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Bicycle kick

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For the Bengali film, see Bicycle Kick (film).
Photograph of a man who is about to kick a football
Atlético Madrid striker Diego Costa performing a bicycle kick in a football match against Almería

A bicycle kick, also known as an overhead kick or scissors kick,[A] is a physical move in association football achieved by throwing the body up into the air and making a shearing movement with the legs in order to get one leg in front of the other without resting on the ground. In most languages, the manoeuvre is named after either the cycling motion or the scissor motion that it resembles.[3] Their complexity and uncommon performance in competitive football matches make them one of association football's most celebrated skills.[B]

Bicycle kicks are used when players find the acrobatic manoeuvre their best resource. It can be used defensively to clear away the ball from the goalmouth or offensively to strike at the goal in an attempt to score. The bicycle kick is an advanced football skill that, due to its difficulty, is dangerous for inexperienced players. Its successful performance has largely been limited to the most experienced and athletic players in football history.[5]

The bicycle kick was invented in South America, possibly as early as in the late 19th century, during a period of development in football history. Innovations like the bicycle kick were the result of local adaptations to the football style introduced by British immigrants.[6][7] Football lore has many legends on the possible origins of the bicycle kick. Newspaper archives from the turn of the 20th century evidence a complex, multinational history for the bicycle kick's invention, naming, and diffusion.

As an iconic skill, bicycle kicks are an important part of association football culture. Executing a bicycle kick in a competitive football match, particularly when a goal is attained by way of this action, usually garners wide attention in the sports media. The bicycle kick has been featured in works of art, such as sculptures, films, and literature. The manoeuvre is also used in other similar ball sports, particularly in the variants of association football (like futsal and beach soccer). The controversy over the move's invention and name in Brazil, Chile, and Peru (and its status as an element of the notable Chile–Peru football rivalry) has added to the kick's acclaim in popular culture.


Photograph of a man striking a ball in mid-air
Forward Ruben Mendoza, from the United States, executes a bicycle kick.

The bicycle kick is known in English by three names: the "bicycle kick", the "overhead kick", and the "scissors kick". The term "bicycle kick" describes the action of the legs while the body is in mid-air, resembling the pedalling of a bicycle.[8] The manoeuvre is also called an "overhead kick", which, according to football instructors Klaus Bischops and Heinz-Willi Gerards, refers to the ball being "kicked above head level",[9] or a "scissors kick", reflecting the movement described by professional football coach Colin Schmidt: "[when] the kicking foot goes to meet the ball, the non-kicking foot makes a quick move back toward the ball (like blades of scissors coming together)".[10]

In languages other than English, the name of the manoeuvre also reflects the action that it resembles. Sports journalist Alejandro Cisternas, from Chilean newspaper El Mercurio, compiled a list of these names.[3] In most cases, they either refer to the kick's scissor-like motion, such as the French ciseaux retourné (returned scissor) and the Greek psalidaki, or to its bicycle-like action, such as the Portuguese pontapé de bicicleta.[3] In other languages, the nature of the action is described: German fallrückzieher (falling backward kick), Polish przewrotka (overturn kick), Dutch omhaal (turnaround drag), and Italian rovesciata (reversed kick).[3]

Exceptions to these naming patterns are found in languages that designate the move by making reference to a location, such as the Norwegian brassespark (Brazilian kick).[3][11] This exception is most significant in Spanish, where there exists a fierce controversy between Chile and Peru—as part of their historic sports rivalry—over the naming of the bicycle kick; Chileans know it as the chilena, while Peruvians call it the chalaca.[12][C] Regardless, the move is also known in Spanish by the less tendentious names of tijera and tijereta—both a reference to the manoeuvre's scissor-like motion.[14]


A successful performance of the bicycle kick in association football typically requires great skill and athleticism.[5] Not only does the performer need to maintain good form when executing the move, but must simultaneously exhibit exceptional accuracy and precision when striking the ball.[15] Sports historian Richard Witzig recommends that footballers attempt executing a bicycle kick with a focused and determined state of mind.[1] Due to the action's complexity, a successfully executed bicycle kick is notable and, according to sports journalist Elliott Turner, prone to awe audiences.[4] Brazilian forward Pelé, one of the sport's renowned players, also considers the manoeuvre difficult and recalled having scored from it only two or three times out of his 1,283 career goals.[16]

Diagram of the different stages in a bicycle kick
Ethogram of the different phases of the execution of a bicycle kick

Bicycle kicks are generally done in two situations, one defensive and the other offensive. A defensive bicycle kick is done when a player facing his side's goal uses the action to clear the ball in the direction opposite his side's goalmouth. Sports historian Richard Witzig considers defensive bicycle kicks "a desperation move" requiring less aim than its offensive variety.[1] An offensive bicycle kick is used when a player has his back to the opposing goal and is near the goalmouth. Witzig considers the offensive bicycle kick a "blind shot" requiring concentration and good understanding of the ball's location.[1] Bicycle kicks can also be done in the midfield, but this is not recommended because safer and more accurate passes can be done in this zone.[1]

To perform a bicycle kick, the ball must be airborne so that the player can hit it while doing a backflip; the ball can either come in the air towards the player, such as through a cross, or the player can flick the ball up into the air.[17] Crosses that precede an offensive bicycle kick are of dubious accuracy—German striker Klaus Fischer reportedly stated that most crosses prior to a bicycle kick are bad.[18] Moreover, performing a bicycle kick is dangerous, even when done correctly, as it may result in the injury of a startled participant in the field.[19] For this reason, the player executing the bicycle kick must have enough space to perform it—Peruvian defender César González explained that he "would let the ball pass ahead" prior to clearing it with a bicycle kick.[20] For the player using the manoeuvre, the greatest danger happens during the drop; a bad fall can result in injuries to the head, back, or wrist.[21] A poorly performed bicycle kick can also result in great ridicule for the player who made the failed attempt.[22] Witzig recommends players attempting the move to land on their upper back, using their arms as support, and simultaneously rolling over to a side in order to diminish impact from the drop.[1]



Painting of a football match
British football served as the foundation for the development of a unique South American style of football, especially in the Río de la Plata region.[23]

The bicycle kick was created in South America during an era of innovation in association football tactics and skills.[6][7] Football was introduced to South America by British immigrants who, during the 1800s, were attracted by the region's economic prospects, including the export of coffee from Brazil, hide and meat from Argentina, and guano from Peru.[24] The sport was adopted by South Americans through trans-cultural diffusion, because the British immigrant communities founded institutions, such as schools and sporting clubs, where activities included the practice of association football.[24]

Football had previously spread to mainland Europe, principally Belgium, the Netherlands and Scandinavia, but no innovations had been made to the game. According to British sports journalist Jonathan Wilson, "[t]here was never any sense [...] of trying to do anything different from the British, whether from a tactical or any other point of view."[25] Matters developed differently in South America because, rather than simply imitate the British immigrant's style of play—which was based more on the slower "Scottish passing game" than on the faster and rougher English football style—the South Americans contributed to the sport's growth by emphasizing the players' technical qualities.[23] By adapting the sport to their preferences, South American footballers mastered individual skills like the dribble, bending free kicks, and the bicycle kick.[26]


The possible origins of the bicycle kick have been a part of football lore, with many legends narrating when it was first performed and who created it.[6][27] According to the story asserting that the Afro-Peruvian footballers of Callao invented the bicycle kick, the manoeuvre could have been created as early as the late 19th century.[28] The skill could have also been developed in the early 20th century, amid the nascent football of the Río de la Plata, according to the narrative that attributes the bicycle kick's invention to the creative Argentine striker Pedro Calomino.[29] Another tale claims that the move was created in the 1910s in the port city of Talcahuano, Chile, by the Spaniard Ramón Unzaga, a Basque athlete and naturalized Chilean who played as a defender.[30] The action was also allegedly invented in the 1920s by the Brazilian forward Petronilho de Brito in São Paulo, Brazil.[31] Journalists Uli Hesse and Paul Simpson regard the invention of the bicycle kick as one of the several "conundrums" of football, but find that separating fact from fiction is possible when searching the available records—and the answers, though not always clear, can be "much more complex and entertaining" than the legends.[32]

 Snippet of an old newspaper
News reports helped piece together the bicycle kick's complex origin.[33] This excerpt from Peru's El Comercio reports a match between the HMS Amphion's crew and a united squad of Lima Cricket/Unión Cricket in 1904.[D]

Uruguayan sports journalist Diego Pérez considers that these numerous legends obscure the origin of the bicycle kick. In an article for the Montevideo-based newspaper El País, he wrote that "as it usually happens, there exists the 'official' responses and the others".[6] The Brazilian football chronicler Mario Rodrigues Filho explains these claims of authorship over football skills using the context of the times, which he describes as "the days when moves were still being invented"; accordingly, when a player performed a unique action in this period of football history, "[t]he author had a sort of copyright of the move".[36] Peruvian football journalist Roberto Castro argues that it is impossible to know for certain who was the first to perform the bicycle kick, "as anywhere where there may have been a football in play, someone might have decided to arch the body and hit the ball with their back towards the goal".[37]

The earliest-known person to have performed the bicycle kick is Ramón Unzaga—he is sometimes credited as its inventor.[38] His first bicycle kick is dated as occurring either in 1914 or in 1916.[30] However, Chilean journalist Luis Osses Guíñez, author of Talcahuano's football history, argues that Unzaga's first recorded bicycle kick occurred in 1918, as proven by a civil law notary report filed after a heated football match (between Talcahuano and the neighbouring city of Concepción) turned violent—the result of Unzaga, described by Osses Guíñez as "a Basque with a terrible temper", getting into a fist fight with the match's referee after the football official had called a foul on Unzaga's bicycle kick.[39] This event was reported a few days after the match in the Concepción newspaper El Sur, where Unzaga defends himself by indicating that he had previously executed the manoeuvre in other matches without it being called a foul.[37] To name the move, Chilean newspapers during this period refer to the bicycle kick as a chorera (alluding to Talcahuano, Chile, where Unzaga played the sport).[40][E]

Argentine football journalist Jorge Barraza, former director of CONMEBOL's official magazine (Magazine Conmebol), affirms that Chilean newspaper records from 1900 also name the bicycle kick as a chalaca (alluding to the port of Callao, Peru),[33] a term that they would use again in 1935 when Peruvian forward Alejandro Villanueva performed it during Alianza Lima's undefeated tour in Chile.[37][F] Reports and oral traditions further indicate that the bicycle kick was already being used by footballers in Callao at the turn of the 20th century, during football games played between locals and British workers (typically sailors and railroad employees).[33][42][G] Jorge Barraza is quoted as stating that "[e]verything indicates that [the manoeuvre] is Peruvian, is known internationally as chilena, was patented by a Spaniard and took its name in Argentina."[43][H] Peru's chief seaport had practiced the sport since the second half of the 19th century, and it was a common practice for British mariners to play football (as a form of leisure) in commercial centres such as Callao.[45] Historian Steve Stein writes that these matches played in Callao were informal, and that local participants were fishermen and stevedores—for this reason, Stein writes that football formed in the Peruvian port as a "working-class sport".[46] Football was also commonly played between Peruvians and Chileans during these years,[I] and Barraza reasons that Chileans learned about the bicycle kick or tiro de chalaca (chalaca shot), as the spectators named it, through these matches.[33][40]


Photograph of a football match
Arellano (center, white shirt), photographed during a match between Colo-Colo and La Coruña, is credited with popularizing the move

Colombian journalist Alejandro Millán Valencia considers that this is where "the stories come together" because Chilean footballers first notably performed the bicycle kick outside of Western South America, in football matches held in Argentina and Spain.[6][33] During the first editions of the South American Championship, Chilean defenders Ramón Unzaga and Francisco Gatica amazed the public with their bicycle kicks;[33][J] Gatica's bicycle kick, used to stop an imminent goal, garnered so much attention that he was credited with the move's invention.[51] Also notable were the actions of Chilean club Colo-Colo founder David Arellano, who played as a forward and performed the bicycle kick (among other skills) during his team's tour of Spain in 1927.[39] Arellano perished in that tour from an injury caused by a risky manoeuvre—as a result, Millán Valencia argues that "with his name, the myth of that football skill would be installed into the records of that football that he had charged himself to export to the world".[33][K] Impressed by the Chileans' bicycle kicks, the aficionados from Spain and Argentina would name it chilena (alluding to the players' nationality).[6][33]

Contemporary to these events in the 1920s, the press in Argentina began lauding their development of a unique football style. In 1928, the newspaper El Gráfico boasted that "River Plate football makes more use of dribbling and generous personal effort, and is more agile and attractive."[41] Within this context, local footballers would be credited the invention of skills like the back-heel volley, the diving header, and the bicycle kick—this last one attributed to Pedro Calomino of Boca Juniors.[41] It was also around this time that, in Brazil, footballer Petronilho de Brito would achieve notoriety for his bicycle kicks—locally receiving credit for the move's invention.[31] During a 1922 match between clubs from São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Petronilho notably scored twice from a bicycle kick.[53]

Football skills from South America, including the bicycle kick, also reached Europe through Italy, which received numerous Argentine, Uruguayan, and Brazilian footballers until the mid-1930s.[54] The South American football style and the Danubian School, a football system from Central Europe that emphasized ball control and tactical positioning on the field, was of significant importance in Italian football and its development of a fourth model of play.[26] This Italian football style furthered the sport's complexity by giving more precise roles for individual players, especially defenders, and emphasizing micro-level tactics.[26] During this time, one of the first notable performers of the bicycle kick in Europe would be the Italian striker Silvio Piola. According to historian John Foot, "Piola did not look like much of a footballer", but "in action, he was a 'force of nature' with a perfect grasp of when to arrive in the area".[55] In Italy, the phrase "a la Piola" (like Piola) became synonymous with bicycle kick goals, and Piola was proclaimed the move's inventor.[8]

Photograph of a man who is about to strike a football in mid-air
Parola executing his signature bicycle kick in a match between Juventus and Fiorentina

The bicycle kick attained even greater notability after it was performed in the France 1938 World Cup quarter-finals match between Brazil and Czechoslovakia, by the Brazilian forward Leônidas da Silva.[56][57] Leônidas would also be hailed as the manoeuvre's inventor, or as the one to have perfected it, and the bicycle kick continues being closely associated with the Brazilian football style.[56] Italy would ultimately win the 1938 World Cup, in sports historian David Goldblatt's words, "with a considerable phalanx of Argentine players who had taken Italian citizenship".[58] This influx of South American footballers would end prior to the start of the Second World War.[58]

In spite of the war, football continued being practiced in various European countries. During the 1940s, the bicycle kick was again popularized in Italy by Italian defender Carlo Parola, also known as Signor Rovesciata (Mr. Reverse Kick)—Italians even credited him as the move's inventor.[59][60] At around the same time, Doug Ellis, President Emeritus of English club Aston Villa, claims to have invented the manoeuvre at Southport.[52] Due to the lack of new developments in British football at the time, this last claim is unlikely to be true—according to Wilson, "The shaming aspect for British soccer is that the game's homeland was so ill disposed to innovation that it is just about conceivable that Ellis was the first man to perform a bicycle kick on British soil."[41]


Photograph of a football match
Real Madrid defender Sergio Ramos uses a bicycle kick against rivals Athletic Bilbao in a La Liga match.

The bicycle kick continues to be a skill that is rarely successfully executed in football matches.[61] The manoeuvre also retains popular appeal; Hesse and Simpson highlight the positive impact a successful bicycle kick has on player notability and the United States Soccer Federation describe it as an iconic embellishment of the sport.[62] Players that have mastered the move include a few of the sport's prominent figures, such as the Brazilian forward Pelé, the Mexican forward Hugo Sánchez, and the Argentine midfielder Diego Maradona.[61] Other notable players to have performed the bicycle kick include Swedish forward Zlatan Ibrahimović, who in 2012 scored what Hesse and Simpson describe as an "overhead wonder goal" during an international friendly match between Sweden and England, and English forward Wayne Rooney, who in 2011 scored a bicycle kick that was voted as the best in the Premier League's history.[18]

Some of the most memorable bicycle kicks have been performed in the FIFA World Cup finals. German striker Klaus Fischer scored from a bicycle kick in the Spain 1982 World Cup semi-finals match between West Germany and France, tying the score in overtime—the game then went into a penalty shootout, which ended in favour of the German team.[63] Hesse and Simpson consider Fischer's action the World Cup's most outstanding bicycle kick.[18] In the Mexico 1986 World Cup, Mexican midfielder Manuel Negrete Arias scored from a bicycle kick during the round of 16 match between Mexico and Bulgaria—despite receiving great notability early in the tournament, Negrete's goal was eventually overshadowed by "The Goal of the Century" scored by Maradona in the quarter-finals match between Argentina and England.[64] A memorable bicycle kick also occurred in the United States 1994 World Cup, when U.S. defender Marcelo Balboa used the skill during the group stage match between Colombia and the United States; even though it did not result in a goal, Balboa's move has received much praise and is even credited with boosting the sport's popularity in the United States.[65]

In popular culture[edit]

Three photographs of a bicycle kick execution
Peru winger Juan Carlos Oblitas scores with a bicycle kick against Chile.

Bicycle kicks are an important part of football culture. Former Manchester City defender Paul Lake considers that a particularly notable bicycle kick performance in the English Premier League "became the root cause of hundreds of head injuries as City fans across Manchester recklessly attempted to recreate their hero's acrobatics".[66] At one point in his career, Italian striker Mario Balotelli, when training to emulate the skill of players like the Brazilian midfielder Ronaldinho and the French midfielder Zinedine Zidane, "became obsessed with the bicycle kick and wanted to try it whenever and however".[67] In an article for, sports journalist Rob Smyth listed what he deemed as six of the best overhead and scissors kicks in the history of football, including the kick executed by Welsh forward Mark Hughes in a World Cup qualification match played between Wales and Spain in 1985, and the bicycle kick goal by Peruvian winger Juan Carlos Oblitas in a 1975 Copa América match between Peru and Chile.[68]

The bicycle kick is notably executed by Pelé in the 1981 motion picture Escape to Victory—the United States Soccer Federation describes it as "the best demonstration of a bicycle kick".[61] Pelé comments on it in his autobiography, stating, "I got to show off a little in the final reel" and describing his bicycle kick as "spectacular".[69] A Google Doodle in September 2013, celebrating Leônidas da Silva's 100th birthday, prominently featured a bicycle kick performed by a stick figure representing the popular Brazilian forward.[70]

A monument to the bicycle kick executed by Ramón Unzaga Asla was erected in Talcahuano, Chile, in 2014; created by sculptor María Angélica Echavarri, the statue is composed of copper and bronze and measures three meters in diameter.[71] A statue in honor of Manuel Negrete's bicycle kick is planned for the Coyoacán district of Mexico City.[72] The Uruguayan novelist Eduardo Galeano wrote about the bicycle kick in his book Soccer in Sun and Shadow, praising Unzaga as the inventor.[73] The Peruvian Nobel laureate writer Mario Vargas Llosa has the protagonist in The Time of the Hero's Spanish edition declare that the bicycle kick must have been invented in Callao, Peru.[27]

The manoeuvre is also popular in variants of association football, such as beach soccer and futsal.[71] In beach soccer, bicycle kicks are so commonly used that, according to a report by FIFA, "it takes a very special one to really catch the eye of the fans".[74] An action like the bicycle kick is also used in sepak takraw, a sport whose objective is to kick a ball over a net and into the opposing team's side.[75]

Origin controversy[edit]

Journalist Diego Pérez writes that "[t]oday, these kind of movements are seen with less frequency and when they appear the controversy over who invented them is reborn."[6] Popular opinion in Brazil, Chile, and Peru defend their claims of inventing the bicycle kick.[71][76] Witzig suggests keeping a cautious approach in this matter, indicating that "[i]n Latin America, the bicycle kick is called a chilena, chalaca, or bicicleta, depending on which country you are visiting."[1]

The bicycle kick's origin dispute is significantly intense between Chileans and Peruvians—in Goal: The New York Times Soccer Blog, journalist Juan Arango explains that "[the bicycle kick's invention] might seem to be a minor footnote to most people, but in Peru and Chile it is a big, big deal."[77] Harold Mayne-Nicholls, then-president of the Football Federation of Chile (FFCh), declared in 2006 that the Peruvian position was "not new" and that "in any case, they call it chalaca and in the rest of the world it is known as chilena", concluding "there must be a reason for it".[78][L] His counterpart in the Peruvian Football Federation (FPF), then-president Manuel Burga, also in 2006 "announced a campaign to certify the origin of the chalaca as an acrobatic manoeuvre of Peruvian origin".[78] In 2009, Peruvian footballer Teófilo Cubillas recommended the FPF to patent the manoeuvre with FIFA.[79] That same year, Chilean footballer Sandrino Castec expressed his belief that the Peruvian position was based on resentment.[3]

Brazilian anthropologist Antonio Jorge Soares deems the bicycle kick's true origin as unimportant, instead finding it "necessary to recognize how traditions are invented by the repetition and reiteration of quasi-histories".[80] Journalist Alberto Lati, writing for Spanish newspaper El País, considers that "there is nothing wrong in that everyone calls it [the bicycle kick] however they see appropriate";[81] Simpson and Hesse also suggest that the naming of the manoeuvre is a matter of personal opinion.[82] Roberto Castro further contends that "no one is right about this [naming] matter: they are only synonyms, and the use of one word does not have to respect any sort of historic reason".[37]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Witzig considers the scissors kick as "a bicycle kick done on an angle rather than upside down",[1] but other authors do not differentiate the scissors kick from the bicycle kick.[2]
  2. ^ Turner refers to it as "[t]he apex of wonder-goals",[4] and Witzig defines the bicycle kick as "the most spectacular—yet the most opportunistic and desperate—move that exists in soccer".[1]
  3. ^ In Brazilian football culture, the term chilena means a back heel (a reference to the Chilean-style spurs used in Southern Brazil).[13]
  4. ^ The HMS Amphion had arrived to Callao from Panama, and would next travel to Valparaiso, Chile, for repairs.[34][35] The squad from Peru was composed of British and Peruvian footballers from the local clubs Unión Cricket and Lima Cricket—the latter possibly being the oldest club in the Americas that today plays association football.[34] The image reads: "The sight that we offer today to our readers was taken especially for El Comercio, in the moments in which was occurring in Santa Beatriz, this past Thursday, the most interesting part of the football match between sailors from the English warship Amphion and the Peruvian eleven that were victorious, as we had reported when we announced past Friday about this beautiful sports fest".
  5. ^ Millán Valencia writes that "historians refer to Unzaga as the person who popularized the move",[33] but Wilson considers David Arellano to be the one "who popularized the technique".[41]
  6. ^ In 2011, journalist Roberto Castro found the oldest-known record of the move in Peru in a 1924 news report of a match between Lima and Ica, adding that he considers it "probable" for there to be an older report of the manoeuvre in the country.[37]
  7. ^ Uruguayan journalist Pérez writes that "therefore, the chilena is in reality Peruvian and it initially was known as chalaca".[6] Colombian football historians Pedro Páez and Daniel Pineda state that "there are very serious registries that indicate its [the bicycle kick's] birth was much further back, in the port of Callao".[40]
  8. ^ Barraza also considers that Chilean newspapers' reference to the move in allusion to Callao, as also occurs in Colombia and Ecuador,[37] is another strong indication that the manoeuvre's origin is in Peru.[44]
  9. ^ Journalist Millán Valencia considers these matches as the first international football games between Chile and Peru.[33]
  10. ^ Unzaga participated in the Argentina 1916 and Chile 1920 editions of the South American Championship;[47][48] Gatica participated in the tournament's Uruguay 1917 and Brazil 1919 editions.[49][50]
  11. ^ Simpson and Hesse consider that Arellano's "memorably premature death is a grim warning about the perils of showboating".[52]
  12. ^ Contrary to Mayne-Nicholls' assertion, Chilean journalist Alejandro Cisternas writes that the controversy between Chile and Peru is limited to the Hispanosphere, and that in the rest of the world the names are "primarily allusive to the executed acrobatic skill".[3] Argentine journalist Jorge Barraza adds that Peruvians never had a need to call the bicycle kick a chilena "because they had already given a name to this manoeuvre over a hundred years ago".[44]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Witzig 2006, p. 22.
  2. ^ See:
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Alejandro Cisternas (23 March 2009). "En Todas Partes Se Llama Chilena". El Mercurio (in Spanish). El Mercurio S.A.P. Retrieved 7 July 2015. 
  4. ^ a b Turner 2011, Chapter Two: Ephemeral Goals & Eternal Glory.
  5. ^ a b See:
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Pérez, Diego (26 March 2008). "Genios: De Sudamerica Salieron Las Maravillas Del Fútbol". El País (in Spanish) (Montevideo). 
  7. ^ a b See:
  8. ^ a b Tyagi 2010, Chapter 6: Football Terms.
  9. ^ Bischops & Gerards 2003, p. 88.
  10. ^ Schmidt 1997, p. 88.
  11. ^ Coppock 2001, p. 139.
  12. ^ See:
  13. ^ Bellos 2014, p. 38.
  14. ^ Rull 2004, p. 166.
  15. ^ See:
  16. ^ Simon Hattenstone (29 June 2013). "And God created Pele". The Guardian (Guardian News and Media). Retrieved 30 July 2014. 
  17. ^ DK Publishing 2011, p. 98.
  18. ^ a b c Simpson & Hesse 2013, p. 3.
  19. ^ See:
  20. ^ Danilo Díaz (29 November 2006). "¿Quién inventó la chilena?". El Mercurio (in Spanish). El Mercurio S.A.P. Retrieved 19 July 2015. 
  21. ^ O'Brien 2005, How to Perform a Bicycle Kick.
  22. ^ See:
  23. ^ a b See:
  24. ^ a b Wilson 2013, p. 21.
  25. ^ Wilson 2013, p. 22.
  26. ^ a b c Goldblatt 2008, p. 192.
  27. ^ a b Simpson & Hesse 2013, p. 2.
  28. ^ See:
  29. ^ Wilson 2013, pp. 31—33.
  30. ^ a b See:
  31. ^ a b See:
  32. ^ Simpson & Hesse 2013, Introduction.
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Alejandro Millán Valencia (15 June 2015). "La Chilena, Lo Más Famoso Que Chile Le Ha Dado Al Fútbol". BBC Mundo (in Spanish). BBC World Service. Retrieved 8 July 2015. 
  34. ^ a b Miguel Villegas (10 February 2015). "Primera foto de fútbol publicada por El Comercio hace 110 años". El Comercio (in Spanish). Empresa Editora El Comercio. Retrieved 14 July 2015. 
  35. ^ "Naval & Military intelligence" The Times (London). Wednesday, 15 January 1902. (36665), p. 11.
  36. ^ Natali 2007, p. 119.
  37. ^ a b c d e f Roberto Castro (11 October 2011). "El Huevo o La Gallina". (in Spanish). Retrieved 19 July 2015. 
  38. ^ See:
  39. ^ a b "El inventor de la chilena en la primera vez de la Roja". El Mercurio (in Spanish). El Mercurio S.A.P. 5 July 2011. Retrieved 18 July 2015. 
  40. ^ a b c Páez & Pineda 2015, Espectacular Jugada de "Chorera".
  41. ^ a b c d Wilson 2013, p. 33.
  42. ^ See:
  43. ^ Kike Giles (3 October 2007). "La "Chalaca" de Ronaldinho". (in Spanish). Empresa Editora El Comercio. Archived from the original on 3 March 2009. Retrieved 2 July 2015. 
  44. ^ a b "A propósito de la 'Chalaca' ...". (in Spanish). Empresa Editora El Comercio. 29 November 2006. Archived from the original on 18 November 2010. Retrieved 19 July 2015. 
  45. ^ See:
  46. ^ Stein 2011, pp. 3—4.
  47. ^ Martín Tabeira (10 August 2007). "South American Championship 1916". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation (RSSSF). Retrieved 19 July 2015. 
  48. ^ Martín Tabeira (7 September 2007). "South American Championship 1920". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation (RSSSF). Retrieved 19 July 2015. 
  49. ^ Martín Tabeira (10 August 2007). "South American Championship 1917". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation (RSSSF). Retrieved 19 July 2015. 
  50. ^ Martín Tabeira (4 January 2013). "South American Championship 1919". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation (RSSSF). Retrieved 19 July 2015. 
  51. ^ Quitián Roldán 2006, pp. 69, 272.
  52. ^ a b Simpson & Hesse 2013, p. 5.
  53. ^ Cunha 1994, p. 78.
  54. ^ See:
  55. ^ Foot 2007, p. 187.
  56. ^ a b See:
  57. ^ "Leonidas: Brazil's first superstar". FIFA. 1 February 2011. Retrieved 10 July 2015. 
  58. ^ a b Goldblatt 2008, p. 267.
  59. ^ See:
  60. ^ "Milestones". Time (New York City: Time Inc.) 155 (13): 25. April 2000. 
  61. ^ a b c United States Soccer Federation & Lewis 2000, The Bicycle Kick.
  62. ^ See:
  63. ^ See:
  64. ^ Gardner 1994, p. 97.
  65. ^ See:
  66. ^ Lake 2012, p. 30.
  67. ^ Caioli 2015, Circus Tricks.
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