Big Ben (Heard Island)
|Elevation||2,745 m (9,006 ft) |
|Prominence||2,745 m (9,006 ft) |
|Listing||Country high point|
|Location||Heard Island, Australia|
|Topo map||RAN Heard Island 291|
|Age of rock||Quaternary|
|Last eruption||2012 – ongoing (as of 11 June 2019)|
Big Ben is a volcanic massif that dominates the geography of Heard Island in the southern Indian Ocean. It is a stratovolcano with a diameter of approximately 25 km (16 mi). Its highest point is Mawson Peak, which is 2,745 m (9,006 ft) above sea level. Much of it is covered by ice, including 14 major glaciers which descend from Big Ben to the sea. Big Ben is the highest mountain in Australian Territory, except for those claimed in the Australian Antarctic Territory. A smaller volcanic headland, the Laurens Peninsula, extends approximately 10 km (6.2 mi) to the northwest, created by a separate volcano, Mount Dixon; its highest point is Anzac Peak, at 715 m (2,346 ft).
Big Ben has been known under a variety of names throughout its history, including Big Ben Peak, Old Ben Mountain, Emperor William Peak and Kaiser Wilhelm-Berg.
Volcanic activity at the cone has been known since 1881. An eruption occurred in 1993. Satellite images detected eruptions during 2000. On 2 February 2001, observations from Atlas Cove, 15 km (9.3 mi) northwest of Mawson Peak, showed plumes up to 1 km (0.62 mi) high over the volcano. Satellite images showed hotspots at various times from 2003 to 2008, and during September 2012. A further eruption was reported on 2 February 2016, and was recorded by scientists who happened to be in the area on an expedition. Big Ben does not endanger humans because Heard Island is uninhabited.
- "Big Ben". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2019-08-10.
- "Heard". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2019-08-10.
- Division, c=AU;o=Commonwealth of Australia;ou=Department of the Environment;ou=Australian Antarctic. "Frequently asked questions". heardisland.antarctica.gov.au. Retrieved 2016-05-23.
- Big Ben
- Heard Island Volcano - John Seach
- "Scientists film Big Ben sub-Antarctic volcano eruption". BBC News. Retrieved 2016-02-02.
- LeMasurier, W. E.; Thomson, J. W., eds. (1990). Volcanoes of the Antarctic Plate and Southern Oceans. American Geophysical Union. p. 512 pp. ISBN 0-87590-172-7.