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|Owner||Bicester Heritage Ltd|
|Operator||Windrushers Gliding Club|
|Elevation AMSL||259 ft / 79 m|
Bicester Aerodrome, formerly RAF Bicester, is an airfield on the outskirts of the English town of Bicester in Oxfordshire. Dating back to 1916, this military airfield is notable as the location of the first flight of the prototype Handley Page Halifax in 1939 and was later the home of No. 71 Maintenance Unit, RAF (Royal Air Force); the RAF finally left in 2004.
The airfield consists of 400 acres (160 ha) of well-drained short-mown grass, with three nominal runways (not marked) of 06/24, 13/31, 18/36, each 1,000 m (3,281 ft) long. The airfield surface is bumpy in places, due to collapsing field drains, requiring care on the part of pilots operating aircraft in those areas.
In 1911, flying first took place on the site, when Lt H.R.P Reynolds landed a Bristol Boxkite biplane on the field. Organised flying began in 1916 when a Training Depot was established. In January 1917, the Royal Flying Corps (RFC) moved into the site, then 180 acres (0.73 km2), with the arrival of 118 night bomber squadron. Canvas-covered Bessonneau hangars were used until more substantial aircraft sheds were built.
In November 1918, No. 44 Training Station Depot arrived, followed in 1919 by 5 Squadron, flying Bristol Fighters returning from France, having flown in the First World War. All the squadrons disbanded by 1920, and the airfield was closed in 1920 after being used briefly as a clearing centre for repatriated soldiers.
In 1925, work began on redeveloping the site as a bomber station, and flying began again in January 1928. Various large RAF bombers operated from the field, including the Vickers Virginia. Other aircraft included Hawker Horsleys and, in 1935, Hawker Harts arrived. In November 1932, the only RAF squadron of Boulton Paul Sidestrands arrived, replaced by Overstrands in 1936.
Development of the station continued throughout this period, with many new buildings being erected. This included the construction of a connection from the nearby 'Varsity Line' railway to supply the airfield.
World War II
In 1937/1938, two squadrons of the new Bristol Blenheim bomber arrived, followed in 1939 by two more squadrons with Spitfires and Avro Anson support aircraft, forming the No. 1 Camouflage Unit RAF. The aircraft were used for training, with no operational sorties being flown from the field.
Later in 1939, having been built in Cricklewood just before war broke out, the first prototype Handley Page Halifax was taken by road to RAF Bicester and assembled in secret there before the company's chief test pilot Major Jim Cordes and flight test observer E A 'Ginger' Wright made its first flight on 25 October 1939. The type went on to become the first four-engined bomber to drop bombs on Germany in the Second World War.
In July 1940, the second RAF Bomber Command Training Group (No. 7 Group RAF) was formed, with its headquarters at RAF Bicester. This was required due to a demand in operational training, supplying squadrons of No. 2 Group.
Throughout the war, RAF Bicester was used as a training centre, and in April 1940 became home to No. 13 Operational Training Unit RAF, under the control of RAF Bomber Command. In June 1943, the unit transferred to Fighter Command, flying Spitfires and De Havilland Mosquitos. Although no offensive missions were flown, flights were not without risk. In April 1940, 13 OTU experienced the first losses of the newly formed Bomber Command operational training units. On 6 December 1941, a Blenheim stalled on take-off, killing all three crew members. Just four days later, a second Blenheim crashed in an identical accident, again with no survivors.
- No. 2 Group Pool RAF
- No. 2 Squadron RAF
- No. 3 Maintenance Unit RAF
- No. 5 Squadron RAF
- No. 7 Group Communication Flight RAF
- No. 12 Squadron RAF
- No. 33 Squadron RAF
- No. 34 Air Stores Park RAF
- No. 40 (Maintenance) Group RAF
- No. 44 Training Station RAF
- No. 48 Squadron RAF
- No. 90 Squadron RAF
- No. 92 Group Communication Flight RAF
- No. 100 Squadron RAF
- No. 101 Squadron RAF
- No. 104 Squadron RAF
- No. 108 Squadron RAF
- No. 142 Squadron RAF
- No. 144 Squadron RAF
- No. 217 Squadron RAF
- No. 246 Maintenance Unit RAF
- No. 282 Maintenance Unit RAF
- No. 307 Ferry Training Unit RAF
- No. 420 Repair & Salvage Unit RAF
- Beam Approach Calibration Flight RAF became No. 1551 Beam Approach Calibration Flight RAF became Signals Development Unit RAF
- Ferry Training Flight, Bicester RAF became No. 1442 (Ferry Training) Flight RAF
- Oxford University Air Squadron
- Transport Command Parachute Servicing Unit RAF
At the end of 1944, Bicester became a non-flying unit, used for maintenance, and later as a Motor Transport depot. In 1953, No. 71 Maintenance Unit arrived, that salvaged, repaired, and then transported damaged aircraft.
In 1956, Windrushers Gliding Club arrived, having moved from Little Rissington, and gliding began at the field. In 1963, the Royal Air Force Gliding & Soaring Association (RAFGSA) began using the site, eventually merging with Windrushers Gliding Club. Gliding has taken place at the airfield since 1956. In 1966, No. 1 LAA Squadron RAF Regiment arrived from RAAF Butterworth, Malaysia, along with No. 26 LAA Squadron RAF Regiment − from RAF Changi, Singapore.
In 1976, the RAF ceased to use the airfield as a military base, but still maintained staff there to run the gliding training operation as adventure training for servicemen. In the mid-1980s, the USAF briefly used the Technical and Domestic Area for storage. In 1982 the USAF created a wartime contingency hospital with 500 beds and all ancillary medical services using restored RAF World War II dormitories. There were between 12 and 20 USAF personnel stationed on site until the beginning of Operation Desert Storm, when they were augmented by 1200 USAF medical personnel from USAF medical Center, Wilford Hall, Lackland Air Force Base, Texas. The facility was used to treat minor physical injuries and possible PTSD patients. The unit was deactivated in 1992. Between 1979 and 1992, the RAFGSA Centre allowed US servicemen from RAF Upper Heyford to become members. US servicemen, from the US Armed Forces family housing next to the airfield in Bicester, learnt to fly at Bicester as a result.
In 1990, during Operation Desert Shield, the USAF deployed medical personnel to the site, and equipped a number of buildings in both the Technical and Domestic area as a hospital. This was done in anticipation of a large numbers of casualties that never materialized, during the 1991 First Persian Gulf War. In 1997 the Ministry of Defence placed the Married Quarter sites at RAF Bicester up for disposal by formal tender.
The airfield is a substantially unmodified pre-war RAF station with many listed buildings. The brick-built 1934 "Fort" type 1959/34 control tower survives, as do the two C-type and two A-type aircraft hangars.
During the late 1990s The Welbeck Estate Group/Hodge Group acquired 300 post war and modern Officers and NCO married quarters on the Stratton Fields and The Rowans housing estate.
In the late 1990s, plans were proposed to develop the airfield for housing and industry, but they were abandoned due to strong local opposition and the historic nature of the site. In 2002, Cherwell District Council designated the aerodrome as a Conservation Area.
In June 2004, the RAF Gliding and Soaring Association moved to RAF Halton. The airfield became home to both Windrushers Gliding Club (reformed in July 2004) who leased the site from the MOD until 2013, with Oxford University Gliding Club and, for a few years, Cranfield University Gliding Club, as sub-sections within the Windrushers club. The club continued to operate from Bicester along with the Oxford University club, but after the existing lease expired the Club went into hibernation on 30th June 2020, it is now hoping to find another site to fly from. At the same time, the Oxford University group moved to Weston on the Green, rejoining Oxford Gliding Club after over 40 years at Bicester.
In 2012, further plans for housing were also refused permission by Cherwell District Council. In March 2013 Bicester Airfield was acquired from the MOD by Bicester Heritage Limited with the aim of developing the UK's first business park dedicated to historic motoring and aviation. Bicester Heritage aim to bring together the UK's cottage industry of specialists in order to promote not just the preservation but, specifically, the use of vintage aeroplanes and motor cars.
One of the companies which located in the park was Chiltern Classic Flight, a company which provides training programs for flying and maintaining classic aircraft, including formation flying. They prepare aircraft for and participate in air shows and fly-pasts, and contribute demonstrations to the annual Youth Aviation Day.
Accidents and incidents
- On 6 December 1941 Bristol Blenheim IV Z7962 of No. 110 Squadron RAF was taking off from the airfield but crashed just outside the perimeter, killing all four people aboard. Incorrect trim tab settings were thought to have caused the accident.
- "Bicester". WW2 Airfields of Oxfordshire. Retrieved 11 June 2012.
- "Information > Biographies > BRIGADIER GENERAL PETER C. BELLISARIO". United States Air Force. Archived from the original on 23 July 2009. Retrieved 16 July 2009.
- "Air base buyer to be announced soon". Herald Series. 27. December 2012
- McGregor, Sam. "Racing chief reveals scheme for RAF base". Oxford Mail, 15 October 2012.
- "Plane is finally back in one glorious piece (From Oxford Mail)". www.oxfordmail.co.uk. Retrieved 23 September 2014.
- "Chiltern Classic Flight gains CAA M3 approval for the Annex 11". UK General Aviation, 27 Sep 2012.
- "Chiltern Classic Flight launches Formation Flight training". UK General Aviation, 29 May 2013
- Jennings, Tom. "Fly to the Past display all set to be a classic" Oxford Mail, 29 June 2012
- Pendry, Scott. "The Youth in Aviation Flying Day – going from strength to strength"[permanent dead link]. The Air League.
- "06.12.1941 No. 110 Squadron Blenheim IV Z7962 Sgt. Victor H. Langrish". Archive Report: Allied Forces. Aircrew Remembered. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
- Barnes, CH (1976). Handley Page Aircraft since 1907. London: Putnam.[page needed]
- The Wartime Memories Project - RAF Bicester
- Windrushers Gliding Club - Bicester Airfield history
- WW2 Airfields of Oxfordshire - Bicester
- RAF Museum - Vickers Virginia
- Controltowers.co.uk - Bicester
- VR York (Halifax bomber information
- Group Captain Hughie Edwards VC 105 Squadron
- Chiltern Classic Flight - Bicester Airfield History
- Bicester Heritage Limited