Bifidobacterium bifidum

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Bifidobacterium bifidum
Close view of Petri dish culture plate containing brain heart infusion (BHI) agar growth medium, inoculated with Bifidobacterium bifidum which, after a 42–72hr incubation period, has developed dewdrop-type bacterial colonies
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Actinomycetota
Class: Actinomycetia
Order: Bifidobacteriales
Family: Bifidobacteriaceae
Genus: Bifidobacterium
B. bifidum
Binomial name
Bifidobacterium bifidum
(Tissier 1900) Orla-Jensen 1924 (Approved Lists 1980)[1]

Bifidobacterium bifidum is a bacterial species of the genus Bifidobacterium. B. bifidum is one of the most common probiotic bacteria that can be found in the body of mammals, including humans.

Structure and characteristics[edit]

B. bifidum is a Gram-positive, anaerobic bacterium that is neither motile nor spore-forming.[3] The bacterium is rod-shaped and can be found living in clusters, pairs, or even independently. The majority of the population of B. bifidum is found in the colon, lower small intestine, breast milk, and often in the vagina.[4]

B. bifidum is an essential bacteria found in the human intestine. When it is low or absent all together in the human intestine, it is an indication of being in an unhealthy state. Intestinal flora can be improved if someone takes oral B. bifidum. Also, oral B. bifidum is used for other things such as therapy for enteric and hepatic disorders, for activating the immune response, and for preventing some cancers.[5] B. bifidum decreases as people age. As B. bifidum decreases, other gut bacteria such as Lactobacilli, Enterococci, Enterobacteria and Clostridia increase. All of these increase an older adults risk for cancer and decrease the ability for their liver to function adequately and efficiently.[6] .


The use of B. bifidum in probiotic applications may reduce the chances of acute diarrhea and the risk of E. coli infections, and contributes to the maintenance of vaginal homeostasis.[7]

Intestinal microbial balance is important for an individual's digestive system. Some people keep this balance through diet alone where others take probiotics, which are microbial supplements. B. bifidum is an important intestinal microbe. One study shows that because hard cheese has a higher pH, higher fat content and is more solid, it is more effective in carrying probiotics such as B. bifidum to a person through ingestion.[8]

Health concerns[edit]

The manipulation of the gut flora is complex and may cause bacteria-host interactions.[9] Although probiotics, in general, are considered safe, there are concerns about their use in certain cases.[9][10] Some people, such as those with compromised immune systems, short bowel syndrome, central venous catheters, heart valve disease and premature infants, may be at higher risk for adverse events.[11] Rarely, consumption of probiotics may cause bacteremia, and sepsis, potentially fatal infections in children with lowered immune systems or who are already critically ill.[12]


  1. ^ a b Parte, A.C. "Bifidobacterium". LPSN.
  2. ^ "Bifidobacterium bifidum". NCBI taxonomy. Bethesda, MD: National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 1 March 2018.
  3. ^ Hoover, D. G. (2014-01-01), "Bifidobacterium", in Batt, Carl A.; Tortorello, Mary Lou (eds.), Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology (Second Edition), Oxford: Academic Press, pp. 216–222, doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-384730-0.00033-1, ISBN 978-0-12-384733-1, retrieved 2022-01-05
  4. ^ Palmer, Chana; Bik, Elisabeth M; DiGiulio, Daniel B; Relman, David A; Brown, Patrick O (26 June 2007). "Development of the Human Infant Intestinal Microbiota". PLOS Biology. 5 (7): e177. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050177. PMC 1896187. PMID 17594176.
  5. ^ Mitsuoka, Tomotari (December 1990). "Bifidobacteria and their role in human health". Journal of Industrial Microbiology. 6 (4): 263–267. doi:10.1007/BF01575871. S2CID 42494430.
  6. ^ Kleessen, B; Sykura, B; Zunft, H J; Blaut, M (1 May 1997). "Effects of inulin and lactose on fecal microflora, microbial activity, and bowel habit in elderly constipated persons". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 65 (5): 1397–1402. doi:10.1093/ajcn/65.5.1397. PMID 9129468.
  7. ^ Selle, Kurt; Klaenhammer, Todd R. (November 2013). "Genomic and phenotypic evidence for probiotic influences of Lactobacillus gasseri on human health". FEMS Microbiology Reviews. 37 (6): 915–935. doi:10.1111/1574-6976.12021. PMID 23488471.
  8. ^ Zer, Barbaros; Uzun, Yakup Salih; Kirmaci, Hseyin Avni (August 2008). "Effect of Microencapsulation on Viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium bifidum BB-12 During Kasar Cheese Ripening". International Journal of Dairy Technology. 61 (3): 237–244. doi:10.1111/j.1471-0307.2008.00408.x.
  9. ^ a b Durchschein F, Petritsch W, Hammer HF (2016). "Diet therapy for inflammatory bowel diseases: The established and the new". World J Gastroenterol (Review). 22 (7): 2179–94. doi:10.3748/wjg.v22.i7.2179. PMC 4734995. PMID 26900283.
  10. ^ Boyle, Robert J; Robins-Browne, Roy M; Tang, Mimi LK (1 June 2006). "Probiotic use in clinical practice: what are the risks?". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 83 (6): 1256–1264. doi:10.1093/ajcn/83.6.1256. PMID 16762934.
  11. ^ Doron, Shira; Snydman, David R. (15 May 2015). "Risk and Safety of Probiotics". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 60 (suppl_2): S129–S134. doi:10.1093/cid/civ085. PMC 4490230. PMID 25922398.
  12. ^ Singhi, Sunit C.; Kumar, Suresh (29 March 2016). "Probiotics in critically ill children". F1000Research. 5: 407. doi:10.12688/f1000research.7630.1. PMC 4813632. PMID 27081478.

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