Big Bog, Maui

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Big Bog
Big-Bog-Haleakala.jpg
Rain gauge on a ridge overlooking the Big Bog
Highest point
Elevation5,400 ft (1,600 m)
Coordinates20°44′07″N 156°06′20″W / 20.73528°N 156.10556°W / 20.73528; -156.10556Coordinates: 20°44′07″N 156°06′20″W / 20.73528°N 156.10556°W / 20.73528; -156.10556
Geography

The Big Bog on the island of Maui is the largest high-altitude bog in the Hawaiian Islands. It is on the border between Hāna Forest Reserve and Haleakalā National Park. It is alleged to be one of the wettest places on earth, with a reported annual rainfall of 404 inches (10,300 mm)[1] for the period 1992-2018.

Climate[edit]

The Big Bog has a Tropical rainforest climate (Af), with no observable dry season and nearly constant torrential rainfall. Prior to the establishment of the station there in 1992, rainfall for Big Bog was estimated at around 4,600 mm (180 inches) per year. However, the first full year of recorded data showed 13,995 mm (551 inches) of rainfall, which is one of the highest annual rainfall totals measured in the Hawaiian Islands.[2] Since then, the annual average has been recorded as 404 inches (10,300 mm). Clear days are essentially nonexistent, and even when it isn't raining, it is almost certainly cloudy or foggy. The lack of adequate drainage has caused moisture to accumulate, forming the bog.[2]

Climate data for Big Bog (HN-164) 1993-2011
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average rainfall inches (mm) 32.17
(817.0)
24.94
(633.6)
52.07
(1,322.7)
38.51
(978.1)
25.52
(648.2)
28.51
(724.2)
32.80
(833.0)
31.04
(788.5)
26.07
(662.2)
38.31
(973.1)
38.02
(965.8)
36.42
(925.0)
404.38
(10,271.4)
Source: [3]

Causes[edit]

The Big Bog lies at 5,400 feet (1,600 m), very close to the trade wind inversion layer, leading to persistent transport of moisture rich air by the northeast trade winds up the steep mountain slopes. These trade winds condense to form clouds and precipitation. Its moniker as the cloudiest place in the Hawaiian Islands is verified by the fact that its average solar radiation and potential evapotranspiration are the lowest amongst recorded locations, and relative humidity and cloud attenuation are the highest.[2]

Comparison with Mount Waiʻaleʻale[edit]

While the summit of Mount Waiʻaleʻale has long been considered the wettest place in the Hawaiian Islands,[4] and thus Oceania, the Big Bog has a higher 30-year average. NOAA reports Wai’ale’ale's annual rainfall as 373.85 inches (9495.8mm),[5] while the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa reports the Big Bog's as 404.3 inches, or 10,271 mm. This would make the Big Bog the wettest location in the Hawaiian Islands and in Oceania, although many amateur sources cite Mount Waiʻaleʻale's precipitation as higher.

Satellite image of the Big Bog on Maui.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Burt, Christopher (15 May 2012). "New Wettest Location for U.S.A. Discovered?". Wunderground. Weather Underground. Retrieved 30 August 2018. "30-year mean precipitation at Big Bog for the POR of 1978-2007 is 404.4”.
  2. ^ a b c Longman, R.J.; Giambelluca, T.W. (2015), "Climatology of Haleakala", Climatology of Haleakalā Technical Report No. 193., 1 (1): 105–106
  3. ^ Giambelluca, Frasier, Diaz, Needham, T.W., A.G., H.F., H.L. (2016). "Hawaii rainfall interactive map". Rainfall atlas of Hawaii. University of Hawaii. Retrieved 5 September 2018.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  4. ^ "The Second Wettest Spot on Earth, Mount Wai'ale'ale on Kaua'i". Kukui'ula. Kukui'ula. 27 January 2015. Retrieved 30 August 2018. "Wai’ale’ale means “rippling water” or “overflowing water” in Hawaiian and is the second wettest spot on earth”.
  5. ^ "MT WAIALEALE 1047, HAWAII (516565)". WRCC. NOAA. 1 August 2008. Retrieved 30 August 2018.