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Virus classification
Group: Group I (dsDNA)
Family: Bicaudaviridae

Bicaudaviridae is a family of hyperthermophilic archaeal viruses. Members of the genus Acidianus serve as natural hosts. There is currently only one genus (Bicaudavirus) and one species in this family: the type species Acidianus two-tailed virus.[1][2][3] However, Sulfolobus tengchongensis spindle-shaped viruses 1 and 2 (STSV1 and STSV2) are regarded to belong to this family also.[4]


Group: dsDNA



Viruses in Bicaudaviridae are enveloped, with lemon-shaped geometries. Genomes are circular, around 62kb in length. The genome has 72 open reading frames.[2]

Genus Structure Symmetry Capsid Genomic arrangement Genomic segmentation
Bicaudavirus Lemon-shaped Circular Monopartite

Life cycle[edit]

Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral proteins to host receptors, which mediates endocytosis. Dna templated transcription is the method of transcription. Genus acidianus serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are passive diffusion.[2]

Genus Host details Tissue tropism Entry details Release details Replication site Assembly site Transmission
Bicaudavirus Archea: acidianus None Injection Budding Cytoplasm Cytoplasm Passive diffusion


This family was first described by the team led by D. Prangishvili in 2005.[5][6]

The name is derived from the Latin word 'bi' and 'cauda' meaning 'two-tail'.


  1. ^ Prangishvili, D; Krupovic, M; ICTV Report Consortium (7 June 2018). "ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Bicaudaviridae". The Journal of General Virology. 99 (7): 864–865. doi:10.1099/jgv.0.001106. PMID 29877786.
  2. ^ a b c "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  3. ^ a b ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  4. ^ Krupovic, M; Quemin, ER; Bamford, DH; Forterre, P; Prangishvili, D (2014). "Unification of the globally distributed spindle-shaped viruses of the Archaea". Journal of Virology. 88 (4): 2354–8. doi:10.1128/JVI.02941-13. PMC 3911535. PMID 24335300.
  5. ^ Häring M, Vestergaard G, Rachel R, Chen L, Garrett RA and Prangishvili D (2005) Independent virus development outside a host. Nature 436, 1101–1102
  6. ^ Prangishvili, D., Vestergaard G, Häring M, Aramayo R, Basta T, Rachel R and Garrett RA (2006) Structural and genomic properties of the hyperthermophilic archaeal virus ATV with an extracellular stage of the reproductive cycle. J. Mol. Biol. 359, 1203–1216

External links[edit]