "In the wilderness")
- 5. Deuteronomy [דברים / Devarim] (English rendering: "The words")
- 6. Joshua [יהושע / Yehoshua‛]
- 7. Judges [שופטים / Shophetim]
- 8. Samuel (I & II) [שמואל / Shemuel]
- 9. Kings (I & II) [מלכים / Melakhim]
- 10. Isaiah [ישעיה / Yesha‛yahu]
- 11. Jeremiah [ירמיה / Yiremiyahu]
- 12. Ezekiel [יחזקאל / Yekhezq’el]
- 13. The Twelve Prophets [תרי עשר]
- a. Hosea [הושע / Hoshea‛]
- b. Joel [יואל / Yo’el]
- c. Amos [עמוס / Amos]
- d. Obadiah [עובדיה / ‛Ovadyah]
- e. Jonah [יונה / Yonah]
- f. Micah [מיכה / Mikhah]
- g. Nahum [נחום / Nakhum]
- h. Habakkuk [חבקוק /Havaquq]
- i. Zephaniah [צפניה / Tsephanyah]
- j. Haggai [חגי / Khagai]
- k. Zechariah [זכריה / Zekharyah]
- l. Malachi [מלאכי / Mal’akhi]
- The Sifrei Emet, the poetic books:
- The Five Megillot or "Five Scrolls":
- The rest of the "Writings":
- List of Hebrew Bible manuscripts
- Hebrew University Bible Project
- Hebrew Bible: A Critical Edition
- Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia on the Internet
- He states: "The edition of Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (BHS) originally appeared in fascicles which were corrected in the final printing, which carried the date 1967-1977. It was corrected again in the 1984 printing, yet even this printing contains mistakes". Textual criticism of the Hebrew Bible, Emanuel Tov, page 3. at Google books
- Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia, Standard Edition, ISBN 978-3-438-05218-6
- Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia, Pocket Book Edition, ISBN 978-3-438-05219-3
- Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia, Study Edition (paperback), ISBN 978-3-438-05222-3
- Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia, Wide-Margin Edition, ISBN 978-3-438-05224-7
- Biblia Sacra Utriusque Testamenti Editio Hebraica et Graeca (with Novum Testamentum Graece), ISBN 978-3-438-05250-6
About the bhs
- Kelley, Page H, Mynatt, Daniel S and Crawford, Timothy G: The Masorah of Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia: Eerdmans, 1998
- Mynatt, Daniel S: The Sub Loco Notes in the Torah of Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia: Bibal Press, 1994
- Wonneberger, R: Understanding bhs: Biblical Institute Press, 1984
- Würthwein, Ernst: The Text of the Old Testament, an Introduction to the Biblia Hebraica (2nd edition): SCM Press, 1995
- Introduction to the Massoretico-Critical Edition of the Hebrew Bible by C.D. Ginsburg