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Bicycle kick

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For the Bengali film, see Bicycle Kick (film).
Photograph of a man striking a ball in mid-air
Forward Ruben Mendoza, from the United States, executes a bicycle kick

A bicycle kick, also known as an overhead kick or scissors kick, is a physical move in association football. It is achieved by throwing the body backward up into the air, making a shearing movement with the lower limbs to get one leg in front of the other in order to strike an airborne ball rearwards above head level, without resting on the ground. In most languages, the manoeuvre is named after either the cycling motion or the scissor motion that it resembles. Its complexity and uncommon performance in competitive football matches makes it one of association football's most celebrated skills.[A]

Bicycle kicks can be used defensively to clear away the ball from the goalmouth or offensively to strike at the goal in an attempt to score. The bicycle kick is an advanced football skill that is dangerous for inexperienced players. Its successful performance has largely been limited to the most experienced and athletic players in football history.[3]

The bicycle kick was invented in South America, possibly as early as the late 19th century, during a period of development in football history. Innovations like the bicycle kick were the result of local adaptations to the football style introduced by British immigrants. Football lore has many legends on the possible origins of the bicycle kick. Newspaper archives from the beginning of the 20th century evidence a complex, multinational history for the bicycle kick's invention, naming, and diffusion.

As an iconic skill, bicycle kicks are an important part of association football culture. Executing a bicycle kick in a competitive football match, particularly in scoring a goal, usually garners wide attention in the sports media. The bicycle kick has been featured in works of art, such as sculptures, films, advertisements, and literature. The manoeuvre is also used in other similar ball sports, particularly in the variants of association football (like futsal and beach soccer). The controversy over the move's invention and name in Brazil, Chile, and Peru (and its status as an element of the notable Chile–Peru football rivalry) has added to the kick's acclaim in popular culture.

Name[edit]

The bicycle kick is known in English by three names: bicycle kick, overhead kick, and scissors kick. The term "bicycle kick" describes the action of the legs while the body is in mid-air, resembling the pedalling of a bicycle.[4] The manoeuvre is also called an "overhead kick", which refers to the ball being kicked above the head[5] or a "scissors kick", reflecting the movement of two scissor blades coming together.[6] Some authors differentiate the "scissors kick" as similar to a bicycle kick, but done sideways or at an angle;[7] other authors consider them to be the same move.[8]

Photograph of a football match
Real Madrid defender Sergio Ramos uses a bicycle kick against rivals Athletic Bilbao in a La Liga match.

In languages other than English, its name also reflects the action it resembles. Sports journalist Alejandro Cisternas, from Chilean newspaper El Mercurio, compiled a list of these names.[9] In most cases, they either refer to the kick's scissor-like motion, such as the French ciseaux retourné (returned scissor) and the Greek psalidaki, or to its bicycle-like action, such as the Portuguese pontapé de bicicleta.[9] In other languages, the nature of the action is described: German Fallrückzieher (falling backward kick), Polish przewrotka (overturn kick), Dutch omhaal (turnaround drag), and Italian rovesciata (reversed kick).[9]

Exceptions to these naming patterns are found in languages that designate the move by making reference to a location, such as the Norwegian brassespark (Brazilian kick).[9][10] This exception is most significant in Spanish, where there exists a fierce controversy between Chile and Peru—as part of their historic sports rivalry—over the naming of the bicycle kick; Chileans know it as the chilena, while Peruvians call it the chalaca.[11][B] Regardless, the move is also known in Spanish by the less tendentious names of tijera and tijereta—both a reference to the manoeuvre's scissor-like motion.[14]

Execution[edit]

Three photographs of a bicycle kick execution
Peru winger Juan Carlos Oblitas scores with a bicycle kick against Chile at Estadio Alejandro Villanueva.

A successful performance of the bicycle kick in association football typically requires great skill and athleticism.[3] Not only does the performer need to maintain good form when executing the move, but must simultaneously exhibit exceptional accuracy and precision when striking the ball.[15] Sports historian Richard Witzig recommends that footballers attempt executing a bicycle kick with a focused and determined state of mind.[2] Due to the action's complexity, a successfully executed bicycle kick is notable and, according to sports journalist Elliott Turner, prone to awe audiences.[1] Brazilian forward Pelé, one of the sport's renowned players, also considers the manoeuvre difficult and recalled having scored from it only a few times out of his 1,283 career goals.[16]

Bicycle kicks are generally done in two situations, one defensive and the other offensive. A defensive bicycle kick is done when a player facing his side's goal uses the action to clear the ball in the direction opposite his side's goalmouth. Sports historian Richard Witzig considers defensive bicycle kicks a desperate move requiring less aim than its offensive variety.[2] An offensive bicycle kick is used when a player has his back to the opposing goal and is near the goalmouth. According to Witzig, the offensive bicycle kick requires concentration and a good understanding of the ball's location.[2] Bicycle kicks can also be done in the midfield, but this is not recommended because safer and more accurate passes can be done in this zone.[2]

Diagram of the different stages in a bicycle kick
Ethogram of the different phases of the execution of a bicycle kick

To perform a bicycle kick, the ball must be airborne so that the player can hit it while doing a backflip; the ball can either come in the air towards the player, such as from a cross, or the player can flick the ball up into the air.[17] The non-kicking leg should rise first to help propel the body up while the kicking leg makes the jump.[18] While making the leap, the body's back should move rearwards until it is parallel to the ground.[19] As the body reaches peak height, the kicking leg should snap toward the ball as the non-kicking leg is simultaneously brought down to increase the kick's power.[20] Vision should stay focused on the ball until the foot strikes it.[21] The arms should be used for balance and to diminish the impact from the fall.[6]

Crosses that precede an offensive bicycle kick are of dubious accuracy—German striker Klaus Fischer reportedly stated that most crosses prior to a bicycle kick are bad.[22] Moreover, performing a bicycle kick is dangerous, even when done correctly, as it may result in the injury of a startled participant in the field.[23] For this reason, Peruvian defender César González recommends that the player executing the bicycle kick have enough space to perform it.[24] For the player using the manoeuvre, the greatest danger happens during the drop; a bad fall can result in injuries to the head, back, or wrist.[25] Witzig recommends players attempting the move to land on their upper back, using their arms as support, and simultaneously rolling over to a side in order to diminish impact from the drop.[2] A poor bicycle kick can also expose a player to ridicule.[26]

History[edit]

Background[edit]

Drawing of a football match
Football in Britain was practiced in institutions, as depicted in this drawing of a match at Harrow School in 1887

The bicycle kick was created in South America during an era of innovation in association football tactics and skills.[27][28] Football was introduced to South America by British immigrants who, during the 1800s, were attracted by the region's economic prospects, including the export of coffee from Brazil, hide and meat from Argentina, and guano from Peru.[29] The sport was adopted by South Americans through trans-cultural diffusion, because the British immigrant communities founded institutions, such as schools and sporting clubs, where activities included the practice of association football.[29]

Football had previously spread to mainland Europe, principally Belgium, the Netherlands and Scandinavia, but British sports journalist Jonathan Wilson wrote that no innovations had been made to the game.[30] Matters developed differently in South America because, rather than simply imitate the British immigrant's style of play—which was based more on the slower "Scottish passing game" than on the faster and rougher English football style—the South Americans contributed to the sport's growth by emphasizing the players' technical qualities.[31] By adapting the sport to their preferences, South American footballers mastered individual skills like the dribble, bending free kicks, and the bicycle kick.[32]

Invention[edit]

The possible origins of the bicycle kick have been a part of football lore, with many legends relating when it was first performed and who created it.[27][33] According to Brazilian football chronicler Mario Rodrigues Filho, claims of authorship of football skills reflected the tenor of the early game.[34] Uruguayan sports journalist Diego Pérez wrote in the Montevideo-based newspaper El País that the legends obscure the origin of the bicycle kick.[27] Peruvian football journalist Roberto Castro wrote that it is impossible to know for certain who made the first bicycle kick.[35] Although journalists Uli Hesse and Paul Simpson regard the invention of the bicycle kick as one of several puzzles of football, they consider that reconstructing the true history is possible and that it is to be preferred over the legends.[36]

 Snippet of an old newspaper
News reports helped piece together the bicycle kick's complex origin.[37] This excerpt from Peru's El Comercio reports a match between the HMS Amphion's crew and a united squad of Lima Cricket/Unión Cricket in 1904.[C]

The earliest known person to perform the bicycle kick is the defender Ramón Unzaga, a Basque athlete born in Spain and naturalized Chilean, and he is sometimes credited as its inventor.[40] His first bicycle kick is dated as occurring either in 1914 or in 1916.[41] According to journalist Luis Osses Guíñez, the author of Talcahuano's football history, Unzaga's first recorded bicycle kick occurred in 1918, as documented by a civil law notary report filed after a heated match between Talcahuano and neighbouring Concepción turned violent. Unzaga, described by Osses Guíñez as a hot-tempered Basque, got into a fistfight with a referee who called a foul on the player's bicycle kick.[42] This event was reported a few days after the match in the Concepción newspaper El Sur, where Unzaga defends himself by indicating that he had previously executed the manoeuvre in other matches without it being called a foul.[35] To name the move, Chilean newspapers referred to the bicycle kick as a chorera (alluding to Talcahuano, Chile, where Unzaga played the sport).[43]

Argentine football journalist Jorge Barraza, former director of CONMEBOL's official magazine (Magazine Conmebol), affirms that Chilean newspaper records from 1900 also name the bicycle kick as a chalaca (alluding to the port of Callao, Peru),[37] a term that they would use again in 1935 when Peruvian forward Alejandro Villanueva performed it during Alianza Lima's undefeated tour in Chile.[35][D] Reports and oral traditions further indicate that the bicycle kick was already being used by Afro-Peruvian footballers in Callao by the end of the 19th century, during football games played between locals and British sailors and railroad employees.[37][44] Since the second half of the 19th century, football had developed in Peru's chief seaport as a working-class sport, and it was common for British mariners to practice the game with stevedores and other locals as a form of leisure while their ships docked in Callao.[45] For these reasons, various researchers conclude that the bicycle kick was invented in Peru.[46][E] Football was also commonly played between Peruvian and Chilean mariners at the beginning of the 20th century, and Barraza reasons that Chileans learned about the bicycle kick or tiro de chalaca ("chalaca shot", as spectators called it) through these matches, which Colombian journalist Alejandro Millán Valencia considers the first international football games between Chile and Peru.[37][43]

Diffusion[edit]

Photograph of a football match
Arellano (center, white shirt), photographed during a match between Colo-Colo and La Coruña, is credited with popularizing the move.

According to Millán Valencia, Chilean footballers first performed the bicycle kick outside Western South America during the 1910s and 1920s.[27][37] During the first editions of the South American Championship, Chilean defenders Ramón Unzaga and Francisco Gatica amazed the public with their bicycle kicks;[37][F] Gatica's bicycle kick, used to stop an imminent goal, garnered so much attention that he was credited with the move's invention.[51] Also notable were the actions of Chilean club Colo-Colo founder David Arellano, who played as a forward and performed the bicycle kick during his team's tour of Spain in 1927.[42] Arellano died during that tour of an injury from a risky manoeuvre which, according to Millán Valencia, would be associated with him.[37][G] Impressed by the Chileans' bicycle kick, aficionados from Spain and Argentina named it chilena for the players' nationality.[27][37]

It was also around this time that, in Brazil, footballer Petronilho de Brito would achieve notoriety for his bicycle kicks—locally receiving credit for the move's invention.[53] During a 1922 match between clubs from São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Petronilho notably scored twice from a bicycle kick—or bicicleta, as it was locally known.[54] Amid the nascent football of the Río de la Plata, the bicycle kick was associated with other skills (such as the back-heel volley and the diving header) as the nucleus of what newspaper El Gráfico in 1928 praised as a uniquely Argentine style of football; according to that newspaper, the creative striker Pedro Calomino of Boca Juniors invented the bicycle kick.[55]

Football skills from South America, including the bicycle kick, also reached Europe through Italy, which received numerous Argentine, Uruguayan, and Brazilian footballers until the mid-1930s.[56] The South American football style and the Danubian School, a football system from Central Europe that emphasized ball control and tactical positioning on the field, was of significant importance in Italian football and its development of a fourth model of play.[32] This Italian football style furthered the sport's complexity by giving more precise roles for individual players, especially defenders, and emphasizing micro-level tactics.[32] During the 1930s, one of the first notable performers of the bicycle kick in Europe would be the Italian striker Silvio Piola. According to historian John Foot, Piola was a fine instinctive player.[57] In Italy, the phrase a la Piola ("like Piola") became synonymous with bicycle kick goals, and Piola was declared its inventor.[4]

The bicycle kick attained even greater notability after it was performed in the France 1938 World Cup quarter-finals match between Brazil and Czechoslovakia, by the Brazilian forward Leônidas da Silva.[58][59] At the international level, he had previously scored twice from a bicycle kick, in 1932, against Uruguay.[60] Leônidas would also be hailed as the manoeuvre's inventor, or as the one to have perfected it, and the bicycle kick continues being closely associated with the Brazilian football style.[58] According to sports historian David Goldblatt's, the influx of South American footballers ended before the start of the Second World War.[61]

Acclaim[edit]

Photograph of a man who is about to strike a football in mid-air
Carlo Parola executing his signature bicycle kick in a match between Juventus and Fiorentina

In spite of the war, football continued being practiced in various European countries. During the 1940s, the bicycle kick was again popularized in Italy by local defender Carlo Parola, nicknamed Signor Rovesciata ("Mr. Reverse Kick"), and Italians credited him with the move's invention.[62][63] At around the same time, Doug Ellis, President Emeritus of English club Aston Villa, claimed to have invented the manoeuvre at Southport.[52] Due to the lack of new developments in British football at the time, according to Jonathan Wilson, however, Ellis may have been the first player to make a bicycle kick in England.[55]

During the second half of the twentieth century, the bicycle kick would again be brought forth to international acclaim by Pelé, who learned the manoeuvre from Petronilho's younger brother, Waldemar de Brito.[64][65] Pelé's capability to perform bicycle kicks with ease was one of the traits that made him stand out from other players early in his sports career, and it also boosted his self-confidence as a footballer.[66] The majority of the goals that Pelé scored from a bicycle kick occurred during club matches with Santos FC and the New York Cosmos, but the most celebrated is the one he scored in an international football match between Brazil and Belgium in 1968.[65][67][68] Due to the skill's rarity at the time, Pelé's bicycle kick caught the Belgian goalkeeper by surprise and dumbfounded the spectators; an iconic photograph, taken while Pelé was in mid-air, helped immortalize the event.[65][68] Pelé has since been closely associated with the bicycle kick and has also been attributed its invention.[69]

After Pelé, Argentine midfielder Diego Maradona and Mexican forward Hugo Sánchez became notable performers of the bicycle kick during the last decades of the 20th century.[70] Other notable players to have performed the move during this period include Peruvian winger Juan Carlos Oblitas, who scored a bicycle kick goal in a 1975 Copa América match between Peru and Chile, and Welsh forward Mark Hughes, who scored from a bicycle kick in a World Cup qualification match played between Wales and Spain in 1985.[71]

Some of the late twentieth century's most memorable bicycle kicks have also been performed in the FIFA World Cup finals.[H] German striker Klaus Fischer scored from a bicycle kick in the Spain 1982 World Cup semi-finals match between West Germany and France, tying the score in overtime—the game then went into a penalty shootout, which ended in favour of the German team.[72] Hesse and Simpson consider Fischer's action the World Cup's most outstanding bicycle kick.[22] In the Mexico 1986 World Cup, Mexican midfielder Manuel Negrete Arias scored from a bicycle kick during the round of 16 match between Mexico and Bulgaria—despite receiving great notability early in the tournament, Negrete's goal was eventually overshadowed by "The Goal of the Century" scored by Maradona in the quarter-finals match between Argentina and England.[73]

Photograph of a man who is about to kick a football
Atlético Madrid striker Diego Costa performing a bicycle kick in a match against Almería in 2013

Not all bicycle kicks in association football's major international tournament have to result in a goal to be notable, however, as proven by a memorable bicycle kick that occurred in the United States 1994 World Cup, when U.S. defender Marcelo Balboa used the skill during the group stage match between Colombia and the United States. Even though it did not result in a goal, Balboa's move has received much praise and is even credited with boosting the sport's popularity in the United States.[74]

Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, the bicycle kick continues to be a skill that is rarely successfully executed in football matches.[70] In 2001, Spanish midfielder Guti scored a bicycle kick goal in a match between Real Madrid and Villarreal that sports journalist Rob Smyth listed as one of the six best bicycle kicks in the history of football in an article for theguardian.com.[71] In the Korea-Japan 2002 World Cup, Belgian attacking midfielder Marc Wilmots scored what English football writer Brian Glanville describes as a "spectacular bicycle kick" against Japan.[75] Other notable players to have performed the bicycle kick in recent years include Swedish forward Zlatan Ibrahimović, who in 2012 scored an overhead goal during an international friendly match between Sweden and England, and English forward Wayne Rooney, who during the 2011 Manchester derby scored a bicycle kick that was voted as the best in the Premier League's history.[22]

In popular culture[edit]

Photograph of two men in a beach soccer pitch
Israelian beach soccer player Tzahi Ilos scores with a bicycle kick against Brazil.

The bicycle kick retains popular appeal; Hesse and Simpson highlight the positive impact a successful bicycle kick has on player notability and the United States Soccer Federation describe it as an iconic embellishment of the sport.[76] According to former Manchester City defender Paul Lake, a notable bicycle kick performed by English left winger Dennis Tueart in the English Premier League injured hundreds of fans who tried to emulate it.[77] When Italian striker Mario Balotelli during his youth development years tried to pattern his skills on those of Brazilian midfielder Ronaldinho and French midfielder Zinedine Zidane, he fixated on the bicycle kick.[78] The manoeuvre is also admired in variants of association football, such as beach soccer and futsal.[79][80] An action like the bicycle kick is also used in sepak takraw, a sport whose objective is to kick a ball over a net and into the opposing team's side.[81]

Bicycle kicks are also an important part of football culture. According to the United States Soccer Federation, Pelé's bicycle kick in the 1981 film Escape to Victory is a textbook execution of the skill[70] and Pelé expressed satisfaction with his attempt to "show off" for the film in his autobiography.[69] A Google Doodle in September 2013, celebrating Leônidas da Silva's 100th birthday, prominently featured a bicycle kick performed by a stick figure representing the popular Brazilian forward.[82] Bicycle kicks have also been featured in advertisements, such as in a 2014 television commercial where Argentine forward Lionel Messi executes the manoeuvre to promote that year's FIFA football simulation video game.[83]

A monument to the bicycle kick executed by Ramón Unzaga was erected in Talcahuano, Chile, in 2014; created by sculptor María Angélica Echavarri, the statue is composed of copper and bronze and measures three meters in diameter.[79] A statue in honor of Manuel Negrete's bicycle kick is planned for the Coyoacán district of Mexico City.[84] The Uruguayan novelist Eduardo Galeano wrote about the bicycle kick in his book Soccer in Sun and Shadow, praising Unzaga as the inventor.[85] The Peruvian Nobel laureate writer Mario Vargas Llosa has the protagonist in The Time of the Hero's Spanish edition declare that the bicycle kick must have been invented in Callao, Peru.[33]

Origin controversy[edit]

According to journalist Diego Pérez, bicycle kicks are currently less common and their origins cloudier.[27] Popular opinion in Brazil, Chile, and Peru defends those nations' claims of inventing the bicycle kick.[79][86] Witzig acknowledges different names for the move, depending on country.[2]

In Goal: The New York Times Soccer Blog, journalist Juan Arango wrote that the bicycle kick's origin is a sensitive issue in Peru and Chile.[87] In 2006, Harold Mayne-Nicholls, president of the Football Federation of Chile (FFCh), poked gentle fun at Peruvian insistence on credit for the bicycle kick.[88] That year Mayne-Nicholls' Peruvian Football Federation (FPF) counterpart, Manuel Burga, announced a campaign to verify the bicycle kick's origin in his country.[88] In 2009, Peruvian footballer Teófilo Cubillas advised the FPF to patent the manoeuvre with FIFA,[89] and that year Chilean footballer Sandrino Castec expressed his belief that the Peruvian position was based on anti-Chilean sentiment.[9]

According to Brazilian anthropologist Antonio Jorge Soares, the bicycle kick's origin is important only as an example of how folklore is created.[90] In the Spanish newspaper El País, journalist Alberto Lati raised no objection to local names for the move.[91] Simpson and Hesse agree that the move's name should be a matter of personal opinion.[92] Roberto Castro wrote that the bicycle kick's alternate names are synonyms, with no one name definitive.[35]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Turner refers to the bicycle kick as "[t]he apex of wonder-goals",[1] and Witzig defines it as "the most spectacular—yet the most opportunistic and desperate—move that exists in soccer".[2]
  2. ^ Barraza affirms that Peruvians never had a need to call the bicycle kick a chilena because they had already given their own name to it.[12] In Brazilian football culture, the term chilena means a back heel (a reference to the spurs of Chilean design used in Southern Brazil).[13]
  3. ^ HMS Amphion arrived at Callao from Panama, and would proceed for repairs to Valparaiso, Chile.[38][39] The squad from Peru was composed of British and Peruvian footballers from the local clubs Unión Cricket and Lima Cricket—the latter possibly being the oldest club in the Americas that today plays association football.[38] The image reads: "The sight that we offer today to our readers was taken especially for El Comercio, in the moments in which was occurring in Santa Beatriz, this past Thursday, the most interesting part of the football match between sailors from the English warship Amphion and the Peruvian eleven that were victorious, as we had reported when we announced past Friday about this beautiful sports fest".
  4. ^ In 2011, journalist Roberto Castro found the oldest-known record of the move in Peru in a 1924 news report of a match between Lima and Ica, adding that there likely is an older report of the manoeuvre in the country.[35]
  5. ^ Uruguayan journalist Pérez writes that "therefore, the chilena is in reality Peruvian and it initially was known as chalaca".[27] Colombian football historians Pedro Páez and Daniel Pineda state that "there are very serious registries that indicate its [the bicycle kick's] birth was much further back, in the port of Callao".[43] Barraza considers that all evidence points to the bicycle kick being invented in Peru, and further argues that Chilean newspapers' reference to the move in allusion to Callao, as also occurs in Colombia and Ecuador,[35] is another strong indication that the manoeuvre's origin is in Peru.[12][46]
  6. ^ Unzaga participated in the Argentina 1916 and Chile 1920 editions of the South American Championship;[47][48] Gatica participated in the tournament's Uruguay 1917 and Brazil 1919 editions.[49][50]
  7. ^ Simpson and Hesse consider that Arellano's "memorably premature death is a grim warning about the perils of showboating".[52]
  8. ^ In his autobiography, Pelé expressed regret for not having scored a goal from a bicycle kick in the FIFA World Cup.[69]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Turner 2011, Ephemeral Goals & Eternal Glory.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Witzig 2006, p. 22.
  3. ^ a b See:
  4. ^ a b Tyagi 2010, Football Terms.
  5. ^ Bischops & Gerards 2003, p. 88.
  6. ^ a b Schmidt 1997, p. 88.
  7. ^ See:
  8. ^ See:
  9. ^ a b c d e Alejandro Cisternas (23 March 2009). "En Todas Partes Se Llama Chilena". El Mercurio (in Spanish). El Mercurio S.A.P. Retrieved 7 July 2015. 
  10. ^ Coppock 2001, p. 139.
  11. ^ See:
  12. ^ a b "A propósito de la 'Chalaca' ...". Peru.com (in Spanish). Empresa Editora El Comercio. 29 November 2006. Archived from the original on 18 November 2010. Retrieved 19 July 2015. 
  13. ^ Bellos 2014, p. 38.
  14. ^ See:
  15. ^ See:
  16. ^ Simon Hattenstone (29 June 2013). "And God created Pele". The Guardian (Guardian News and Media). Retrieved 30 July 2014. 
  17. ^ DK Publishing 2011, p. 98.
  18. ^ See:
  19. ^ O'Brien 2005, pp. 70-71.
  20. ^ See:
  21. ^ See:
  22. ^ a b c Simpson & Hesse 2013, p. 3.
  23. ^ See:
  24. ^ Danilo Díaz (29 November 2006). "¿Quién inventó la chilena?". El Mercurio (in Spanish). El Mercurio S.A.P. Retrieved 19 July 2015. 
  25. ^ O'Brien 2005, How to Perform a Bicycle Kick.
  26. ^ See:
  27. ^ a b c d e f g Pérez, Diego (26 March 2008). "Genios: De Sudamerica Salieron Las Maravillas Del Fútbol". El País (in Spanish) (Montevideo). 
  28. ^ See:
  29. ^ a b Wilson 2013, p. 21.
  30. ^ Wilson 2013, p. 22.
  31. ^ See:
  32. ^ a b c Goldblatt 2008, p. 192.
  33. ^ a b Simpson & Hesse 2013, p. 2.
  34. ^ Natali 2007, p. 119.
  35. ^ a b c d e f Roberto Castro (11 October 2011). "El Huevo o La Gallina". Dechalaca.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 19 July 2015. 
  36. ^ Simpson & Hesse 2013, Introduction.
  37. ^ a b c d e f g h Alejandro Millán Valencia (15 June 2015). "La Chilena, Lo Más Famoso Que Chile Le Ha Dado Al Fútbol". BBC Mundo (in Spanish). BBC World Service. Retrieved 8 July 2015. 
  38. ^ a b Miguel Villegas (10 February 2015). "Primera foto de fútbol publicada por El Comercio hace 110 años". El Comercio (in Spanish). Empresa Editora El Comercio. Retrieved 14 July 2015. 
  39. ^ "Naval & Military intelligence" The Times (London). Wednesday, 15 January 1902. (36665), p. 11.
  40. ^ See:
  41. ^ See:
  42. ^ a b "El inventor de la chilena en la primera vez de la Roja". El Mercurio (in Spanish). El Mercurio S.A.P. 5 July 2011. Retrieved 18 July 2015. 
  43. ^ a b c Páez & Pineda 2015, Espectacular Jugada de "Chorera".
  44. ^ See:
  45. ^ See:
  46. ^ a b Kike Giles (3 October 2007). "La "Chalaca" de Ronaldinho". Peru.com (in Spanish). Empresa Editora El Comercio. Archived from the original on 3 March 2009. Retrieved 2 July 2015. 
  47. ^ Martín Tabeira (10 August 2007). "South American Championship 1916". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation (RSSSF). Retrieved 19 July 2015. 
  48. ^ Martín Tabeira (7 September 2007). "South American Championship 1920". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation (RSSSF). Retrieved 19 July 2015. 
  49. ^ Martín Tabeira (10 August 2007). "South American Championship 1917". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation (RSSSF). Retrieved 19 July 2015. 
  50. ^ Martín Tabeira (4 January 2013). "South American Championship 1919". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation (RSSSF). Retrieved 19 July 2015. 
  51. ^ Quitián Roldán 2006, pp. 69, 272.
  52. ^ a b Simpson & Hesse 2013, p. 5.
  53. ^ See:
  54. ^ Cunha 1994, p. 78.
  55. ^ a b Wilson 2013, p. 33.
  56. ^ See:
  57. ^ Foot 2007, p. 187.
  58. ^ a b See:
  59. ^ "Leonidas: Brazil's first superstar". FIFA.com. FIFA. 1 February 2011. Retrieved 10 July 2015. 
  60. ^ Orejan 2011, p. 224.
  61. ^ Goldblatt 2008, p. 267.
  62. ^ See:
  63. ^ "Milestones". Time (New York City: Time Inc.) 155 (13): 25. April 2000. 
  64. ^ See:
  65. ^ a b c Rohan Menon (19 September 2015). "How Pele Made The Bicycle Kick Famous". Yahoo! News. Yahoo Inc. Retrieved 25 December 2015. 
  66. ^ See:
  67. ^ Pelé 2006, From Santos to Sweden.
  68. ^ a b Rishabh Ghai (15 July 2012). "Special: Pele's top 10 moments for Brazi". Goal India. Goal.com. Retrieved 25 December 2015. 
  69. ^ a b c Pelé 2006, The Beautiful Game.
  70. ^ a b c United States Soccer Federation & Lewis 2000, The Bicycle Kick.
  71. ^ a b Rob Smyth (10 September 2010). "The Joy of Six: overhead and scissor kicks". The Guardian (Guardian News and Media). Retrieved 15 July 2015. 
  72. ^ See:
  73. ^ Gardner 1994, p. 97.
  74. ^ See:
  75. ^ Glanville 2010, p. 3.
  76. ^ See:
  77. ^ Lake 2012, p. 30.
  78. ^ Caioli 2015, Circus Tricks.
  79. ^ a b c ""Chilean", "Chalaca" or "Bicycle", a monument to football". CONMEBOL. 3 April 2015. Retrieved 16 July 2015. 
  80. ^ "Italy's Gori soaring to the top". FIFA.com. 10 July 2015. Retrieved 16 July 2015. 
  81. ^ Crego 2003, p. 32.
  82. ^ Tim Vickery (5 September 2013). "The legacy of Leonidas da Silva lives on". ESPN FC (ESPN). Retrieved 18 July 2015. 
  83. ^ Eddie Makuch (12 September 2014). "Watch Messi Do a Bicycle Kick in His Living Room for This FIFA 15 Trailer". GameSpot. CBS Interactive. Retrieved 3 January 2016. 
  84. ^ Graciela Reséndiz (12 October 2013). "Jiménez y Negrete: golazos en el '86'". ESPN FC (in Spanish) (ESPN). Retrieved 19 July 2015. 
  85. ^ Simpson & Hesse 2013, p. 1.
  86. ^ Natali 2007, p. 109.
  87. ^ Juan Arango (20 March 2013). "Peru, Chile and the War of the Pacific". Goal: The New York Times Soccer Blog (The New York Times Company). Retrieved 21 July 2015. 
  88. ^ a b AFP (2 December 2006). "¿Chilena o chalaca?". El Universo (Grupo El Universo). Retrieved 21 November 2015. 
  89. ^ "El partido Perú contra Chile se empezó a jugar fuera de las canchas". Depor.pe (in Spanish) (Empresa Editora El Comercio). 22 March 2009. Retrieved 19 July 2015. 
  90. ^ Soares 2012, ch. 2.
  91. ^ Alberto Lati (29 June 2015). "De Pisco y Chalacas". El País (in Spanish) (Ediciones El País, S.L.). Retrieved 18 July 2015. 
  92. ^ Simpson & Hesse 2013, pp. 1—2.

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External links[edit]