Bidnaviridae

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Bidnaviridae
Virus classification
Group: Group II (ssDNA)
Order: Unassigned
Family: Bidnaviridae
Genus

Bidensovirus

Bidnaviridae is a family of single stranded DNA viruses. Members of this family infect invertebrates. These viruses were once considered members of the family Parvoviridae (subfamily Densovirinae) but their genomes differ greatly from those viruses in size and coding strategy. Because of this they have been classified into a family of their own.[1]

Virology[edit]

The virions are icosahedral, not enveloped and ~25 nanometers in diameter. There are two structural proteins in the virion.

This family is unique among ssDNA viruses in having a bipartite linear genome. The genome consists of two linear ssDNA segments of ~6 and 6.5 kilobases (kb) that are packaged separately. The complementary strands are also packaged giving rise to 4 distinct types of viral particles. The total genome length is ~13 kb while that of parvoviruses is 4-6 kb.

Evolution[edit]

Comprehensive analysis of bidnavirus genes has shown that these viruses have evolved from a parvovirus ancestor from which they inherit a jelly-roll capsid protein and a superfamily 3 helicase.[2] It has been further suggested that the key event that led to the separation of the bidnaviruses from parvoviruses was the acquisition of the PolB gene. A likely scenario has been proposed under which the ancestral parvovirus genome was integrated into a large virus-derived DNA transposon of the Polinton/Maverick (polintovirus) family [3] resulting in the acquisition of the polintovirus PolB gene along with terminal inverted repeats. Bidnavirus genes for a minor structural protein (putative receptor-binding protein) and a potential novel antiviral defense modulator were derived from dsRNA viruses (Reoviridae) and dsDNA viruses (Baculoviridae), respectively.[2]

Taxonomy[edit]

Only one genus in this family is currently recognised: Bidensovirus.

References[edit]