Bielski partisans

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Bielski partisans

The Bielski partisans were a unit of Jewish partisans who rescued Jews from extermination and fought the German occupiers and their collaborators around Nowogródek (Navahrudak) and Lida (now in western Belarus) in German-occupied Poland. The partisan unit was named after the Bielskis, a family of Polish Jews who organized and led the organization.

The Bielski partisans spent more than two years living in the forest. By the end of the war they numbered as many as 1,236 members, most of which non-combatants, including children and the elderly. The Bielski partisans are seen by many Jews as heroes for having led as many refugees as they did away from the perils of war and the Holocaust.[1] However, as their relations with the non-Jewish population were strained and occasionally violent, their wartime record has been a subject to some controversy in Poland.[2]

Background[edit]

Before World War II, the Bielski family had been millers and grocers[3] in Stankiewicze (Stankievichy), near Nowogródek, an area that at the outbreak of the war belonged to Poland and in September 1939 was occupied by the Soviet Union (cf. Polish September Campaign and Soviet invasion of Poland (1939)) in accord with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact between Germany and the Soviet Union.

Before the war, Tuvia Bielski had received training in the Polish Army. After performing reserve duty, he engaged in trade, eventually becoming a smuggler.[4]

Under the Soviet occupation of eastern Poland, the remainder of the Bielski family served as low-level administrators for the Soviets, with Tuvia Bielski becoming a Soviet commissar.[5][6] This strained the Bielskis' relations with local Poles, who were subjected to Soviet repressions.

During Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union beginning 22 June 1941, Nowogródek became a Jewish ghetto, as the Germans took over the area and implemented their genocidal policies (see Holocaust in Poland and Holocaust in Belarus).

Partisans[edit]

Formation[edit]

The four Bielski brothers, Tuvia, Alexander (also known as "Zus"), Asael, and Aron, managed to flee into the nearby forests after their parents and other family members had been killed in the ghetto on 8 December 1941. In the spring of 1942, together with 13 ghetto neighbors, they formed the nucleus of a partisan combat unit. The unit originally numbered some 40 people, but quickly grew.

The unit's commander was the oldest brother, Tuvia, who had served in the Polish Army from 1927 to 1929, rising to the rank of corporal. He had been interested in the Zionist youth movement. He sent emissaries to infiltrate the area's ghettos, recruiting new members to the unit, which was sheltering in the Naliboki Forest. Hundreds of men, women, and children eventually found their way to the Bielski encampment; at its peak, the unit hosted 1,236 people, 70% of them women, children, and elderly; no one was turned away.[1] About 150 persons engaged in armed operations.[1]

Organization[edit]

The partisans lived in underground dugouts (zemlyankas) or bunkers. In addition, several utility structures were built: a kitchen, a mill, a bakery, a bathhouse, a medical clinic for the sick and wounded and a quarantine hut for those who suffered from infectious diseases such as typhus. Herds of cows supplied milk. Artisans made goods and carried out repairs, providing the combatants with logistical support that later served the Soviet partisan units in the vicinity as well. More than 125 workers toiled in the workshops, which became famous among partisans far beyond the Bielski base. Tailors patched up old clothing and stitched together new garments; shoemakers fixed old and made new footwear; leather-workers laboured on belts, bridles and saddles. A metalworking shop established by Shmuel Oppenheim repaired damaged weapons and constructed new ones from spare parts. A tannery, constructed to produce the hide for cobblers and leather workers, became a de facto synagogue because several tanners were devout Hasidic Jews. Carpenters, hat-makers, barbers and watchmakers served their own community and guests. The camp's many children attended class in the dugout set up as a school. The camp even had its own jail and court of law.[7]

Some accounts note the inequality between well-off partisans and poor inhabitants of the camp.[8] According to one of Tuvia Bielski's cousins who lived in the camp, relayed to her daughter, women were forced to strip naked upon entry and give up their underwear as a form of "entry ticket".[8]

Internal conflict[edit]

Tuvia Bielski was known for his authoritarian leadership style and was constantly involved in power struggles with other members of the unit. Israel Kessler, who tried to organize a group of people to leave the Bielski camp and form their own unit,[9] and others sent letters to General Platon and other Soviet officials that Tuvia Bielski was holding gold and jewelry in contradiction to partisan orders to hand these over to headquarters. A unit member, Stepan Szupien, suggested to the Soviets that they arrest and execute Bielski, accusing him of confiscating money under the pretext of buying weapons.[10] The Soviet command, concerned about the unit's leadership, began an internal investigation into an alleged protection racket conducted by Bielski. Chernishev cleared Bielski of the charges following an investigation.[9][11] Bielski viewed Kessler's actions as rebellion, put Kessler on trial, and executed him.[9] According to witness Estera Gorodejska, a drunk Bielski personally executed Kessler with three shots. Later Bielski ordered the destruction of Kessler's grave.[12]

Activities[edit]

The Bielski unit's partisans were primarily concerned with survival. Due to their poor equipment and training, they were not assigned main combat roles. Instead, its members operated field kitchens, hospitals, and bakeries and provided tailoring and cobbling services for Soviet soldiers.[13] Their main task, though, was forced requisitioning of food and other supplies from the local population.[13] The Bielski partisan group decided to prioritize saving Jews,[14] according to Tuvia Bielski "I would rather save one old Jewish woman than kill ten German soldiers".[15]

The Bielski partisans' targets also included the Germans and their collaborators who had betrayed or killed Jews, such as Belarusian volunteer policemen and local inhabitants, as well as their families. In one case, the Bielski partisans killed some 12 people from a Belorussian family who had betrayed 2 Jewish girls to the Germans. In another, the Bielski partisans killed several collaborators whose names they extracted from Ivan Tzwirkes, a collaborator with a Jewish wife.[16] They also conducted sabotage.

At the beginning of 1943 German planes dropped leaflets in the area promising a 50,000 Reichsmark reward for assistance in the capture of Tuvia Bielski, this figure was subsequently doubled to 100,000 RM. The leaflets, which were intended for the Christian population, also reached Jews and provided motivation and courage to attempt an escape to the forest camp.[17]

In August 1943 the Germans conducted a major clearing operation, Operation Hermann also dubbed the "big hunt", against villages and partisan groups in the Naliboki Forest. Partisan groups in the forest and surrounding villages suffered major casualties. The Bielski partisans, however, split into small groups and assembled back in their former base in the Jasinowo forest.[18] The communities around the Naliboki forest were devastated, the Germans deported the non-Jewish residents fit for work to Germany for slave labor and murdered most of the rest. Prior to the manhunt, homeless refugees were mainly Jews who had escaped the ghetto, but in the fall of 1943 non-Jewish Belorussian, Polish, and Gypsies who managed to flee roamed in the forest. Many joined partisan units, special family camps set up by the Soviets, and some joined the Bielski group who returned to the area and accepted anyone willing to join. While the Germans wrecked many communities, much was left behind in and around the forest that could sustain life. Fields, orchards, and beehives all had their produce and farm animals roamed the area around the forest. While the buildings of the villages were partially demolished, much of the building material was left usable as well as some household goods. The Bielski group foraged and gathered much of these materials, and tended to the fields.[19]

The Bielski partisans eventually became affiliated with Soviet organisations in the vicinity of the Naliboki Forest under General Platon (Vasily Yefimovich Chernyshev). Several attempts by Soviet commanders to absorb the Bielski fighters into their units were resisted,[citation needed] and the Jewish partisan group retained its integrity and remained under Tuvia Bielski's command. This allowed him to continue his mission of protecting Jewish lives and engaging in combat activity, but it would prove a problem later on.[citation needed]

In September 1943 General Platon ordered the splitting of the group. The first group, named Ordzhonikidze (a famous Georgian communist), was a 180 mainly Jewish fighting detachment (commanded by a non-Jew Lyushenko). All the rest were designated as Kalinin and included some 800 people, including 160 armed defenders, that were based in Naliboki forest and provided services to other partisan groups in the forest as well as participating in sabotage and diversionary actions. On 1 April 1944 the group was renamed as the Bielski otriad.[16]

Like other Soviet-affiliated partisan groups in the area, the Bielski partisans raided nearby villages and forcibly seized food; on occasion, peasants who refused to share their food with the partisans were subjected to violence, even murder. This caused hostility toward the partisans on the part of the peasants, though some willingly helped the Jewish partisans. Other peasants informed on the Jewish partisans in the forests to the Germans.[20] As the region had already been completely pacified by the Germans, and many villages had been burned down, the local population was in an especially dire situation.[21][22][23][24] The Belorussian farmers struggled to supply all the forces who were demanding food (Germans, Soviet, and Jews). One of the partisans said that "A partisan was something between a hero and a robber. We had to live and we had to deprive the peasants of their meager belongings", and that "Often we took by force from poor peasants who were not even pro-Nazi." The partisans of the Bielski and Simcha Zorin units became infamous among locals for their ruthlessness during raids, so much so that stopping their depredations became a chief point in negotiations between the Soviet command and the Polish Home Army.[25] The Polish resistance officially complained to the Soviets about alleged rapes and murders, including murders of young children, committed by these Soviet partisan groups, and asked the Soviet command to stop their food-requisitioning expeditions.[2] At the beginning of December 1943, Bielski's unit gathered 200 tonnes of potatoes, 3 tonnes of cabbage, 5 tonnes of beets, 5 tonnes of wheat, 3 tonnes of meat and one tonne of sausages. Dividing this by members of the camp (1200) it made 160 kilos of potatoes, 4 kilos of wheat, 2.5 kilos of meat, and 0.83 kilos of sausages per person. The partisans themselves admitted that they had overabundance of food, and the Zorin unit even sent some of the food supplies back to Moscow using delivery planes that supplied newspapers and propaganda materials.[26]


Assessment of combat operations[edit]

According to Kazimierz Krajewski, a November 1943 report from Tuvia Bielski to the Soviet command stated that in two years' operations their group of nearly a thousand people had managed to kill 14 Germans, 17 policemen, and 33 spies and provocateurs (Krajewski thinks these likely included peasants unsympathetic to Soviet partisans or who had resisted being plundered). In Krajewski's opinion, 14 Germans killed was not a substantial number for a two-year period.[13] Krajewski believes even these numbers, in Tuvia Bielski's report to Soviet authorities, to be overestimates.[13]

According to partisan documentation, in the period from the fall of 1943 to summer 1944 the Bielski fighters (1,140 Jews, 149 of whom were armed combatants) claimed to have carried out 38 combat missions, destroying 2 locomotives, 23 train cars, 32 telegraph poles, and 4 bridges.[27] In total, the Bielski partisans claimed during the war to have killed 381 enemy fighters (in part, jointly with Soviet groups) and to have lost 50 Bielski members.[28][29]

Relations with other groups[edit]

The Bielski partisans had friendly relations with the local Home Army commander, 2nd Lt. Kacper Miłaszewski. Miłaszewski, a native of the region, located his camp a kilometer from the Bielski camp, and according to Tuvia Bielski's memoirs felt a deep sympathy for the Bielski group because it sheltered women, elderly, and children. In August 1943 the Germans conducted a large-scale pacification operation in the Naliboki Forest, inflicting losses on civilians, Polish Home Army units, Soviet partisans, and the Bielski group.[30][31]

Following the German action, in which the Home Army unit lost 120 men and was forced out of the forest, Miłaszewski was replaced with Adolf Pilch who was placed in charge of the Stolpce battalion. By September 1943 the Soviets began a policy of confrontation against the Polish anti-Nazi underground, which it saw as a threat to its aims in Eastern Poland.[32] In December the Soviets drew Plich's men into a trap by inviting them to "friendly talks", then surrounded Pilch's men and threatened to execute kidnapped Polish officers unless the unit surrendered. Bielski's unit participated in this operation.[32] Some 135 Polish soldiers and 9 officers were arrested. However, Pilch managed to evade capture along with 50 others; according to Pilch the Bielski partisans were too distracted with pillaging the Polish camp in search of valuables, which allowed him to escape capture.[32] Pilch's unit would continue to fight the Soviet partisans.[32][33] Fighting on the Soviet side, the Bielski partisans took part in clashes between Polish and Soviet forces.[34] On 5 March 1944, Zus's fighter detachment attacked jointly with Soviet forces a group of Polish fighters, killing 47 and injuring 20 more. On 22 March 20 Jewish fighters managed to ambush a Nazi convoy and kill 12.[35] According to Kazimierz Krajewski in May 1944 the village of Kamień, in Stolpce, was attacked by a force involving Bielski partisans; 23 Home Army soldiers and 20 civilians were killed.[2]

Disbandment[edit]

In the summer of 1944, when the Soviet counteroffensive began in Belarus and the area was taken over by the Soviets, the Kalinin unit, numbering some 1,200 of which 70% were women, elderly, and children, marched into Nowogródek. Following one final parade, they disbanded.[36]

Despite their previous collaboration with the Soviets, relations quickly worsened.[32] The NKVD started interrogating the Bielski brothers about the rumours of loot they had reportedly collected during the war, and about their failure to "implement socialist ideals in the camp".[32] Asael Bielski was conscripted into the Soviet Red Army and died in the Battle of Königsberg in 1945.[32] The remaining brothers escaped Soviet-controlled lands, emigrating to the West.[32] Tuvia's cousin, Yehuda Bielski, was sought by the NKVD for having been an officer in the pre-war Polish Army, but managed to escape with Tuvia's help and made his way to Hungary and then to Israel.[37]

Postwar[edit]

After the war, Tuvia Bielski returned to Poland, then emigrated to present-day Israel in 1945. Tuvia and Zus eventually settled in New York where they operated a successful trucking business. When Tuvia died in 1987, he was buried in Long Island, New York, but a year later, at the urging of surviving partisans in Israel, he was exhumed and given a hero's funeral at Har Hamenuchot, the hillside graveyard in Jerusalem. His wife, Lilka, was buried beside him in 2001.

The last living Bielski brother, Aron Bielski, emigrated to the US in 1951. He changed his name to "Aron Bell." The remainder of the Bell family now lives in upstate New York and California. Aron lives in Florida. None of the Bielskis ever sought any recognition or reward for their actions.

Yehuda Bielski, their first cousin and fellow partisan, moved to Israel to fight in the Irgun.[38]

Alleged war crimes[edit]

Some Bielski partisans (but not the Bielski brothers themselves) have been accused of war crimes against the neighboring population, particularly of involvement in the 1943 Naliboki massacre of 129 persons, committed by Soviet partisans.[39] Though some witnesses and historians[who?] place Bielski partisans at the massacre, former members and other historians such as Bogdan Musiał dispute this,[40] stating that the partisans did not arrive in the area until several months later.[41] Musiał notes that some Bielski partisans stole food from the massacre's survivors.[40]

Poland's Institute of National Remembrance has been investigating the massacre since the early 2000s. As of April 2009, it had not issued an official finding.[39][42] But some historians[who?] working at the Institute have asserted in other publications that the Bielski brothers were not involved in the massacre.[40]

Historian Kazimierz Krajewski lists other incidents in which Bielski partisans were involved, in addition to the surprise attack against a Home Army unit in December 1943 after it had signed an agreement of cooperation with Soviet partisans, in which over a dozen Home Army soldiers were murdered, and in following days 50 more were killed. In May 1944 the village of Kamień, in Stolpce, was attacked by a force involving Bielski partisans; 20 Home Army soldiers and 20 civilians were killed. In May 1944 a unit of the Ordzhonikidze sub-group of the Bielski partisans, together with Soviets, murdered 47 Poles in the Lida region, in Filonowiec and Dokudowa, mainly civilian families accused of supporting the Polish Home Army.[2]

Books and film[edit]

Two English language books have focused on the Bielski story: Defiance (1993) by Nechama Tec and The Bielski Brothers (2004) by Peter Duffy. The group is also mentioned in numerous books about this period in history. Fugitives of the Forest: The Heroic Story of Jewish Resistance and Survival During the Second World War, by Allan Levine (first published 1998, 2008 reissue, by Lyons Press),[43] tells the story of Jewish fighters and refugees in forests across Europe, including the Bielski partisans. With Courage Shall We Fight: The Memoirs and Poetry of Holocaust Resistance Fighters Frances "Fruma" Gulkowich Berger and Murray "Motke" Berger tells the story of two Bielski Brigade fighters before, during and after the war.

In 2006, the History Channel aired a documentary titled The Bielski Brothers: Jerusalem in the Woods, written and directed by filmmaker Dean Ward.[44]

A book (January 2009) in Polish by two reporters from Gazeta Wyborcza, Odwet: Prawdziwa historia braci Bielskich (Revenge: The True Story of the Bielski Brothers) was accused of consisting of plagiarism[45] and withdrawn.[46] It focused on the larger political and historical context in which the partisans operated, specifically the fighting between Polish and Soviet resistance groups in the Kresy (former Eastern Poland) region.[citation needed]

An episode of the BBC series Who Do You Think You Are? featured UK television personality Natasha Kaplinsky discovering that her great-uncle Ytsak Kaplinski was a member of the Bielski partisans. He survived the war and emigrated to South Africa.[47]

The BBC series Ray Mears's Extreme Survival featured an episode about the Bielski partisans.[48]

The feature film Defiance, co-written, produced and directed by Edward Zwick, was released internationally in January 2009. It stars Daniel Craig, Liev Schreiber, Jamie Bell and George MacKay as Tuvia, Zus, Asael and Aron Bielski respectively. It opened to mixed reviews[49] and raised questions about the roles various groups played during the war.[50]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "THE BIELSKI PARTISANS". United States Holocaust Museum. Archived from the original on 14 January 2009. Retrieved 15 January 2009.
  2. ^ a b c d Kazimierz Krajewski – "Opór"? "Odwet"? Czy po prostu "polityka historyczna"? nr 3/2009 - Instytut Pamięci Narodowej page 105
  3. ^ Tec, Nechama (1993). Defiance: The Bielski Partisans. Oxford University Press US. ISBN 0-19-509390-9.
  4. ^ Gazeta Wyborcza - 12 January 2009 Piotr Gluchowski, Marcin Kowalski< PIOTR GŁUCHOWSKI, MARCIN KOWALSKI Wojna polsko-ruska pod bokiem niemieckim
  5. ^ Gazeta Wyborcza - 12 January 2009 Piotr Gluchowski, Marcin Kowalski< PIOTR GŁUCHOWSKI, MARCIN KOWALSKI Wojna polsko-ruska pod bokiem niemieckim
  6. ^ Snyder, Timothy, "Caught Between Hitler & Stalin", The New York Review of Books, vol. 56, no. 7 (30 April 2009), [1] (restricted)
  7. ^ Peter Duffy, The Bielski Brothers. New York, HarperCollins, 2003, ISBN 0-06-621074-7, pp. 214-17.
  8. ^ a b (in Polish) Piotr Zychowicz, "Bielski pomagał Żydom, ale też ich wykorzystywał" ("Bielski Helped the Jews, but Also Exploited Them") Archived 18 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine., Rzeczpospolita (The Republic), 23 January 2009.
  9. ^ a b c in the Shadow of the Red Banner: Soviet Jews in the War Against Nazi Gemany Archived 27 June 2018 at the Wayback Machine., Yitzhak Arad, pages 298-299
  10. ^ Kazimierz Krajewski, "Opór"? "Odwet"? Czy po prostu "polityka historyczna"? Instytut Pamięci Narodowej, no. 3/2009, pp. 106-7.
  11. ^ Defiance Archived 27 June 2018 at the Wayback Machine., Nechama Tec, page 182-3
  12. ^ (in Polish) Piotr Zychowicz, "Bielski pomagał Żydom, ale też ich wykorzystywał" ("Bielski Helped Jews but Also Exploited Them") Archived 18 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine., Rzeczpospolita (The Republic), 23 January 2009
  13. ^ a b c d Kazimierz Krajewski, ""Opór"? "Odwet"? Czy po prostu "polityka historyczna"?", Instytut Pamięci Narodowej, no. 3/2009, p. 104.
  14. ^ in a Twilight World: Partisan and Anti-Partisan Warfare in Eastern Europe, 1939-45 Archived 1 July 2018 at the Wayback Machine., chapter by Kenneth Slepyan, Palgrave Macmillan, pages 52-53
  15. ^ The Morality of Self-defense and Military Action: The Judeo-Christian Tradition Archived 1 July 2018 at the Wayback Machine., David B. Kopel, Praeger, page 119
  16. ^ a b "Nowogrodek: The Story of a Shtetl." Archived 27 June 2018 at the Wayback Machine. Yad Vashem Studies 35.2 (2007): 59.M, Yehuda Bauer.
  17. ^ Defiance Archived 28 June 2018 at the Wayback Machine., Oxford University Press, Nechama Tec, 2009, page 315
  18. ^ Defiance Archived 28 June 2018 at the Wayback Machine., Oxford University Press, Nechama Tec, 1993, pages 116-124
  19. ^ Defiance Archived 28 June 2018 at the Wayback Machine., Oxford University Press, Nechama Tec, 1993, pages 127-129
  20. ^ http://www.yadvashem.org/yv/en/education/newsletter/28/bielski_brothers.asp#09 Archived 20 June 2018 at the Wayback Machine. The International School for Holocaust Studies Solidarity in the Forest – The Bielski Brothers By Franziska Reiniger
  21. ^ Kazimierz Krajewski – "Opór"? "Odwet"? Czy po prostu "polityka historyczna"? nr 3/2009 - Instytut Pamięci Narodowej page 104
  22. ^ "Family Camps in the Forest" (PDF). Shoah Resource Center. Retrieved 22 January 2009.
  23. ^ A Hollywood Movie About Heroes or Murderers? Archived 31 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine., Gazeta Wyborcza, 16 June 2008
  24. ^ "Wymazany Aron Bell". Gazeta Wyborcza (in Polish). Archived from the original on 20 June 2018. Retrieved 5 June 2018.
  25. ^ Kazimierz Krajewski – "Opór"? "Odwet"? Czy po prostu "polityka historyczna"? nr 3/2009 - Instytut Pamięci Narodowej page 104-105
  26. ^ Pamięć i Sprawiedliwość - nr 2/2003 Adam Puławski Postrzeganie żydowskich oddziałów partyzanckich przez Armię Krajową i Delegaturę Rządu RP na Kraj
  27. ^ The Morality of Self-defense and Military Action: The Judeo-Christian Tradition Archived 27 June 2018 at the Wayback Machine., David B. Kopel, Praeger, page 119
  28. ^ Duffy, Peter, The Bielski Brothers. New York: HarperCollins, 2003. ISBN 0-06-621074-7. p. 281: "The numbers are cited in the partisan histories of Ordzhonikidze (Fond 3618; Opus I; File 23) and Kalinin (Fond 3500; Opus 4; File 272) in the Minsk archives. The Kalinin history is also available at Yad Vashem (M.41/120).
  29. ^ The Holocaust: An Encyclopedia and Document Collection Archived 27 June 2018 at the Wayback Machine., ABC-Clio, Paul R. Bartrop, Michael Dickerman, page 83
  30. ^ The Polish Underground and the Jews, 1939-1945, Cambridge University Press, Joshua D. Zimmerman, ISBN 978-1107014268, pages 273-275
  31. ^ Defiance Archived 28 June 2018 at the Wayback Machine., Oxford University Press, Nechama Tec, 1993, pages 114-117
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h (in Polish) Piotr Głuchowski, Marcin Kowalski, Wojna polsko-ruska pod bokiem niemieckim Archived 22 June 2018 at the Wayback Machine., Gazeta Wyborcza, 13 January 2009
  33. ^ Defiance Archived 28 June 2018 at the Wayback Machine., Oxford University Press, Nechama Tec, 1993, pages 153
  34. ^ The True Story of the Bielski Brothers Archived 29 December 2009 at the Wayback Machine. (in Polish) Prawdziwa historia Bielskich Archived 17 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine., Gazeta Wyborcza, 6 January 2009
  35. ^ The Bielski Brothers: The True Story of Three Men Who Defied the Nazis, Built a Village in the Forest, and Saved 1,200 Jews, Peter Duffy, 2004, page 246
  36. ^ Saving One's Own: Jewish Rescuers During the Holocaust Archived 29 June 2018 at the Wayback Machine., Mordecai Paldiel, University of Nebraska Press, page 94
  37. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 10 March 2011. Retrieved 24 January 2009.
  38. ^ Desk, Jewish Press News. "2 Earthquakes Lightly Shake Northern Israel".
  39. ^ a b The report (in Polish) about the IPN investigation of Naliboki massacre and other crimes committed by Soviet partisans from Naliboki Forest Archived 16 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  40. ^ a b c (in Polish) Bogdan Musiał, Bielski w puszczy niedomówień Archived 18 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine., Rzeczpospolita, 31 January 2009
  41. ^ Marissa Brostoff, "Polish Investigators Tie Partisans to Massacre," Forward (8/7/08) http://www.forward.com/articles/13935/ Archived 5 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  42. ^ "Jewish Brothers' Resistance Inspired'Defiance'". NPR. 28 December 2008. Retrieved 20 January 2009.
  43. ^ Levine, Allan. Fugitives of the Forest. New York: Lyons Press, 2008.
  44. ^ "The Bielski Brothers: Jerusalem in the Woods". IMDb. 12 November 2006.
  45. ^ Meteoryt.pl. "Centrum Badań nad Zagładą Żydów - Plagiatorzy nagrodzeni !". holocaustresearch.pl.
  46. ^ S.A., Wirtualna Polska Media (9 February 2009). "Książka o braciach Bielskich wycofana z dystrybucji".
  47. ^ "Natasha Kaplinsky Episode Guide - Who Do You Think You Are Magazine". whodoyouthinkyouaremagazine.com.
  48. ^ http://www.2ndgeneration.org.uk/event.php?a=view&event_id=40
  49. ^ "Defiance". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on 21 January 2009. Retrieved 20 January 2009.
  50. ^ Kamil Tchorek (31 December 2008). "Country split over whether Daniel Craig is film hero or villain". The Times. London. Retrieved 31 December 2008.

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Berger, Ralph S. and Albert S. Berger, editors "With Courage Shall We Fight: The Memoirs and Poetry of Frances "Fruma" Gulkowich Berger and Murray "Motke" Berger". Comteq Publishing, 2010. ISBN 978-1-935232-20-9.
  • Duffy, Peter, The Bielski Brothers. New York: HarperCollins, 2003. ISBN 0-06-621074-7.
  • Eckman, Lester and Lazar, Chaim, The Jewish Resistance: The History of the Jewish Partisans in Lithuania and White Russia During the Nazi Occupation 1940–1945. Shengold Publishers, 1977. ISBN 0-88400-050-8.
  • Levine, Allan, Fugitives of the Forest: The Heroic Story of Jewish Resistance and Survival During the Second World War. Stoddart, 1998. Reissued with a new introduction by The Lyons Press, 2008. ISBN 978-1-59921-496-2.
  • Tec, Nechama, Defiance: The Bielski Partisans. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. ISBN 0-19-509390-9.

External links[edit]