Bids for the 2022 Winter Olympics

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Bids for the
2022 (2022) Winter Olympics and Paralympics
Overview
XXIV Olympic Winter Games
XIII Paralympic Winter Games
Beijing 2022 Olympic bid logo.png
Beijing
Almaty
Details
Committee IOC
Election venue Kuala Lumpur
127th IOC Session
Map
Location of the bidding cities
Location of the bidding cities
Important dates
Bid 14 November 2013
Shortlist 7 July 2014
Decision July 31, 2015
Decision
Winner Beijing (44 votes)
Runner-up Almaty (40 votes)

There were a total of six bids which were initially submitted for the 2022 Winter Olympics. Four of those bids were eventually withdrawn by 1 October 2014, citing either the high costs or the lack of local support to host the games, leaving Almaty, Kazakhstan and Beijing, China as the only candidate cities left.[1] Beijing was then elected as the host city at the 128th IOC Session in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia on 31 July 2015.

Bidding process[edit]

Bidding timeline[edit]

On 3 October 2012, the IOC announced in a letter to the NOCs the bidding calendar for the 2022 Winter Olympics:[2]

  • 3 October 2012 – First information circular letter to NOCs
  • 6 June 2013 – IOC officially invites bid applicants from NOCs and publishes the 2022 Applicant City Questionnaire[3][4]
  • 14 November 2013 – Deadline for NOCs to submit the name of an applicant city
  • 4–6 December 2013 – Applicant city seminar at the IOC headquarters in Lausanne, Switzerland
  • 7–23 February 2014 – Olympic Winter Games Observer Programme
  • 14 March 2014 – Submission of the application file
  • 7 July 2014 – Selection of candidate cities by the IOC Executive Board
  • 7 January 2015 – Submission of candidature files and guarantees
  • 14–18 February 2015 in Almaty – IOC Evaluation Commission visits
  • 24–28 March 2015 in Beijing – IOC Evaluation Commission visits
  • 1–2 June 2015 – Evaluation Commission report
  • 9–10 June 2015 – Candidate City briefing to IOC members
  • 31 July 2015 – Host city election at the 128th IOC Session in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Votes results[edit]

2022 Winter Olympics bidding results
City Nation Votes
Beijing  China 44
Almaty  Kazakhstan 40

Candidate cities[edit]

On 15 November 2013, the IOC announced the list of the six applicant cities.[5] On 7 July 2014, the IOC announced the three (at the time) remaining applicant cities would move on to the candidate phase.

On 1 October 2014, Oslo withdrew its application after one of the country's governing political parties Høyre decided not to support the application.[6] The remaining two candidate cities are, in the order defined by the IOC:[7][8]

City Country National Olympic Committee
Almaty  Kazakhstan National Olympic Committee of the Republic of Kazakhstan

Since 2011, the National Olympic Committee of the Republic of Kazakhstan has been considering a bid for the 2022 games in Almaty, the former longtime capital city and still the largest city and financial centre of the country.[9][10][11] Kazakhstan hosted the 2011 Asian Winter Games. Almaty will host 2017 Winter Universiade. The current Kazakh capital Astana considered to joint bid with Almaty but the idea was later declined. On 17 August 2013, Almaty announced they were bidding for the 2022 Games.[12] Under the slogan "Keeping it Real", Almaty has emphasized her traditional winter setting with tall mountains and plenty of natural snow coverage as well as compactness — most venues are within half an hour's travel through Alpine scenery.[13][14]

Presenting Kazakhstan's bid at the final event in Kuala Lumpur, Prime Minister of Kazakhstan Karim Massimov made a powerful speech with a key message that Almaty was "not a risk choice for 2022", but "a golden opportunity to prove that smaller advancing nations can successfully host the winter games". He called to the OCI core values saying that letting Almaty host the Games was "a golden opportunity to showcase the real long-term power of Olympic legacy for a region that has never hosted the Games".[15] In the final voting Almaty lost to Beijing by only 4 votes.

Beijing  China Chinese Olympic Committee

On 5 November 2013, the Chinese Olympic Committee announced that it would submit a bid for Beijing to host the 2022 Winter Olympics. Beijing (where the indoor ice sports and the ceremonies would take place), was the host city of the 2008 Summer Olympics. Zhangjiakou would host the outdoor snow events.[16]

Before the final voting in Kuala Lumpur Beijing's bid was presented by Yang Lan, a renowned former CCTV host, who said sports and fitness were becoming a new fashion trend in China. In her speech she focused on China's economy and its ability to support every commitment it made "protecting long time financial viability and the reputation of the Games".[17]

Withdrawn candidate cities[edit]

On 6 November 2013, the Norwegian Olympic and Paralympic Committee and Confederation of Sports announced that Oslo would be submitted as the Norwegian candidate for the 2022 Winter Olympic Games. Oslo last hosted the 1952 Winter Olympics, and Norway last hosted the 1994 Winter Olympics in Lillehammer.[18] On 1 October 2014 the Conservative Party decided that they would not support a bid for the games citing costs and lack of public support.[19] A vast number of polls were conducted, and since April 2014 support had varied between 24% and 37%.[20] The days leading up to the deliberation in the Conservative Party had consisted of a series of negative developments for the bid. Those negative developments included the Centre Party saying no through a grass root vote,[21] a poll showing that even within the Norwegian Confederation of Sports the majority of members opposed the bid,[22] an external revision which clarified that the newly suggested cheaper budget was unrealistic[23] and public scrutiny on IOC´s 7000 pages of demands.[24]

Cancelled bids[edit]

On 7 November 2013, the Polish Olympic Committee announced they submitted a bid to the IOC for the 2022 Winter Olympics, together with Zakopane, Poland, and Jasná, a village in central Slovakia, near the Polish border.[25][26] If the bid had been successful, it would have been the first time either Poland or Slovakia hosted the Olympics.[27] Zakopane previously bid to host the 2006 Winter Olympics but failed to become a candidate. Kraków's bid was submitted to a local referendum held on 25 May 2014, which had a negative result. After that Kraków discontinued the application on 26 May 2014.[28]
The National Olympic Committee of Ukraine officially submitted a bid for Lviv to host the 2022 Winter Olympic Games on 5 November 2013.[29] On 30 June 2014, however, the IOC announced that Lviv would "turn its attention to an Olympic bid for 2026, and not continue with its application for 2022. The decision comes as a result of the 2013–15 Ukrainian crisis" which seriously influences Lviv and the country.[30]
On 11 November 2013, the Swedish Olympic Committee announced that it had submitted a bid,[31] but on 17 January 2014, Stockholm dropped the bid due to lack of political support.[32] Åre, about 610 km (380 mi) from Stockholm, was scheduled to host the alpine skiing events. Stockholm previously hosted the 1912 Summer Olympics and hosted equestrian events of the 1956 Summer Olympics, but this was the first time the Swedish capital was bidding for the Winter Olympics. Also, it would have been the first city to host both the Summer Olympics and the Winter Olympics, but that honor went to Beijing.

Candidate cities venues list[edit]

Note that the selected candidate cities have slightly changed venues plan in the final proposal to the IOC. Almaty moved technical alpine skiing events from Shymbulak to Tau, and completely removed both Kok Zhaylau and Ak-Bulak ski resorts, previously proposed for snowboarding and freestyle skiing events. Beijing dropped both Taiwu and Wanlong ski resorts, and proposed hosting snowboarding and freestyle skiing events in the two venues (A and B) in Genting Snow Park.

Event Almaty[33] Beijing[34][35]
 KAZ  CHN
Olympics dates 4 Feb – 20 Feb
Paralympics dates 4 Mar – 13 Mar
Opening and closing ceremonies Almaty Central Stadium Beijing National Stadium
Alpine skiing pictogram.svg Alpine skiing 1) Shymbulak (downhill, super g, super combined)
2) Tau Park Alpine (slalom, giant slalom)
Xiaohaituo Alpine Skiing Field (Yanqing)
Cross country skiing pictogram.svg Cross country skiing Ak Bulak Nordic Arena Guyangshu Biathlon Field (Zhangjiakou)
Ski jumping pictogram.svg Ski jumping Sunkar Jumping Hills Guyangshu Ski Jumping Field (Zhangjiakou)
Nordic combined pictogram.svg Nordic combined Sunkar Skiing Centre Guyangshu Biathlon Field (Zhangjiakou)
Biathlon pictogram.svg Biathlon Ak Bulak Nordic Arena Hualindong Ski Resort (Zhangjiakou)
Freestyle skiing pictogram.svg Freestyle skiing 1) Tabagan Snow Park (aerials, moguls, half-pipe)
2) Tau Park Snowboard Freestyle (ski-cross, slopestyle)
1) Genting Snow Park A (half-pipe, slopestyle, ski cross)
2) Genting Snow Park B (moguls, aerials)
Snowboarding pictogram.svg Snowboarding 1) Tabagan Snow Park (half-pipe)
2) Tau Park Snowboard Freestyle (parallel slalom, parallel giant slalom, snowboard cross, slopestyle)
Genting Snow Park A
Ice hockey pictogram.svg Ice hockey 1 Almaty Ice Palace Wukesong Sports Centre
Ice hockey pictogram.svg Ice hockey 2 Baluan Sholak Sports Palace National Indoor Stadium
Speed skating pictogram.svg Speed skating Medeu Skating Oval National Speed Skating Oval (Beijing)
Figure skating pictogram.svg Short track speed skating pictogram.svg Figure skating, short track Almaty Olympic Ice Arena Capital Indoor Stadium
Curling pictogram.svg Curling Curling Arena National Aquatics Centre
Bobsleigh pictogram.svg Luge pictogram.svg Skeleton pictogram.svg
Bobsleigh, luge, skeleton
Sunkar Sliding Centre Xiaohaituo Bobsleigh and Luge Track (Yanqing)

Withdrawn candidate cities[edit]

Event Oslo[36]
 NOR
Olympics dates 11 Feb – 27 Feb
Paralympics dates 11 Mar – 20 Mar
Opening and closing ceremonies Bjerke Travbane
Alpine skiing 1) Kvitfjell (downhill, super-G, combined)
2) Hafjell (slalom, giant slalom)
Cross country skiing Holmenkollen
Ski jumping 1) Holmenkollbakken
2) Midtstubakken
Nordic combined Holmenkollen
Biathlon Grønmo
Freestyle skiing 1) Wyller (ski cross, half-pipe, slopestyle)
2) Grefsen (moguls, aerials)
Snowboard Wyller
Ice hockey 1 Stubberud
Ice hockey 2 Jordal Amfi
Speed skating Valle Hovin
Figure skating
Short track
Fornebu Arena
Curling Lørenskog
Bobsleigh, luge, skeleton Lillehammer Track

Candidate cities comparison[edit]

All data come from applicant cities bid books. candidate cities public support data has been updated.

Category Details Almaty Beijing
 KAZ  CHN
Population (2014) City 1,600,000 19,612,368
Country 17,736,896 1,350,695,000
Air Quality Score[37] Environmental Performance Index (2014) 95.92 18.81
Public opinion, support City 85% (July 2015) 88% (July 2015)
Country 87% (July 2015) 92% (July 2015)
Bid budget (mln USD) Applicant phase 4.5 11.25
Candidature phase 30 18.75
Main airport
(2014 / 2022)
Name Almaty International Beijing Capital
Distance (km) 9.4 25
Capacity per hour 1600 / 4000 9900 / -
Longest distance
(airports excluded)
km 47 257
min 55 178
Accommodation
(number of rooms)
Existing 36,573 109,940
Planned 7,597 5,718
Additional 13,503 -
Total 57,673 115,658
Proposed sport venues
(opening/closing ceremony venues excluded)
Existing (no permanent works required) 7 4
Existing (permanent works required) 1 3
Planned (irrespective of the games) 3 -
Additional (games dependent) 2 6

Withdrawn candidate cities[edit]

Category Details Oslo
 NOR
Population (2014) City 634,463
Country 5,136,700
Air Quality Score[37] Environmental Performance Index (2014) 98.33
Public opinion, support City 41% (Mar 2014)
Country 35% (Mar 2014)
Bid budget (mln USD) Applicant phase 27
Candidature phase 25

Main airport
(2014 / 2022)

Name Oslo-Gardermoen
Distance (km) 50
Capacity per hour 4200 / 5300
Longest distance
(airports excluded)
km 228
min 165

Accommodation
(number of rooms)

Existing 23,474
Planned 142
Additional 1,000
Total 24,616
Proposed sport venues
(opening/closing ceremony venues excluded)
Existing (no permanent works required) 1
Existing (permanent works required) 7
Planned (irrespective of the games) -
Additional (games dependent) 5

Evaluation of the applicant cities[edit]

Each cell of the table provides a minimum and a maximum figure obtained by the applicant city on the specific criteria.[38] These figures are to be compared to a benchmark which has been set at 6.

Table of scores given by the IOC Working Group to assess the quality and feasibility of the 2022 Applicant cities
Criteria Oslo Almaty Beijing
 NOR  KAZ  CHN
Min Max Min Max Min Max
Games concept and competition venues 7.0 9.0 6.0 8.5 5.5 7.5
Olympic Village(s) 6.0 9.0 4.5 8.0 6.5 8.0
International Broadcast Centre/Main Press Centre 6.0 9.0 5.5 8.0 7.0 8.5
Sports experience 9.0 10.0 4.5 7.0 6.5 8.0
Environment and meteorology 8.5 9.5 5.0 6.0 5.0 7.0
Accommodation 7.0 8.0 5.0 6.5 7.0 8.5
Transport 7.5 8.5 6.0 8.0 5.0 7.5
Doping control 9.0 10.0 6.0 7.0 7.0 8.0
Safety and security 8.0 9.0 5.0 7.0 8.0 9.0
Telecommunications 8.0 9.0 5.0 7.0 7.0 9.0
Energy 8.5 9.5 4.0 6.0 6.0 8.5
Legal aspects, customs and immigration formalities 7.0 9.0 6.0 8.0 7.0 9.0
Government and public support 5.0 7.0 6.5 8.0 8.0 9.0
Finance and marketing 6.5 8.5 5.0 6.5 7.5 9.0

Previously interested in bidding[edit]

The former parts of the County of Tyrol, Tyrol in Austria, South Tyrol and Trentino in Italy were considering a joint bid as the Euroregion Tyrol–South Tyrol–Trentino for the 2022 Olympics. The capital of Tyrol, Innsbruck, has already hosted Olympic Winter Games twice, in 1964 and 1976 as well as the 2012 Winter Youth Olympics. However, the common legislative assembly of Tyrol, South Tyrol and Trentino rejected the proposal during its session on 30 March 2011.[39]
After the announcement that Sarajevo would host the 2017 European Youth Winter Olympic Festival,[40] Fahrudin Radončić, President of the Union for a Better Future of Bosnia and Herzegovina, a political party, said that Bosnia and Herzegovina would apply to host the 2022 Winter Olympics in Sarajevo, which hosted the 1984 Winter Olympics when it was part of Yugoslavia.[41][42]
Quebec City initially expressed interest in bidding. In September 2011, Quebec City mayor Régis Labeaume ruled out bidding for 2022. However, the city may bid for another Winter Games in the future.[43] Former IOC President Jacques Rogge stated that he believes that the 2026 Winter Olympics would be a realistic option for the city to organize the games.[44] Quebec has a problem finding a mountain for the downhill event, as the planned location Le Massif was not approved.[45]
After an interview with then International Olympic Committee president Jacques Rogge during the 2012 Olympic Games in London discussions were started about how to organize Winter Olympics in the southern hemisphere for the first time. During the interview conditions in the Andes were highlighted as very suitable to stage snow sports events but a lack of existing venues for the ice sport events was identified as well.[46]
After Nice's failure to secure the French nomination for the 2018 Winter Olympics, mayor of Nice Christian Estrosi announced in 2011,[47] and again during the 2012 Summer Games, that his city remained interested in bidding.[48] The French Olympic Committee will make a decision after they get an autumn report about the failure of previous Olympic bids by France, but the president of the Committee also said that the probability of bidding for 2022 is weak.[49]
During the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver, Jouko Purontakanen, the Secretary General of the Finland Olympic Committee, said Finland could host the games alone in Tahko, Kuopio, and Helsinki, if the project for artificial heightening of the Tahko hill progresses.[50] Stefan Wallin, Finland's Minister for Culture and Sports, has also suggested that Finland should bid for the 2022 games with other Nordic countries after Finland's NOC discusses with them in Vancouver.[50] Nothing followed from these suggestions: the heightening of Tahko hill did not progress since 2010 due to environmental concerns,[51] and no Nordic countries indicated an interest to bid with Finland since the discussions in Vancouver.
Following Munich's failed bid to host the 2018 Winter Olympics, plans for a second attempt were made. On 30 September 2013, Deutscher Olympischer Sportbund (the German National Olympic Committee) announced its intention to submit a bid for Munich to host the 2022 Winter Olympics.[52] However, these plans were cancelled on 10 November 2013 when a majority of residents in the Munich area opposed the bid in referendums held in Munich, Garmisch-Partenkirchen and the Bavarian districts of Berchtesgadener Land and Traunstein (where the competitions would have taken place).[53] In each locality, a majority had voted against bidding: 51.2% in Munich, 51.6% in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, 54.0% in Berchtesgadener Land, and 59.7% in Traunstein.[54] Opponents pointed to the high costs for hosting the Olympics, environmental issues, and criticism of commercialization of sports, particularly the IOC.[55]
In order to address concerns voiced about the 2018 bid, the 2022 Games would have been located at four different places. Only Alpine Skiing and Ski Jumping competitions would have been held at Garmisch-Partenkirchen (the host city of the 1936 Winter Olympics), whilst Nordic Skiing and Biathlon events would have taken place at existing facilities at Ruhpolding, thus minimizing the land use. The Königssee bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton track would have become another important venue. Indoor ice skating events and ski/snowboard half-pipe competitions would have been held at the Olympiapark in Munich, the main site of the 1972 Summer Olympics; and the Olympic Stadium would have been used for the opening and closing ceremonies.[56]
Queenstown, New Zealand's main winter sports centre, has toyed with the idea of bidding for hosting rights of the Winter Olympics in the past, notably a 2007 report suggesting a bid (co-hosting with Dunedin) for the 2018 games. A proposal to bring the games to the Southern Hemisphere for the first time in 2022, to be jointly held in Queenstown and Christchurch, has been mooted by a private group, but does not have general support among the country's Olympians and is seen as unlikely to proceed.[57][58]
The mayor of Brașov, George Scripcaru, said in September 2011 that his city would be interested to bid if the 2013 European Youth Winter Olympic Festival is a success.[59] In 2007, former Romanian Prime Minister Călin Popescu Tăriceanu announced that the country was considering a bid for the Prahova Valley.[60] Instead of bidding for 2022, Brașov's mayor, George Scripcaru, announced in November 2013 that Brașov will be bidding to host the 2020 Winter Youth Olympics.
Barcelona, which hosted the 1992 Summer Olympics, considered a bid for the 2022 Olympics, but on 25 October 2013, mayor Xavier Trias announced that "the conditions" would not exist yet. Instead, one "must concentrate to reach the Olympic target by 2026".[61] On 13 January 2010, then mayor of Barcelona Jordi Hereu had first announced plans to host the 2022 Winter Olympics. The proposed "two cluster system" would have seen the Games being shared with La Molina, a ski resort in the Pyrenees. Indoor sports (as well as the opening, closing and medal ceremonies) would have taken place in Barcelona.[62][63][64] On 17 June 2015, mayor Ada Colau announced Barcelona would not be bidding for the 2026 either, stating it is not a priority project for the city.[65]
The Zaragoza-Pyrenees 2022 bid was withdrawn on 7 November 2011 and left Barcelona as sole candidate from Spain to host the 2022 Winter Olympics. Officials insisted that Barcelona never regarded Zaragoza as "a rival, but rather the opposite. Both of us championed the Pyrenees brand in our projects and that's why I believe Aragon will also benefit if Barcelona goes ahead with this bid, because it will have a positive effect on the whole Pyrenees".[66][67][68]
Ostersund was interested in a potential 2022 bid, but the Swedish Olympic Committee decided not to move forward with bidding due to a lack of financial guarantees from the government.[69] The SOC chairman said that future applications were unlikely because of the government policy.[70] However Sweden has applied with Stockholm as main city, with more arenas and hotels already available, therefore lower cost. Östersund previously bid for the 1994, 1998, and 2002 Winter Olympics but lost to Lillehammer, Nagano, and Salt Lake City respectively.
The intention to bid was approved in November 2010. On 24 January 2011, the Swiss Olympic Association, announced that five areas across Switzerland had shown interest in bidding to host the 2022 Winter Olympics:[71] Geneva, Valais, Graubünden, Lucerne/Central Switzerland and Bern. After a withdrawal from Central Switzerland,[72] the Swiss Olympic Association received four bids by 31 March 2011 deadline.[73] The executive committee of the Swiss Olympic Association decided on 11 August 2011 to put forward a bid of the St.Moritz/Davos-area to host the 2022 Olympic Winter Games. St. Moritz hosted the Winter Olympics in 1928 and 1948.
St. Moritz/Davos presented a project that will host all events in the surrounding area of Davos and St. Moritz; generally speaking, "ice events" in Davos and "snow events" in St. Moritz. However, Davos has a hosting tradition in Cross-country skiing and Snowboarding, and so one would expect Davos venues for those competitions. After the decision on 11 August 2011 a feasibility study for the Games was announced including the possibility to extend ice events to Zürich. The organizers decided during a session on 22 December 2011 to go forward with "St. Moritz 2022" as the official corporate name of the bid.[74] However at a plebiscite in Graubünden about the bid on 3 March 2013, the public voted with 41'758 to 37'540 votes (52.66% to 47.43%) [75] against a credit for the 2022 Olympic Games, meaning that the bid will have to be dropped.
  • United States Multiple cities, United States
Multiple cities in the United States—such as Bozeman, Montana; Denver, Colorado; Reno, Nevada; and Salt Lake City, Utah—expressed interest in bidding for the 2022 Games, but the U.S. Olympic Committee is opting to bid for the 2024 Summer Olympics or the 2026 Winter Olympics.[76]

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External links[edit]

Applicant cities bidbooks[edit]

Candidature files[edit]