Big Brother (franchise)

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This article is about the franchise. For other uses, see Big Brother (disambiguation).
Big Brother
International Logo of Big Brother.png
International logo of Big Brother
Also known as Secret Story
Celebrity/VIP Big Brother
Teen Big Brother
Genre Entertainment
Reality television
Created by John de Mol
Developed by John de Mol
Composer(s) Vanacore Music
Country of origin Netherlands
Distributor Endemol
Original network Veronica
Original release 16 September 1999 (1999-09-16) – present
External links
Big Brother on Endemol

Big Brother is a reality game show franchise created by John de Mol, originally broadcast in the Netherlands. In the show, contestants called "housemates" or "house guests" live together in a specially-constructed house that is isolated from the outside world. During their stay in the house, contestants are continuously monitored by live television cameras as well as personal audio microphones. Each season lasts for about three months, with at least ten contestants entering the house during this time. To win the final cash prize, a contestant must survive periodic (usually weekly) evictions and be the last housemate or house guest remaining in the compound by the series' conclusion. In English-speaking countries, the program is often referred to as "BB".[1]



The ideas for Big Brother are said to originate from a brainstorming session at the Dutch-based international television production firm Endemol on 10 March 1997[citation needed]. The first version of Big Brother was broadcast in 1999 on Veronica in the Netherlands. Since then, the format has become a worldwide TV franchise.[2]

Although each country has variations on the original format, the common theme is that the contestants are confined to the house and have their every action recorded by cameras and microphones; and that no contact with the outside world is permitted.

The term Big Brother originates from George Orwell's novel Nineteen Eighty-Four, with its theme of continuous oppressive surveillance.[2] The program also relies on other techniques, such as a stripped back-to-basic environment, evictions, weekly tasks and competitions set by Big Brother and the "Diary or Confession Room" where housemates convey their thoughts to camera and reveal their nominees for eviction. Contestants are required to evict one of their own on a regular basis.[3] In the earlier series of Big Brother, contestants were evicted every two weeks. However, the UK version introduced weekly evictions, so now almost all versions of Big Brother now follow the weekly eviction format.

In regular intervals, the housemates privately nominate a number of fellow housemates whom they wish get evicted from the house. In several seasons, however, housemates regularly make their nominations in front of every housemate. The housemates with the most nominations are then announced, and viewers are given the opportunity to vote via telephone for whom they wish to see evicted. Some more recent editions have since included additional methods of voting, such as voting through social media and smartphone applications. The exceptions to this process are in the American and Canadian versions, in which the housemates vote to evict each other. After the votes are tallied, the "evictee" leaves the house and is interviewed by the host of the show. In some cases, two housemates may be evicted simultaneously (a "double eviction"); rarely, no housemates will be removed that week. At the end of the game the last remaining housemate is declared the winner for the particular series and receives prizes (often including a large amount of money, a car, a vacation and—in some editions—a house).

In the first season of most series of Big Brother, the house was very basic. Although essential amenities such as running water, furniture and a limited ration of food were provided, luxury items were often forbidden. This added a survivalist element to the show, increasing the potential for social tension. Nearly all later series provide a modern house for the contest with a jacuzzi, sauna, VIP suite, loft and other luxuries.

The contestants are required to do housework and are assigned tasks by the producers of the show (who communicate with the housemates via the omnipresent authority figure known to them only as "Big Brother"). The tasks are designed to test their teamwork abilities and community spirit; in some countries, the housemates' shopping budget or weekly allowance depends on the outcome of assigned tasks. The housemates have a weekly allowance, with which they can buy food and other essentials.

Most international versions of the show remain quite similar to each other; their main format remains true to the original fly on the wall observational style with the emphasis on human relationships, to the extent that contestants are forbidden from discussing nominations or voting strategy. Since 2001 the American version adopted a different format from the others during its second season, where the contestants are encouraged to strategize to advance in the game. In this format the contestants themselves vote to evict each other. In 2011, the UK version controversially adapted the discussion of nominations before reverting this rule back after a poll by Big Brother broadcaster Channel 5.[4]


From a sociological and demographic perspective, Big Brother allows an analysis of how people react[citation needed] when forced into close confinement with people outside of their comfort zone (with different opinions or ideals, or from a different socioeconomic group). The viewer has the opportunity to see how a person reacts from the outside (through the constant recording of their actions) and the inside (in the Diary or Confession Room). The Diary Room is where contestants can privately express their feelings about the game, strategy and the other contestants. The results range from violent or angry confrontations to genuine and tender connections (often including romantic interludes).

The show is notable for involving the Internet. Although the show typically broadcasts daily updates during the evening (sometimes criticized for heavy editing by producers from viewers and former contestants alike[5]), viewers can also watch a continuous feed from multiple cameras on the Web in most countries. These websites were successful, even after some national series began charging for access to the video stream. In some countries, Internet broadcasting was supplemented by updates via email, WAP and SMS. The house is shown live on satellite television, although in some countries there is a 10–15 minute delay to allow libelous or unacceptable content (such as references to people not participating in the program who have not consented to have personal information broadcast) to be removed.

Contestants occasionally develop sexual relationships; the level of sexual explicitness allowed to be shown in broadcast and Internet-feed varies according to the country's broadcasting standards.


Big Brother contestants are isolated in the house, without access to television, radio or the Internet. They are not permitted routine communication with the outside world. This was an important issue for most earlier series of the show. In more-recent series, contestants are occasionally allowed to view televised events (usually as a reward for winning at a task). In most versions of the program, books and writing materials are also forbidden, although exceptions are sometimes made for religious materials such as the Bible, Tanakh or the Qur'an. Some versions ban all writing implements, even items that can be used to write (such as lipstick or eyeliner). Despite the housemates' isolation, some contestants are occasionally allowed to leave the house as part of tasks. Contestants are permitted to leave the house in an emergency.

Contestants have regularly-scheduled interactions with the show's host on eviction nights. Throughout each day the program's producer, in the "Big Brother" voice, issues directives and commands to contestants. Some versions of the show allow private counseling sessions with a psychologist. These are allowed at any time, and are often conducted by telephone from the Diary Room.

Format changes and twists[edit]

Regional versions[edit]

World map, with different shading for "Big Brother" versions
Locations of Big Brother versions:
  With individual franchises
  Part of Big Brother Africa
  Part of Big Brother Angola e Moçambique; Also part of Big Brother Africa
  With individual franchises; Also part of Big Brother Africa
  Part of Big Brother: الرئيس
  Part of Gran Hermano del Pacífico
  With individual franchises; Also part of Gran Hermano del Pacífico
  Part of Veliki brat
  With individual franchises; Also part of Big Brother of Scandinavia

Due to the intelligibility of certain languages across several nations, it has been possible to make regional versions of Big Brother. All these follow the normal Big Brother rules, except that contestants must come from each of the countries in the region where it airs: Big Brother Angola e Moçambique of Angola and Mozambique, Big Brother Africa of Africa (includes Angola, Botswana, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe), Big Brother: الرئيس of the Middle East (includes Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Syria, and Tunisia), Gran Hermano del Pacífico of South America (includes Argentina, Chile, Ecuador, and Peru), Big Brother of Scandinavia (includes Norway and Sweden), and Veliki brat of the Balkans (includes Serbia, Montenegro, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia). The British version of the show accepts Irish applicants and was available between 2000 and 2010 as Channel 4 was available; as of 2015 the show returned to Irish screens as TV3 bought the rights from UK broadcaster Channel 5 to air the show.

Multiple areas and houses[edit]

In 2001, Big Brother 3 of the Netherlands introduced the "Rich and Poor" concept, wherein the house is separated into a luxurious half and a poor half and two teams of housemates fight for a place in the luxurious half. The Dutch version continued this concept until its fourth season. Other versions later followed and introduced a similar concept, of which some have their own twists: Africa (in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013), Albania (in 2010), Australia (in 2003 and 2013), Balkan States (in VIP 2010 and 2011), Brazil (in 2009, 2010, 2011, 2013 and 2014), Canada (2013–present), Denmark (in 2003), Finland (in 2009 and 2014), France (in 2009, 2011–present), Germany (in 2003, 2004–2005, 2005–2006, 2008 and 2008–2009), Greece (in 2003), India (in 2012 and 2013), Israel (in 2009), Italy (in 2006 and 2007), Norway (in 2003), Philippines (in 2009, Teen 2010 and 2011), Poland (in 2002), Portugal (in VIP 2013 and 2016), Slovakia (in 2005), Slovenia (in 2008, 2015 and 2016), Scandinavia (in 2005), South Africa (in 2014), Spain (in VIP 2004, 2008, 2009–2010 and 2010), United Kingdom (in 2002, Celebrity 2007, 2008, Celebrity 2013 and 2016), and United States (in 2009–present).

In 2011-2012 (GH7), the Argentinian edition added "La Casa de al Lado" ("The House Next Door"), a smaller, more luxurious house which served multiple functions. The first week it hosted 4 potential housemates, and the public voted for two of them to enter the main house. The second week, two pairs of twins competed in the same fashion, with only one pair allowed in. Later, the 3rd, 4th and 5th evicted contestants were given the choice of staying on their way out and they competed for the public's vote to reenter the house. Months later, after one of the contestants left the house voluntarily, the House Next Door reopened for four contestants who wanted to reenter and had not been in such a playoff before. The House Next Door was also used in other occasions to allow contestants from the main house for limited periods of time, especially to have some more privacy (which of course could be seen by the public).[6]

Evil Big Brother[edit]

In 2004, the fifth series of the UK version introduced an evil Big Brother. Big Brother becomes villainous with harsher punishments, such as taking away prize money, more difficult tasks and secret tricks. This concept has also been used in Australia, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Finland, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, South America, Scandinavia, Serbia, Spain, Thailand, the Philippines, and Mexico.

Twin or triplet housemates[edit]

In 2004, the Big Brother 5 of the US version introduced twins Adria & Natalie Montgomery. They were tasked to switch back and forth in the house. If they successfully changed places numerous times for five weeks without being caught, they could play the game as individual house guests. This twist was used again in 2015 during Big Brother 17 following slightly different rules: If they successfully changed places numerous times for five weeks without being evicted, they could play the game as individual house guests. The twins Liz and Julia Nolan were discovered after the first two weeks, but were not evicted before being able to play as individuals.

This twin/triplet twist was used in several countries. Some made modifications in this said twist; others have had twins in the house together without this element of secrecy. The following are the countries that have featured twins or triplets: Australia (in 2005), Germany (in 2005-2006), Bulgaria (in 2006 and 2012), United Kingdom (in 2007, Celebrity 2011, Celebrity 2012, 2013, 2015 and 2016), France (in 2007, 2011, 2013, 2015) and 2016, Spain (in 2007 and 2013), Poland (in 2007), India (in 2008), Africa (in 2009), Balkan Region (in 2009, 2013), Philippines (in 2009, Teen 2012 and 2014), Portugal (in 2010 and 2012), Israel (in 2011), Ukraine (in 2011), Argentina (in 2011, 2016) and Albania (in 2013).

Secret missions[edit]

Secret missions are a common element of the show since their introduction during the sixth UK series. During these missions, one or more housemates are set a task from Big Brother with the reward of luxuries for the household and/or a personal reward if the task is successful. Some versions of Big Brother have secret tasks presented by another character who lives in plain sight of the housemate. Such characters include Marsha the Moose (from BB Canada) and Surly the Fish (from BB Australia).

The U.S. version of Season 8 (2007) introduced "America's Player", where a selected house guest must complete various tasks (determined by public vote) in secret for the duration of his stay in the house in exchange for a cash reward . It was repeated in U.S. Season 10 (Summer 2008) for a week. Season 16 (2014) featured "Team America", in which 3 houseguests were selected to work as a team to complete tasks (again determined by public voting) for a cash reward. This continued for the entire season despite the eviction of a member.

Opening night twists[edit]

Since Big Brother 2, the UK series has opened with a twist. This has included the public choosing the final housemate from three possibilities (Big Brother 2); public voting for a housemate to leave during the first week and the housemates choosing between two housemates with the least number of votes (Big Brother 3); first-night nominations (Big Brother 4); suitcase nominations (Big Brother 5); Unlucky Housemate 13 (Big Brother 6); Big Brother Hood (Big Brother 7); an all-female house and a set of twins as contestants (Big Brother 8); a couple entering as housemates, who must hide their relationship (Big Brother 9); housemates having to earn housemate status (Big Brother 10); a mole entering the house with an impossible task (Big Brother 11); Jackie Stallone entering a house containing her son's ex-wife (Celebrity Big Brother 3); a non-celebrity in a celebrity edition (Celebrity Big Brother 4) and a visit from Jade Goody's family (Celebrity Big Brother 5). During Celebrity Big Brother 6 La Toya Jackson entered first, walked straight into a private bedroom (the bedrooms are usually locked until everyone has arrived) and put her bag on the bed to claim it as her own.[7] Terry Christian became head of the house which was used at the end of the previous non-celebrity series and had to nominate three housemates for the first eviction; the others voted to save one of the nominees, Ben Adams, leaving Lucy Pinder and eventual winner Ulrika Jonsson to face the first eviction. In the summer series of 2009 the house was empty at first, with only crates to sit on. The new arrivals had to earn housemate status by completing tasks; Noirin Kelly was required to shave off her hair and draw a mustache and glasses on her face. Freddie Fisher and eventual winner Sophie Reade had to change their names by deed poll to Halfwit and Dogface. On day four, the six people who had not received housemate status were nominated for a public vote. The person with the fewest votes (Beinazir Lasharie) left, and the house was transformed into a "Big Brother" house. Other countries, such as Bulgaria, the United States and (previously) Australia, have also begun using opening-night twists.

As common opening twist is to only introduce a single sex cast on the premiere of the show while having members of the other sex introduced over the next few days. The eighth UK series first used this twist with an initial all-female house. However, two days later one male housemate arrived. The same twist was used in Bulgaria (BB4). Africa (BBA4) used a similar twist, with an all-male premiere.

Fake evictions[edit]

The fifth UK edition introduced fake evictions, where one or two housemates are "evicted". In the eighth UK Series one housemate was evicted, interviewed and sent back into the house.

In the fifth Philippine edition, four housemates (Daniel Matsunaga, Manolo Pedrosa, Jane Oineza, and Vickie Rushton) were fake evicted and stayed in a place called bodega.

In Big Brother Australia 2013 Benjamin 'Ben' Zabel was "fake" evicted on Day 50. He was removed and put into the house's presidential suite, where he spent 24 hours without the other housemates knowing he was still in the house. He had immunity from eviction that week. After his 24 hours, Ben returned to the house. In Big Brother Australia 2014 Travis Lunardi was "fake" evicted and Ben who was fake evicted from the previous edition joined him for 24 hours to give him some advice. Travis returned after 3 days total in the Sanctuary — a small private house with a pool and some amenities. Like Ben from his fake eviction, Travis had immunity from eviction that week.

In Big Brother Brasil 13 Anamara Barreira was "fake" evicted. She was removed and put into a small private apartment without the other housemates knowing she was still in the house. After 24 hours, Anamara returned to the house as Head of Household and with immunity from eviction that week. In Big Brother Brasil 16, an similar situation happened, Ana Paula Renault was "fake" evicted. She was also removed and put into a small private apartment without the other housemates knowing she was still in the house. After 48 hours, Ana Paula returned to the house. She had immunity from eviction that week.

In first season of the Big Brother Türkiye, there's a fake eviction in week 10. Arsel and Hüseyin are part of the fake eviction. Also this week, Seda and Yasin returned the show.

In Big Brother Canada 4, first Kelsey Faith and then Loveita Adams (who were rivals in the house) were evicted in a fake double eviction on Day 28. At the end of the episode, Kelsey and Loveita moved into a special suite where they were able to watch the remaining houseguests. A week later, the remaining houseguests were required to unanimously decide who to bring back into the house. The houseguests chose to bring back Kelsey.

Twists involving multi-franchises[edit]

Housemate exchanges[edit]

In 2002, Mexico (BBM1) and the Spain (GH3) temporarily made housemate exchanges. Mexico's Eduardo Orozco swapped with Spain's Andrés Barreiro in 7 days. In 2010, the first 2-housemates exchange was held in Spain and Italy. Gerardo Prager and Saray Pereira from GH11 of Spain was swapped with Carmela Gualtieri and Massimo Scattarella of GF10 of Italy for 7 days.

In later years, several housemate exchanges were done around the world: Argentina (GH3) and Spain (GH4), Ecuador (GH1) and Mexico (BBM2), and Africa (BBA1) and United Kingdom (BB4) in 2003; Scandinavia (BB2) and Thailand (BBT2) in 2006; Philippines (PBB2) and Slovenia (BB1), and Argentina (GH5) and Spain (GH9) in 2007; Africa (BBA3) and Finland (BB4) in 2008; Finland (BB5) and Philippines (PBB3) in 2009; Finland (BB6) and Slovenia (BBS1) in 2010; Spain (GH12) and Israel (HH3) in 2010 to 2011; Finland (BB7) and Norway (BB4) in 2011; Argentina (GH7) and Israel (HH4) in 2012; and Mexico (BB4) and Spain (GH16) in 2015.

Evicted housemate exchanges[edit]

In 2003, Mexico's Isabel Madow (BB VIP2) and Spain's Aída Nízar (GH5) was swapped for 7 days. This twist was also done between Russia (BBR1) and Pacific (GHP1) in 2005; and Argentina (GH4) and Brazil (BBB7) in 2007.

Evicted housemate visits[edit]

Anouska Golebiewski, an evicted housemate from United Kingdom (housemate from BB4) visited Australia (BB3) in 2003. In 2005, United Kingdom (Nadia Almada of BB5) visited Australia (BB5) again. In 2006, United Kingdom (Chantelle Houghton of CBB4) visited Germany (BBG6). This twist was copied in later years by various other countries: Africa (Ricardo Ferreira of BBA3) visited Brazil (BBB9) in 2009; Germany (Annina Ucatis and Sascha Schwan of BBG9) visited the Philippines (PBB3) in 2010, and Italy (George Leonard and Veronica Ciardi of GF10) visited Albania (BB3) in 2010; Sweden (Martin Granetoft and Peter OrrmyrSara Jonsson of BB5) visited Norway (BB4) in 2011; Brazil (Rafael Cordeiro of BBB12) visited Spain (GH12), and Argentina (Agustín Belforte of GH4) visited Colombia (GH2) in 2012; United States (Dan Gheesling of BB10/BB14) visited Canada (BB1 and the BB2 Jury) in 2013; Canada (Emmett Blois of BB1) visited South Africa (BBM3) in 2014; and Spain (Paula Gonzalez of GH 15) visited Mexico (BBM4) in 2015.

A similar event took place between the United States and Canada in 2014 wherein Rachel Reilly (from BB12/BB13) made a video chat to Canada (BB2). Rachel Reilly also appeared on Big Brother Canada's side show, which airs after the eviction episode once a week.

Housemates competing in another country[edit]

There were times that a former housemate from his franchise participated and competed in another foreign franchise: Daniela Martins of France (SS3) competed in Portugal (SS1); Daniel Mkongo of France (SS5) competed in Italy (GF12); Brigitte Nielsen of Denmark (BB VIP) competed in the United Kingdom (CBB3); Jade Goody of the United Kingdom (BB3, BB Panto, and CCB5) competed in India (BB2); Sava Radović of Germany (BB4) competed in the Balkan States (VB1); Nikola Nasteski of the Balkan States (VB4) competed in Bulgaria (BB All-Stars 1); Žarko Stojanović of France (SS5) competed in the Balkan States (VB VIP5); Željko Stojanović of France (SS5) competed in the Balkan States (VB VIP5); Kelly Baron of Brazil (BBB13) competed in Portugal (BB VIP); Lucy Diakovska of Bulgaria (VIP B4) competed in Germany (PBB1); Leila Ben Khalifa of Italy (GF6) competed in France (SS8); Priya Malik of Australia (BB11) competed in India (BB9), Tim Dormer of Australia (BB10) and Nikki Grahame of the United Kingdom (BB7, UBB) competed in Canada (BB4); Leonel Estevao-Luto of Africa (BB4) competed in Angola & Mozambique (BB3); Frankie Grande of the United States (BB16) competed in the United Kingdom (CBB18); Fanny Rodrigues of Portugal (SS2) competed in France (SS10); Tucha Anita of Angola (BB3) competed in Portugal (SS6).

Other twists[edit]

  • Task visits: Cathrine Petersen and Henrik Andreassen of Denmark's BB4 and Patricia Andersen and Umar Nyonyintono of Sweden's BB6 visited each country's Big Brother Houses for 7 days in 2012.
  • Kidnapping: Annica Englund of Sweden's BB6 was kidnapped by Denmark's BB4 for 7 days in 2012.
  • Current-to-evicted housemate exchange: Evicted Laisa Portella of Brazil (housemate from BBB12) was exchanged with Non-Evicted Noemí Merino of Spain's GH13 in 2012. Portella stayed in the Spanish Big Brother House for 7 days, while Merino stayed in the Brazilian Big Brother house for 5 days.
  • Casting selection exchange: Doroti Polito and Leonia Coccia of Italy's GF9 visited Spain's GH10 in 2009.
  • Red Button: Gran Hermano Argentina Series 7 (GH7) incorporated a red button in the Confession Room, encased in a transparent box. This button was to be used when a contestant wanted to leave the house voluntarily, and it would fire an alarm in the whole house. When the alarm sound ceased, the contestant would be given five minutes to leave the house.[8] This button is also used in Secret Story series, however in this case whoever presses the button will try to guess someone's secret. There is also an alarm in the whole house.
  • Telephone: Gran Hermano Argentina Series 4 (GH4) added a telephone in the living room. This telephone rang once a week for ten seconds, and if nobody picked up the call, the full house would be nominated for eviction. The first person to pick up the receiver was given an order or news from Big Brother, either to their benefit or against them. If an order was refused, they would be nominated for eviction.[9]

Multi-franchise competitions[edit]

Eurovision Song Contest[edit]
Team and Song Jury's points Dates Winner
Italy GF11 Greece BB5 Argentina GH6 Total Tests Israel Performance Spain Performance Ratings Closed
Spain GH12: "A-Ba-Ni-Bi" 12 12 12 36 30 Dec 2010 to 4 Jan 2011 5 Jan 2011 6 Jan 2011 7 Jan 2011 8 Jan 2011 Spain GH12
Israel HH3: "Bandido" 10 10 10 30
FIFA World Cup[edit]
Series participants Prize Points Winner Date
Germany BB10 Germany
United Kingdom BB11 United Kingdom
A screening of the 2010 FIFA World Cup (Round of 16) Germany vs. England game After five penalties, the score was 1–1 and the game went to sudden death. After 36 penalties, German housemate Robert shot the ball wide and UK housemate Ife scored, winning 2–1. United Kingdom BB11 26 June 2010


In Germany, a new sixth-season version of the show was Big Brother - Das Dorf (Big Brother - The Village). The season ended after 363 days in February 2006 because of low ratings. For season seven, RTL II switched back to a traditional version. The fourth Greek season introduced a mother. During the tenth week of the seventh UK season, the housemates were paired with their "best friend" in the house and had to nominate and face eviction as couples. The ninth American season added a romantic aspect by pairing up the housemates up and having them compete as couples.

The ninth Brazilian season featured the "Bubble": a glass house in a shopping mall in Rio de Janeiro where four potential housemates lived for a week. Later in the season a bubble was built inside the Big Brother house, with another two housemates living in it for a week until they were voted in and the glass house dismantled. The Glass House later was reused in the eleven season, featuring five evicted housemates competing for a chance to join the house again and in thirteen Brazilian season, with six potential housemates competing for two places in the main house.

A familiar twist occurred in the second celebrity edition of the Philippine version, where two housemates related by profession or family played as one. Also in the Philippine version, the second season of the teen edition, also featured the parents/guardians of the teens that are staying in the house. The parents had their own living quarters and were considered as housemates. If a teen housemate was evicted, the coinciding parent/guardian would also be evicted. In Celebrity Hijack UK evicted housemates were given the opportunity to choose if a "ninja" delivered good or bad gifts to the house. Later that year Big Brother Australia 2008 introduced the Housemate Hand Grenade, where an evicted housemate decided which housemate received a penalty. Big Brother 5 of Bulgaria, which began in early 2010, introduced a new family format (Big Brother Family). Whole families entered the house with their spouses, children and relatives. They received a salary for their stay and the winning family received a cash prize, a car and an apartment. The eleventh American season featured Pandora's Box, in which the winning head of household was tempted (with money, a celebrity visit or time alone with a loved one) to open a box. If an HoH chooses to open Pandora's Box, however, there may be unintended consequences.

The twelfth American season featured a saboteur, who entered the house to wreak havoc with tasks suggested by viewers. Big Brother Africa 6 in 2011 was the first season of Big Brother to have two winners, each getting $200,000. The thirteenth American season introduced Dynamic Duos, where eight new house guests would enter the house with three duos from past seasons. The fourth Philippine season featured Unli-Day and Unli-Night, where two separate groups of housemates were covered in two separate programs. It also introduced reserved housemates, shortlisted auditioners who were given a chance to be a housemate by completing tasks assigned by Big Brother (this was also done in Argentina's seventh season). The Philippine version introduced the 100-second session, in which housemates are given a chance to be with their loved ones for only 100 seconds in the Confession Room.[10] The fourteenth American season had four house guests from past seasons returning to the house to coach twelve new house guests. The four returning house guests played their own game for a separate prize of $100,000 until they joined the normal game later after a reset twist. The fifteenth American season Introduced the Big Brother M.V.P twist where every week, the viewers would vote one of the house guests who the viewers thought was playing the best game, also introduced three nominations in the US version where the HOH would nominate the first two houseguests for eviction (like in previous seasons) while the 3rd nomination is made by the M.V.P of that week in a further twist for the M.V.P, the viewers decided who the 3rd nominee would be for the week, half way into the season the M.V.P twist ended and the show continued on with just 2 nominees a week as in previous seasons.

In the fourteenth Brazilian season, 7 mothers and 2 aunts, relatives of the 9 remaining housemates, entered the Big Brother Brasil house to celebrate International Women's Day. The housemates could not see or touch their relatives because the house was divided by a wall. An improvised house was assembled for the mothers and aunts. They stayed in the house for 6 days.

The sixteenth American season and the seventeenth American season featured two Heads of Household every week and had four House Guests nominated for eviction. While, in previous seasons, the HoH was guaranteed immunity until the next eviction, this was not the case due to a new competition called "Battle of the Block," in which the two sets of nominees compete to save themselves. The winning pair of nominees were removed from the block while dethroning the HoH who nominated them; while the Battle of the Block winners were ineligible to be named as a replacement nominee if the Veto was used, the dethroned HoH was not.

Special editions[edit]

Celebrity and VIP Big Brother[edit]

The Big Brother format has been adapted in some countries; the housemates are local celebrities, and the shows are called Celebrity Big Brother or Big Brother VIP. In some countries, the prize money normally awarded to the winning housemate is donated to a charity, and all celebrities are paid to appear in the show as long as they do not voluntarily leave before their eviction or the end of the series. The rest of the rules are nearly the same as those of the original version. The celebrity version has become particularly popular in the UK, causing UK broadcaster Channel 5 to extend its deal with Endemol enabling them to air two celebrity series in addition to the civilian version every year from 2012,[11] and as of 2016 18 series have aired and in 2019 it will celebrate its 20th series in the summer. In Bulgaria, VIP Brother has replaced the original format of the show and more seasons of the celebrity edition have been produced compared to the regular one. Due to the show's popularity there, it lasts for two months unlike most countries where it only airs for a month.


The 2006 Netherlands series was entitled Hotel Big Brother. This variation introduced a group of celebrity hoteliers and a Big Boss, who run a hotel and collect money for charity without nominations, evictions or a winner.

Another variation appeared in the UK in early 2008, entitled Big Brother: Celebrity Hijack. This temporarily replaced the 2007 Celebrity Big Brother in the wake of a racial-abuse incident. Instead of celebrities playing housemates the celebrities became Big Brother himself, creating tasks and holding nominations with the help of Big Brother. The housemates were considered by the producers "Britain's most exceptional and extraordinary" 18- to 21-year-olds. The prize for the winner of the series was £50,000.[12]

In 2009 VIP Brother 3 Bulgaria introduced the concept of celebrities competing for charitable causes, sometimes allowed to leave the house to raise money for the charity (which changed each week).

US and English Canadian version[edit]

For more details on these Big Brother versions, see Big Brother (U.S.) and Big Brother Canada.

The United States and Canada's version of Big Brother is different from most versions of the series. The American series began in 2000 with a format much similar to the international format, however, due to poor ratings and the strong popularity of Survivor, beginning in the second season, a more game play-oriented format was implemented where the contestants are encouraged to strategize and form alliances with others to avoid weekly eviction and improve their chance at winning. For this new format, a group of 12 to 16 contestants, known as "HouseGuests," compete to win the series by voting each other off and being the last HouseGuest remaining. One HouseGuest, known as the Head of Household (HoH), must nominate two of their fellow house guests for eviction. The winner of the Power of Veto (PoV, introduced in the 3rd American season) has the option to save one of the nominees for eviction, forcing the HoH to nominate another house guest in his or her place. The HouseGuest then vote to evict one of the nominees, and the HouseGuest with the most votes is evicted. When only two HouseGuests remain, the most recently evicted HouseGuests (generally 7 or 9) form The Jury and decide which of the two remaining house guests would win the grand prize.

In 2013, English-speaking Canada began its own version based on the US version, but the viewing audience are given more control of the game. Secret tasks were also introduced and are usually presented by the show's mascot "Marsha the Moose". These two elements cause fans of the show to call it a hybrid of the U.S edition and the U.K/international editions.

Elements of this format (such as having one contestant winning the position of or similar to Head of Household or allowing contestants to talk and strategize about the nomination/eviction process) have been adapted in other editions of the show, notably the French Canadian version, where the format was followed almost exactly, but the public could evict a housemate on some occasions, and eventually decided the winner in the end.

Other editions[edit]

The Big Brother format has been otherwise modified in some countries:

  • Big Brother: All-Stars (Belgium, 21 days; Bulgaria: Season 1–4, 27–29 days; United States, 72 days; United Kingdom, 18 days; Canada, 64 days; Africa, 91 days; Spain, 56 days; Portugal Secret Story: Season 1–4, 22–50 days): Previous housemates from previous seasons compete. Belgium was the first country to have an All-Stars season (2003). Bulgaria was the first country to have 3 All-Stars season (2014). Portugal was the first country to have 4 All-Stars season (2015). Following the end of Celebrity Big Brother 18 in the UK, there have been many rumors about an all-star Celebrity Big Brother 20.
  • Big Brother: Reality All-Stars (Sweden, 6 days; Denmark, 32 days; Spain, 56 days): Contestants from different reality shows, including Big Brother, compete.
  • Big Brother: You Decide / Big Brother: Back in the House / Big Brother: Try Out (Poland: Season 1–2, 7–13 days; Norway, 9 days; Serbia, 7 days): Housemates, new or old, compete for a spot in the next regular season without nominations or evictions.
  • Teen Big Brother (United Kingdom, 10 days; Philippines: Season 1–4, 42–91 days): Teen aged 13 and older compete.
  • Big Brother: All In: A mix of teenagers, regular adults, and celebrities compete in one season.
  • Secret Story (France, Lithuania, Portugal, Netherlands, Peru & Albania): Each housemate has a secret.
  • Big Brother Panto (United Kingdom, 11 days): Housemates from previous series spent time in the Big Brother House to perform a pantomime at the series' end.

For their tenth year celebration, the Philippines held Pinoy Big Brother: 737, where two editions were held in one season, a teen edition and a regular edition for adult housemates. Two sets of four finalists from each batch made it to the finale, which resulted to having two winners for this season.

There are also "test runs", with a group of celebrities (or journalists) living in the house for several days to test it. There are occasions where people who have auditioned for the show are also put in the house, most notably in the British edition, where many housemates claim to have met before. These series have been televised in Argentina, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Germany, Mexico, the Pacific region, the Philippines, and Spain. In some cases, it is not broadcast, but in others, such as the U.S. edition, it is used as a promotional tool.


Through 21 September 2016, Big Brother has produced 385 winners in over 54 franchises. The most recent winner is Nicole Franzel from the United States United States.

     Currently airing (11)
     An upcoming season (11)
     Status unknown (6)
     No longer airing (29)
Country/Region Local title Network(s) Winner(s) Presenter(s)
Big Brother Africa M-Net
DStv (live)
Big Brother Africa: All-Stars Season 5, 2010: Nigeria Uti Nwachukwu
Big Brother Albania Top Channel
Big Brother Angola[14] DStv[14]
  • Angola Dicla Burity (1–)
  • Mozambique Emerson Miranda (3)
Big Brother Angola e Moçambique Season 3, 2016: Mozambique Anderson Mistake & Angola Papetchulo
Big Brother: الرئيس
Big Brother: The Boss
MBC 2 Season 1, 2004: Discontinued[15] Razan Moughrabi
 Argentina Gran Hermano Telefe
Canal 4
DirecTV (live;1–3, 6–8)
Cablevisión (live; 4–5, 8)
Main host: Debate:
América TV
Gran Hermano Famosos Telefe
Cablevisión (live)
 Australia Big Brother Australia Network Ten (1—8)
New Zealand TV2 (1–3, 5)
New Zealand Prime (4)
Nine Network (9—11)
New Zealand TV3 (10–11)
Gretel Killeen (1-7)
Kyle Sandilands (8)
Jackie O (8)
Sonia Kruger (9–11)
Celebrity Big Brother Network Ten Season 1, 2002: Dylan Lewis Gretel Killeen
Veliki Brat – Big Brother Croatia RTL (4-5)
Serbia B92 (1 – 3, 5)
Bosnia and Herzegovina OBN (5)
Bosnia and Herzegovina RTRS (5)
Republic of Macedonia Sitel (5)
Montenegro Prva (5)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Pink BH (1 – 4)
Montenegro Pink M (1 – 4)
Serbia Pink (4)
Republic of Macedonia A1 (3)
Veliki Brat VIP Serbia B92 (1-2, 5)
Bosnia and Herzegovina BN (5)
Montenegro Prva (5)
Bosnia and Herzegovina OBN (5)
Republic of Macedonia Sitel (5)
Serbia Pink (3-4)
Montenegro Pink M (1 – 4)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Pink BH (1 – 4)
Republic of Macedonia A1 (4)
Veliki Brat – Generalna proba[17] Serbia B92 Season 1, 2006: Serbia Jelena Provči & Marko Miljković Marijana Mićić
 Belgium Big Brother Kanaal Twee
Walter Grootaers
Big Brother VIPs vtm
Kanaal Twee
No Presenters
Big Brother All-Stars Kanaal Twee Season 1, 2003: Heidi Zutterman Walter Grootaers
 Brazil Big Brother Brasil Rede Globo
Canal BBB (live on PPV)
 Bulgaria Big Brother Nova Television
Nova+ (live; 1–4)
Diema Family (live; 5)

Main host:
Niki Kunchev (1–3, 5)
Milen Tsvetkov (4)
Evelina Pavlova (1–2)
Aleksandra Sarchadjieva (5)

Big Brother Family Nova Television
Diema Family (live)
Main host:
Niki Kunchev
VIP Brother Nova Television
Nova+ (live; 1–2)
Diema 2 (live; 3)
Diema Family (live; 4)

Main host:
Niki Kunchev
Evelina Pavlova (1)
Dimitar Rachkov (3)
Maria Ignatova (3)
Aleksandra Sarchadjieva (4-)

Big Brother All Stars Nova Television
Diema Family (live; 1)

Main host:
Niki Kunchev
Aleksandra Sarchadjieva

Big Brother Canada Slice
Arisa Cox
Loft Story TQS[18]
  • Marie Plourde (3–5)
  • Isabelle Maréchal (2)
  • Renée-Claude Brazeau (1)
Loft Story: La Revanche Season 6, 2009: Sébastien Tremblay Pierre-Yves Lord
Big Brother V Season 1, 2010: Vincent Durand Dubé Chéli Sauvé-Castonguay
 China 室友一起宅:先导季
Big Brother China:Pilot Season
Season 1, 2015-16: Tan Xiangjun Zhou Wentao (Live Final)
 Colombia Gran Hermano Caracol TV Season 1, 2003: Mónica Patricia Tejón Adriana Arango
Citytv Bogotá[19] Season 2, 2012: Diana Hernández Agmeth Escaf
 Croatia Big Brother RTL
  • Daria Knez (1)
  • Neno Pavinčić (1)
  • Boris Mirković (1 - 3)
  • Renata Sopek (2 - 4)
  • Filip Brajković (4)
  • Marko Lušić (5)
  • Korana Gvozdić (5)
  • Antonija Blaće (2 – 5)
  • Marijana Batinić (6 – )
Celebrity Big Brother Season 1, 2008: Danijela Dvornik Antonija Blaće
Marko Lušić
 Czech Republic Big Brother TV NOVA Season 1, 2005: David Šín
  • Eva Aichmajerová
  • Lejla Abbasová
  • Leoš Mareš
 Denmark Big Brother TV Danmark
Lisbeth Janniche
Kanal 5
Big Brother VIP TV Danmark Season 1, 2003: Thomas Bickham Lisbeth Janniche
Big Brother Reality All-Stars Season 1, 2005: Jill Liv Nielsen Lisbeth Janniche
 Ecuador Gran Hermano Ecuavisa Season 1, 2003: David Burbano Toty Rodríguez
 Finland Big Brother Sub
  • Elina Viitanen (6–8)
  • Susanna Laine (6–7)
  • Vappu Pimiä (3–5)
  • Mari Sainio (Kakko) (1–2, 9)
Julkkis Big Brother Season 1, 2013: Jori Kopponen Mari Sainio
 France Loft Story M6
Benjamin Castaldi
Secret Story TF1
NT1 (Daily recaps: 9 - )
CanalSat (live; 1)
Christophe Beaugrand (9 - )
Benjamin Castaldi (1 - 8)

After Secret
Adrien Lemaître (3 - )
Leila Ben Khalifa (9 - )
Julie Taton (9 - )
Nadège Lacroix (7)
Emilie Fiorelli(10 - )

NT1 Season 10, 2016: Current season
 Germany Big Brother RTL 2
Sky (live; 10–11)
Premiere (live; 5–9)
VIVA (5, 9)
9Live (8)
Tele 5 (4–6)
MTV2 Pop (4–5)
RTL (2–3)
Single TV (2)
Sky (live)
Season 12, 2015: Belarus Lusy Skaya Jochen Bendel
Promi Big Brother Sat.1
sixx (2–)
Sky (live; 3–)
maxdome (live; 2)
Sky (live 3 hours; 1)
Sat.1 emotions (1)
Big Brother Greece ANT1 (1-4)
Alpha TV (5)
Sigma TV (5)
 Hungary Big Brother – Nagy testvér TV2
  • Claudia Liptai
  • Attila Till
Big Brother VIP
Való Világ powered by Big Brother[20] RTL II
Istenes Bence (6 - )
Nádai Anikó (8)

Győző Gáspár

Bigg Boss SET Season 1, 2006–07: Rahul Roy Arshad Warsi
Colors TV
Bigg Boss Halla Bol! Season 1, 2015: Gautam Gulati
Bigg Boss Bangla ETV Bangla Season 1, 2013: Aneek Dhar Mithun Chakraborty
Colors Bangla Season 2, 2016: Joyjeet Banerjee Jeet
Bigg Boss Kannada ETV Kannada Season 1, 2013: Vijay Raghavendra Sudeep
Suvarna TV Season 2, 2014: Akul Balaji
Colors Kannada
 Indonesia Big Brother Indonesia Trans TV Season 1, 2011: Alan Wangsa
  • Ferdi Hassan
  • Indra Herlambang
  • Sarah Sechan
  • Shara Aryo
 Israel האח הגדול
HaAh HaGadol
Channel 2-Keshet
HOT (live)
Yes (live)
VIP האח הגדול
HaAh HaGadol VIP
 Italy Grande Fratello Canale 5
Stream TV (live; 1–3)
SKY (live; 4–5, 8–9)

Mediaset Premium (live; 6–12)

Grande Fratello VIP Canale 5 Season 1, 2016: Current season Ilary Blasi
 Lithuania Paslapčių namai
House of Secrets
TV3 Lithuania Season 1, 2013: Gintautas Katulis
  • Agnė Grigaliūnienė
  • Marijus Mikutavičius
 Mexico Big Brother México Televisa
SKY (live)
Big Brother PM Canal 5
SKY (live)
Adela Micha
Big Brother VIP Televisa
SKY (live)
 Netherlands Big Brother Veronica
  • Esther Duller (2)
  • Beau Van Erven Dorens (2)
  • Rolf Wouters (1)
  • Daphne Deckers (1)
Big Brother VIPs Veronica Season 1, 2000: No winner Unknown
Talpa Season 2, 2006: No winner Caroline Tensen
Secret Story NET 5 Season 1, 2011: Sharon Hooijkaas
  • Renate Verbaan
  • Bart Boonstra
 Nigeria Big Brother Nigeria M-Net
DStv (live)
Season 1, 2006: Katung Aduwak
  • Olisa Adibua
  • Michelle Dede
 Norway Big Brother Norge TVN
  • Trygve Rønningen (3)
  • Arve Juritzen (1–2)
TV 2 Bliss Season 4, 2011: Tine Barstad
Gran Hermano del Pacífico Ecuador RedTeleSistema
Chile RedTV
Peru ATV
Season 1, 2005: Ecuador Juan Sebastián López
  • Lorena Meritano (Main)
  • Álvaro Ballera & Álvaro García (Regional)
  • Janine Leal (Regional)
  • Juan Francisco Escobar (Regional)
 Panama Big Brother Panamá TVN Canal 2 Season 1, 2016: Current season
  • Rolando Sterling
  • Gaby Garrido
 Peru La Casa de Los Secretos Frecuencia Latina Season 1, 2012: Álvaro de la Torre
  • Carla García
  • Jason Day
 Philippines Pinoy Big Brother ABS-CBN
TFC (Worldwide)
SkyCable (live)
Studio 23 (live; 1–3)
Pinoy Big Brother: Celebrity Edition
  • Current
  • Toni Gonzaga (1-2)
  • Mariel Rodriguez (1-2)
  • Bianca Gonzalez (2)
  • Former
  • Luis Manzano (1)
Pinoy Big Brother: Teen Edition
  • Current
  • Bianca Gonzalez (1–4)
  • Toni Gonzaga (2–4)
  • Robi Domingo (4)
  • John Prats (4)
  • Former
  • Mariel Rodriguez (1–3)
  • Luis Manzano (2)
Pinoy Big Brother: Special Edition
  • Current
  • Bianca Gonzalez (5– )
  • Mariel Rodriguez (7- )
  • Toni Gonzaga (5- )
  • Robi Domingo (5- )
  • Former
  • John Prats (5)
  • Enchong Dee (6)
 Poland Big Brother TVN
  • Kuba Klawiter (4–5)
  • Małgorzata Kosik (5)
  • Karina Kunkiewicz (4)
Big Brother: Ty Wybierasz TVN
  • Season 1, 2001: Małgorzata Maier & Sebastian Florek
  • Season 2, 2001: Barbara Knap & Jakub Jankowski
Big Brother VIP TV4 Season 5 (part 1), 2008: Jarek Jakimowicz
  • Kuba Klawiter
  • Małgorzata Kosik
 Portugal Big Brother TVI
TVI Eventos (live; 1)
Teresa Guilherme
Big Brother Famosos TVI
TVI Direct (live; VIP)
Big Brother VIP
Secret Story: Casa dos Segredos TVI
TVI Direct (live; 1–5)
TVI Reality (live; 6–)
Secret Story: Desafio Final
Teresa Guilherme
Secret Story: Luta Pelo Poder Season 1, 2015: Bruno Sousa
 Romania Big Brother Prima TV
  • Andreea Raicu
  • Virgil Ianțu
 Russia Большой брат
Big Brother
TNT Season 1, 2005: Anastasia Yagaylova Ingeborga Dapkunaite
Norway Sweden Scandinavia[21] Big Brother Sweden Kanal5
Norway FEM
Sweden Kanal 9
Norway FEM
Season 3, 2014: Sweden Anders Olsson
Second Life Big Brother Second Life World Wide Web Season 1, 2006: Madlen Flint None
 Slovakia Big Brother Súboj TV Markíza Season 1, 2005: Richard Tkáč Zuzana Belohorcová
 Slovenia Big Brother Kanal A
  • Hosts:
  • Nina Osenar (1 - 2)
  • Ana Maria Mitič (3)
  • Manja Plešnar (4)
  • Co-hosts:
  • Matej Grm - Gušti (2)
  • Emi Nikočević (4)
  • Tibor Baiee (4)
Big Brother Slavnih
Celebrity version
Nina Osenar
 South Africa Big Brother South Africa M-Net
DStv (live)
Big Brother Mzansi
Lungile Radu
Celebrity Big Brother Season 1, 2002: Bill Flynn
 Spain Gran Hermano Telecinco (Main program and debate)
Divinity (daily highlights) (24h live free)
Gran Hermano VIP
Gran Hermano: El Reencuentro
Gran Hermano: La Revuelta Season 1, 2012: Italy Alessandro Livi Mercedes Milá
 Sweden Big Brother Sverige Kanal5
Adam Alsing
Gry Forssell
Kanal 11
Adam Alsing
Big Brother Stjärnveckan Kanal5 Season 1, 2002: Anki Lundberg Adam Alsing
  Switzerland Big Brother Switzerland TV3 Switzerland
  • Eva Wannemacher (2)
  • Daniel Fohrler (1)
 Thailand Big Brother Thailand iTV
  • Saranyu Vonkarjun
  • Nana Raibeena (2)
 Turkey Big Brother Türkiye[22] Star TV
Asuman Krause[23]
 Ukraine Big Brother Україна K1 Season 1, 2011: Kristina Kotvickaja
  • Olga Gorbacheva
  • Oleksey Kurban
 United Kingdom Big Brother Channel 4 and
S4C (1–10)
PolandTVN Lingua
Davina McCall
Channel 5
MTV (16–)
Republic of IrelandTV3 (16–)
Celebrity Big Brother Channel 4 and
S4C (2–7)
Davina McCall
Channel 5
MTV (15–)
Republic of IrelandTV3 (16–)
Teen Big Brother Channel 4/E4 and
Series 1, 2003: Paul Brennan Dermot O'Leary
Big Brother Panto Channel 4/E4 and
Series 1, 2004–05: No winner Jeff Brazier

June Sarpong

Celebrity Hijack Channel 4/E4 and
Series 1, 2008: John Loughton Dermot O'Leary
Ultimate Big Brother Channel 4/E4 Series 1, 2010: Republic of Ireland Brian Dowling Davina McCall
 United States
Big Brother
(broadcast edition)
Showtime 2 (8–14)
Pop (15–)

Canada Slice
Canada Global
Canada Global Reality Channel[24]
United Kingdom E4 (4, 9)
Julie Chen
Big Brother: All-Stars Season 7, 2006: Mike Malin
Big Brother: Over The Top
(Digital Edition)
CBS All Access Season 1, 2016: Current season
 United States
Gran Hermano USA Telemundo Season 1, 2016: Pedro Orta[26] Giselle Blondet
 Vietnam Người giấu mặt VTV6 Season 1, 2013–14: Hoàng Sơn Việt Huy Khánh



In April 2000, Castaway, an independent production company, filed a lawsuit against John de Mol and Endemol for stealing the concepts of their own show called Survive!, a reality television show where contestants are placed in a deserted island and will have to take care of themselves alone. These contestants were also filmed by cameras around them.[27] The court later dismissed the lawsuit filed by Castaway against de Mol and Endemol. The Survive! reality television format was later turned into Survivor.[28]

In 2000, the estate of George Orwell sued CBS Television and Endemol for copyright and trademark infringement, claiming that the program infringed on the Orwell novel '1984' and its trademarks. After a series of court rulings adverse to the defendants - CBS and Endemol - they settled the case for an undisclosed amount of money on the eve of trial.[29][30][31][32][33]

Sexual-related incidents[edit]

There have been two documented occurrences of possible rape happening during the show. In Big Brother South Africa a male housemate was accused of assaulting a fellow housemate while she was asleep. The pair were filmed kissing and cuddling in bed before the cameras moved away and the male housemate reportedly claimed to housemates the next day that he had intercourse with the contestant. However, the female housemate was apparently shocked by the claims and informed female housemates that she had not consented to having sex with him. (Under South African law, this act would be constituted as rape.)[34] This male housemate was expelled immediately after the allegations surfaced, while the female housemate was removed from the house for her own protection and counselling. In Big Brother Brazil, many viewers reported that they watched a male housemate allegedly force himself on a female housemate while she was passed out drunk after a "boozy party."[35] As a result, the male housemate was later escorted out of the Big Brother house by the police.


  1. ^ UK Channel 5 Web site, with many references to "BB"
  2. ^ a b Drotner, Kirsten. "New Media, New Options, New Communities?" (PDF) (PDF). Nordicom. Retrieved 23 May 2014. 
  3. ^ "Big Brother". Endemol. Retrieved 23 May 2014. 
  4. ^ Scott, Matt (8 June 2012). "POLL: Should housemates be able to talk nominations?". BBSpy. Retrieved 23 May 2014. 
  5. ^ Blake, Dawn (27 May 2008). "Complaint by Ms Dawn Blake" (PDF). Ofcom Broadcast Bulletin (PDF) (110). 
  6. ^ es:Anexo:Séptima temporada de Gran Hermano (Argentina)#Casa de al lado
  7. ^ Bryant, Tom (25 January 2009). "Celebrity Big Brother exclusive: La Toya Jackson's diva demands - 3am & Mirror Online". Daily Mirror. Retrieved 15 July 2013. 
  8. ^ es:Anexo:Séptima temporada de Gran Hermano (Argentina)#Bot.C3.B3n rojo
  9. ^ es:Anexo:Cuarta temporada de Gran Hermano (Argentina)#Cambios en el Juego
  10. ^ "Housemate to Have a 100-Second Reunion Tonight". Pinoy Big Brother. 11 November 2005. Retrieved 23 May 2014. 
  11. ^ "Celebrity Big Brother to air twice a year in updated Channel 5 deal". Trash Lounge. 12 February 2012. Archived from the original on 13 February 2012. Retrieved 24 May 2014. 
  12. ^ "BB Celebrity Hijack - NEWS". Channel 4. Archived from the original on 21 June 2007. Retrieved 24 May 2014. 
  13. ^ Mozambique became also eligible to participate since 2016.
  14. ^ a b "Big Brother Angola on DStv Portuguesa". DStv. 15 May 2014. Retrieved 24 May 2014. 
  15. ^ "Arab Big Brother show suspended". BBC News. 1 March 2004. 
  16. ^ Due to the car accident that killed three former housemates, Elmir Kuduzović, Stevan Zečević and Zorica Lazić, the producer decided to discontinue the series. The winning prize was divided by the surviving housemates.
  17. ^ This version was only produced in Serbia.
  18. ^ On August 31, 2009, TQS changed its name to V.
  19. ^ "Gran hermano, por Citytv" (in Spanish). El Tiempo. Retrieved 24 May 2014. 
  20. ^ Seasons 1 through 7 were not based on the Big Brother license
  21. ^ Co-produced version with Norway and Sweden taking part.
  22. ^
  23. ^
  24. ^ Global Reality Channel
  26. ^ "gran-hermano"-big-brother-scheduled-premiere-2016-first "Auditions Begin for Telemundo's Upcoming "Gran Hermano" (Big Brother) Scheduled to Premiere in 2016 for the First Time in Spanish in the United States". NBC Universal Media Village. NBC Universal. Retrieved 28 October 2015. 
  27. ^ "Geldof's Big Brother battle". BBC News. 20 April 2000. Retrieved 23 May 2014. 
  28. ^ "Blow for mogul's Big Brother claim". BBC News. 24 August 2000. Retrieved 23 May 2014. 
  29. ^ Estate of George Orwell v. CBS, et al. 00-C-5034 (N.D. Ill.)
  30. ^ Variety, "Orwellian Suit Socks 'Brother", September 5, 2000
  31. ^ The Times of London, "US Big Brother is Sued over 1984 Link", September 6, 2000
  32. ^ New York Post, "CBS Loses 'Bro Battle', January 4, 2001
  33. ^ Chicago Tribune, "CBS, Orwell Estate Settle 'Big Brother' Lawsuit", September 28, 2001.
  34. ^ Paterson, Mark. "Big Brother's South African rape horror show". The Week. Dennis Publishing. Retrieved 12 January 2015. 
  35. ^ Roper, Matt. "Housemate on Brazilian version of Big Brother was 'raped on live TV' after alcohol-fuelled party". Daily Mail. Associated Newspapers Ltd. Retrieved 12 January 2015. 


  • Johnson-Woods, Toni (2002). Big Brother: Why Did That Reality TV Show Become Such a Phenomenon?. Australia: University of Queensland Press. ISBN 0-7022-3315-3.